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A Continuously Sensitive Cloud Chamber

Description: A continuous cloud chamber would be a valuable asset to laboratory work in nuclear and atomic physics. For this reason the construction and investigation of a continuously sensitive diffusion cloud chamber has been undertaken. It is the purpose of this paper to report the design and operating characteristics of such a chamber.
Date: 1951
Creator: Hughes, James E.

Cooperation-induced Criticality in Neural Networks

Description: The human brain is considered to be the most complex and powerful information-processing device in the known universe. The fundamental concepts behind the physics of complex systems motivate scientists to investigate the human brain as a collective property emerging from the interaction of thousand agents. In this dissertation, I investigate the emergence of cooperation-induced properties in a system of interacting units. I demonstrate that the neural network of my research generates a series of properties such as avalanche distribution in size and duration coinciding with the experimental results on neural networks both in vivo and in vitro. Focusing attention on temporal complexity and fractal index of the system, I discuss how to define an order parameter and phase transition. Criticality is assumed to correspond to the emergence of temporal complexity, interpreted as a manifestation of non-Poisson renewal dynamics. In addition, I study the transmission of information between two networks to confirm the criticality and discuss how the network topology changes over time in the light of Hebbian learning.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Zare, Marzieh

Criticality in Cooperative Systems

Description: Cooperative behavior arises from the interactions of single units that globally produce a complex dynamics in which the system acts as a whole. As an archetype I refer to a flock of birds. As a result of cooperation the whole flock gets special abilities that the single individuals would not have if they were alone. This research work led to the discovery that the function of a flock, and more in general, that of cooperative systems, surprisingly rests on the occurrence of organizational collapses. In this study, I used cooperative systems based on self-propelled particle models (the flock models) which have been proved to be virtually equivalent to sociological network models mimicking the decision making processes (the decision making model). The critical region is an intermediate condition between a highly disordered state and a strong ordered one. At criticality the waiting times distribution density between two consecutive collapses shows an inverse power law form with an anomalous statistical behavior. The scientific evidences are based on measures of information theory, correlation in time and space, and fluctuation statistical analysis. In order to prove the benefit for a system to live at criticality, I made a flock system interact with another similar system, and then observe the information transmission for different disturbance values. I proved that at criticality the transfer of information gets the maximal efficiency. As last step, the flock model has been shown that, despite its simplicity, is sufficiently a realistic model as proved via the use of 3D simulations and computer animations.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Vanni, Fabio

Cross-Section at 15.6 and 16.1 MeV

Description: The intent of this investigation is the determination of the values of the Cs-133 (n,2n)Cs-132 cross-section at neutron energies of 15.6 and 16.1 MeV. Neutrons of this energy are produced with comparative ease by means of the D-T reaction, in which deuterons of energy 500 and 750 keV, respectively, are impingent upon a tritium target.
Date: May 1969
Creator: Pepper, George H.

Cross Section Measurements in Praseodymium-141 as a Function of Neutron Bombarding Energy

Description: Using the parallel disk method of activation analysis, the (n,2n) reaction cross section in 141-Pr was measured as a function of neutron energy in the range 15.4 to 18.4 MeV. The bombarding neutrons were produced from the 3-T(d,n)4-He reaction, where the deuterons were accelerated by the 3-MV Van de Graff generator of the North Texas Regional Physics Laboratory in Denton, Texas.
Date: May 1971
Creator: Marsh, Stephen Addison

A Decay Scheme for 164 Ho

Description: The present investigation was prompted by several considerations. In previous studies there was considerable variance with regard to the reported values for the half-lives of the isomeric and ground states in 164 Ho. There was also considerable variance with regard to the values reported for the branching ratios and the relative intensities of the transitions. Thus a further study of the problem was needed.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Guertin, James

Decoherence, Master Equation for Open Quantum Systems, and the Subordination Theory

Description: This thesis addresses the problem of a form of anomalous decoherence that sheds light into the spectroscopy of blinking quantum dots. The system studied is a two-state system, interacting with an external environment that has the effect of establishing an interaction between the two states, via a coherence generating coupling, called inphasing. The collisions with the environment produce also decoherence, named dephasing. Decoherence is interpreted as the entanglement of the coherent superposition of these two states with the environment. The joint action of inphasing and dephasing generates a Markov master equation statistically equivalent to a random walker jumping from one state to the other. This model can be used to describe intermittent fluorescence, as a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states. The experiments on blinking quantum dots indicate that the sojourn times are distributed with an inverse power law. Thus, a proposal to turn the model for Poisson fluorescence intermittency into a model for non-Poisson fluorescence intermittency is made. The collision-like interaction of the two-state system with the environment is assumed to takes place at random times rather than at regular times. The time distance between one collision and the next is given by a distribution, called the subordination distribution. If the subordination distribution is exponential, a sequence of collisions yielding no persistence is turned into a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states with significant persistence. If the subordination function is an inverse power law the sequel of "light on" and "light off" states becomes equivalent to the experimental sequences. Different conditions are considered, ranging from predominant inphasing to predominant dephasing. When dephasing is predominant the sequel of "light on" and "light off" states in the time asymptotic limit becomes an inverse power law. If the predominant dephasing involves a time scale much larger than the ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Giraldi, Filippo

Design and Testing of a Corona Column and a Closed Gas Distribution System for a Tandem Van de Graaff Voltage Generator

Description: The purpose of this study had been to design and test a corona column and an insulating gas distribution system for a small tandem Van de Graaff. The intent of this paper is to describe the gas handling system and to compare experimentally the effects of corona electrode shape on the corona current carried between adjacent sections of the column.
Date: June 1962
Creator: Gray, Thomas Jack

Detection of the Resonant Vibration of the Cellular Membrane Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses

Description: An optical detection technique is developed to detect and measure the resonant vibration of the cellular membrane. Biological membranes are active components of living cells and play a complex and dynamic role in life processes. They are believed to have oscillation modes of frequencies in the range of 1 to 1000 GHz. To measure such a high-frequency vibration, a linear laser cavity is designed to produce a train of femtosecond pulses of adjustable repetition rate. The method is then directly applied to liposomes, "artificial membrane", stained with a liphophilic potential sensitive dye. The spectral behavior of a selection of potential sensitive dyes in the membrane is also studied.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Jamasbi, Nooshin

A Determination of the Fine Structure Constant Using Precision Measurements of Helium Fine Structure

Description: Spectroscopic measurements of the helium atom are performed to high precision using an atomic beam apparatus and electro-optic laser techniques. These measurements, in addition to serving as a test of helium theory, also provide a new determination of the fine structure constant α. An apparatus was designed and built to overcome limitations encountered in a previous experiment. Not only did this allow an improved level of precision but also enabled new consistency checks, including an extremely useful measurement in 3He. I discuss the details of the experimental setup along with the major changes and improvements. A new value for the J = 0 to 2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of 4He is measured to be 31 908 131.25(30) kHz. The 300 Hz precision of this result represents an improvement over previous results by more than a factor of three. Combined with the latest theoretical calculations, this yields a new determination of α with better than 5 ppb uncertainty, α-1 = 137.035 999 55(64).
Date: August 2010
Creator: Smiciklas, Marc

Deterministic Brownian Motion

Description: The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscpoic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism - the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a long-standing problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a first-order perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous ...
Date: August 1993
Creator: Trefán, György

The Dielectric Constant of Galvinoxyl

Description: The molecules in many substances are know to undergo at characteristic temperatures a change in their rotational freedom in the solid state, signifying either a change in structure of the material of the onset of limited rotation of the molecule about some symmetry axis. The purpose of this research was to determine from dielectric constant measurements over the 100°K-420°K temperature range whether or not the organic free radical galvinoxyl and its diamagnetic parent molecule, dihydroxydiphenylmethane, undergo any such transitions.
Date: May 1968
Creator: Mizell, Michael E.

Dielectric Relaxation of Aqueous Solutions at Microwave Frequencies for 335 GHz. Using a Loaded Microwave Cavity Operating in the TM010 Mode

Description: The frequency dependence and temperature dependence of the complex dielectric constant of water is of great interest. The temperature dependence of the physical properties of water given in the literature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, pH, etc. are compared to the a. c. (microwave) and d. c. conductivity of water with a variety of concentration of different substances such as HC1, NaCl, HaS04, etc. When each of these properties is plotted versus inverse absolute temperature, it can be seen that each sample shows "transition temperatures". In this work, Slater's perturbation equations for a resonant microwave cavity were used to analyze the experimental results for the microwave data.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Wang, Henry F. S. (Henry Fu-Sen)

Dipole Moments of Diphenyl Compounds with Conjugated Double Bonds

Description: This thesis is a continuation of a study of molecular moments begun by Joseph T. Fielder. In his paper he discussed the theory and the equipment necessary for such a study. It is the purpose of this paper to set forth modifications of his equipment, to present data obtained with this modified equipment, and to interpret this data.
Date: 1950
Creator: Spalding, Dan W.