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Evolution of Vacancy Supersaturations in MeV Si Implanted Silicon

Description: High-energy Si implantation into silicon creates a net defect distribution that is characterized by an excess of interstitials near the projected range and a simultaneous excess of vacancies closer to the surface. This defect distribution is due to the spatial separation between the distributions of interstitials and vacancies created by the forward momentum transferred from the implanted ion to the lattice atom. This dissertation investigates the evolution of the near-surface vacancy excess in MeV Si-implanted silicon both during implantation and post-implant annealing. Although previous investigations have identified a vacancy excess in MeV-implanted silicon, the investigations presented in this dissertation are unique in that they are designed to correlate the free-vacancy supersaturation with the vacancies in clusters. Free-vacancy (and interstitial) supersaturations were measured with Sb (B) dopant diffusion markers. Vacancies in clusters were profiled by Au labeling; a new technique based on the observation that Au atoms trap in the presence of open-volume defects. The experiments described in this dissertation are also unique in that they were designed to isolate the deep interstitial excess from interacting with the much shallower vacancy excess during post-implant thermal processing.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Venezia, Vincent C.

Quantum-Confined CdS Nanoparticles on DNA Templates

Description: As electronic devices became smaller, interest in quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures increased. Self-assembled mesoscale semiconductor structures of II-VI nanocrystals are an especially exciting subject because of their controllable band gap and unique photophysical properties. Several preparative methods to synthesize and control the sizes of the individual nanocrystallites and the electronic and optical properties have been intensively studied. Fabrication of patterned nanostructures composed of quantum-confined nanoparticles is the next step toward practical applications. We have developed an innovative method to fabricate diverse nanostructures which relies on the size and a shape of a chosen deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Rho, Young Gyu

Fluorine Adsorption and Diffusion in Polycrystalline Silica

Description: The measurement of fluorine penetration into archeological flint artifacts using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) has been reported to be a potential dating method. However, the mechanism of how fluorine is incorporated into the flint surface, and finally transported into the bulk is not well understood. This research focuses on the study of the fluorine uptake phenomenon of flint mineral in aqueous fluoride solutions. Both theoretical and experimental approaches have been carried out. In a theoretical approach, a pipe-diffusion model was used to simulate the complicated fluorine transportation problem in flint, in which several diffusion mechanisms may be involved.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Jin, Jian-Yue

Two-Fold Role of Randomness: A Source of Both Long-Range Correlations and Ordinary Statistical Mechanics

Description: The role of randomness as a generator of long range correlations and ordinary statistical mechanics is investigated in this Dissertation. The difficulties about the derivation of thermodynamics from mechanics are pointed out and the connection between the ordinary fluctuation-dissipation process and possible anomalous properties of statistical systems is highlighted.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Rocco, A. (Andrea)

Synthesis and Study of Engineered Heterogenous Polymer Gels

Description: This dissertation studies physical properties and technological applications of engineered heterogenous polymer gels. Such gels are synthesized based on modulation of gel chemical nature in space. The shape memory gels have been developed in this study by using the modulated gel technology. At room temperature, they form a straight line. As the temperature is increased, they spontaneously bend or curl into a predetermined shape such as a letter of the alphabet, a numerical number, a spiral, a square, or a fish. The shape changes are reversible. The heterogenous structures have been also obtained on the gel surface. The central idea is to cover a dehydrated gel surface with a patterned mask, then to sputter-deposit a gold film onto it. After removing the mask, a gold pattern is left on the gel surface. Periodical surface array can serve as gratings to diffract light. The grating constant can be continuously changed by the external environmental stimuli such as temperature and electric field. Several applications of gels with periodic surface arrays as sensors for measuring gel swelling ratio, internal strain under an uniaxial stress, and shear modulus have been demonstrated. The porous NIPA gels have been synthesized by suspension technique. Microstructures of newly synthesized gels are characterized by both SEM and capillary test and are related to their swelling and mechanical properties. The heterogenous porous NIPA gel shrink about 35,000 times faster than its counterpart--the homogeneous NIPA gel. Development of such fast responsive gels can result in sensors and devices applications. A new gel system with built-in anisotropy is studied. This gel system consists of interpenetrated polymer network (IPN) gels of polyacrylamide (PAAM) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA). The swelling property of the anisotropy IPN gels along the pre-stressing direction is different from that along other directions, in contrast to conventional gels which swell isotropically. ...
Date: August 1998
Creator: Chen, Yuanye

Structural and Photoelectron Emission Properties of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Diamond Films

Description: The effects of methane (CH4), diborone (B2H6) and nitrogen (N2) concentrations on the structure and photoelectron emission properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were studied. The diamond films were grown on single-crystal Si substrates using the hot-tungsten filament CVD technique. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the different forms of carbon in the films, and the fraction of sp3 carbon to sp3 plus sp2 carbon at the surface of the films, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology of the films. The photoelectron emission properties were determined by measuring the energy distributions of photoemitted electrons using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and by measuring the photoelectric current as a function of incident photon energy.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Akwani, Ikerionwu Asiegbu

On Delocalization Effects in Multidimensional Lattices

Description: A cubic lattice with random parameters is reduced to a linear chain by the means of the projection technique. The continued fraction expansion (c.f.e.) approach is herein applied to the density of states. Coefficients of the c.f.e. are obtained numerically by the recursion procedure. Properties of the non-stationary second moments (correlations and dispersions) of their distribution are studied in a connection with the other evidences of transport in a one-dimensional Mori chain. The second moments and the spectral density are computed for the various degrees of disorder in the prototype lattice. The possible directions of the further development are outlined. The physical problem that is addressed in the dissertation is the possibility of the existence of a non-Anderson disorder of a specific type. More precisely, this type of a disorder in the one-dimensional case would result in a positive localization threshold. A specific type of such non-Anderson disorder was obtained by adopting a transformation procedure which assigns to the matrix expressing the physics of the multidimensional crystal a tridiagonal Hamiltonian. This Hamiltonian is then assigned to an equivalent one-dimensional tight-binding model. One of the benefits of this approach is that we are guaranteed to obtain a linear crystal with a positive localization threshold. The reason for this is the existence of a threshold in a prototype sample. The resulting linear model is found to be characterized by a correlated and a nonstationary disorder. The existence of such special disorder is associated with the absence of Anderson localization in specially constructed one-dimensional lattices, when the noise intensity is below the non-zero critical value. This work is an important step towards isolating the general properties of a non-Anderson noise. This gives a basis for understanding of the insulator to metal transition in a linear crystal with a subcritical noise.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Bystrik, Anna

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Epitaxial Diamond (110) and (111) Films and Field Emission Properties of Diamond Coated Molybdenum Microtips

Description: The growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown homo-epitaxial diamond (110) and (111) films was studied using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In addition, the field emission properties of diamond coated molybdenum microtips were studied as a function of exposure to different gases.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Lim, Seong-Chu

Scaling Behaviors and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Gels

Description: Polymer gels undergo a volume phase transition in solvent in response to an infinitesimal environmental change. This remarkable phenomenon has resulted in many potential applications of polymer gels. The understanding of its mechanical properties has both scientific and technological importance. For this purpose, we have developed a novel method for measuring Poisson's ratio, which is one of the most important parameters determining the mechanical property of gels. Using this method, Poisson's ratio in N-isopropyacrylamide (NIPA) and polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels has been studied.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Li, Chʻun-fang

Experimental Synchronization of Chaotic Attractors Using Control

Description: The focus of this thesis is to theoretically and experimentally investigate two new schemes of synchronizing chaotic attractors using chaotically operating diode resonators. The first method, called synchronization using control, is shown for the first time to experimentally synchronize dynamical systems. This method is an economical scheme which can be viably applied to low dimensional dynamical systems. The other, unidirectional coupling, is a straightforward means of synchronization which can be implemented in fast dynamical systems where timing is critical. Techniques developed in this work are of fundamental importance for future problems regarding high dimensional chaotic dynamical systems or arrays of mutually linked chaotically operating elements.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Newell, Timothy C. (Timothy Charles)

Charge State Dependence of M-Shell X-Ray Production in 67Ho by 2-12 MeV Carbon Ions

Description: The charge state dependence of M-shell x-ray production cross sections of 67HO bombarded by 2-12 MeV carbon ions with and without K-vacancies are reported. The experiment was performed using an NEC 9SDH-2 tandem accelerator at the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory of the University of North Texas. The high charge state carbon ions were produced by a post-accelerator stripping gas cell. Ultra-clean holmium targets were used in ion-atom collision to generate M-shell x rays at energies from 1.05 to 1.58 keV. The x-ray measurements were made with a windowless Si(Li) x-ray detector that was calibrated using radiative sources, particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE), and the atomic field bremsstrahlung (AFB) techniques.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Sun, Hsueh-Li

Z1 Dependence of Ion-Induced Electron Emission

Description: Knowledge of the atomic number (Zt) dependence of ion-induced electron emission yields (Y) can be the basis for a general understanding of ion-atom interaction phenomena and, in particular, for the design of Zrsensitive detectors that could be useful, for example, in the separation of isobars in accelerator mass spectrometry. The Zx dependence of ion-induced electron emission yields has been investigated using heavy ions of identical velocity (v = 2 v0, with v0 as the Bohr velocity) incident in a normal direction on sputter-cleaned carbon foils. Yields measured in this work plotted as a function of the ion's atomic number reveal an oscillatory behavior with pronounced maxima and minima. This nonmonotonic dependence of the yield on Zx will be discussed in the light of existing theories.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Arrale, Abdikarim M. (Abdikarim Mohamed)

Deterministic Brownian Motion

Description: The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscpoic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism - the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a long-standing problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a first-order perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous ...
Date: August 1993
Creator: Trefán, György

Linear, Nonlinear Optical and Transport Properties of Quantum Wells Composed of Short Period Strained InAs/GaAs Superlattices

Description: In this work, ordered all-binary short-period strained InAs/GaAs superlattice quantum wells were studied as an alternative to strained ternary alloy InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells. InGaAs quantum wells QWs have been of great interest in recent years due to the great potential applications of these materials in future generations of electronic and optoelectronic devices. The all binary structures are expected to have all the advantages of their ternary counterparts, plus several additional benefits related to growth, to the elimination of alloy disorder scattering and to the presence of a higher average indium content.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Huang, Xuren

Magneto-Optical and Chaotic Electrical Properties of n-InSb

Description: This thesis investigation concerns the optical and nonlinear electrical properties of n-InSb. Two specific areas have been studied. First is the magneto-optical study of magneto-donors, and second is the nonlinear dynamic study of nonlinear and chaotic oscillations in InSb. The magneto-optical study of InSb provides a physical picture of the magneto-donor levels, which has an important impact on the physical model of nonlinear and chaotic oscillations. Thus, the subjects discussed in this thesis connect the discipline of semiconductor physics with the field of nonlinear dynamics.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Song, Xiang-Ning

Expulsion of Carriers from the Double-Barrier Quantum Well and Investigation of Its Spectral and Transport Consequences

Description: In this work I investigate the expulsion of carriers from nanostructures using the double-barrier quantum well (DBQW) as an example and discuss manifestations of this effect in the spectrum of the DBQW in absence of bias, and in the tunneling current in presence of bias. Assuming equality of the Fermi energy in all regions of the considered system, I compute the relative density of carriers localized in the DBQW and conclude that a fraction of carriers is expelled from this nanostructure.
Date: March 1992
Creator: Chyla, Wojciech Tadeusz

L-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections for ₂₀Ca, ₂₆Fe, ₂₈Ni, ₂₉Cu, ₃₀Zn, ₃₁Ga, and ₃₂Ge by Hydrogen, Helium, and Lithium Ions

Description: L-shell x-ray production cross sections are presented for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, and Ge by 0.5- to 5.0-MeV protons and by 0.5- to 8.0-MeV helium ions and Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ge by 0.75- to 4.5-MeV lithium ions. These measurements are compared to the first Born theory and the perturbed-stationary- state theory with energy-loss, Coulomb deflection, and relativistic corrections (ECPSSR). The results are also compared to previous experimental investigations. The high precision x-ray measurements were performed with a windowless Si(Li) detector. The efficiency of the detector was determined by the use of thin target atomic-field bremsstrahlung produced by 66.5 keV electrons. The measured bremsstrahlung spectra were compared to theoretical bremsstrahlung distributions in order to obtain an efficiency versus energy curve. The targets for the measurement were manufactured by the vacuum evaporation of the target element onto thin foils of carbon. Impurities in the carbon caused interferences inthe L-shell x-ray peaks. Special cleansing procedures were developed that reduced the impurity concentrations in the carbon foil, making the use of less than 5 μg/cm^2 targets possible. The first Born theory is seen to greatly overpredict the data at low ion energies. The ECPSSR theory matches the data very well at the high energy region. At low energies, while fitting the data much more closely than the first Born theory, the ECPSSR theory does not accurately predict the trend of the data. This is probably due to the onset of molecular-orbital effects, a mechanism not accounted for in the ECPSSR theory.
Date: May 1992
Creator: McNeir, Michael Ridge

Synchronous Chaos, Chaotic Walks, and Characterization of Chaotic States by Lyapunov Spectra

Description: Four aspects of the dynamics of continuous-time dynamical systems are studied in this work. The relationship between the Lyapunov exponents of the original system and the Lyapunov exponents of induced Poincare maps is examined. The behavior of these Poincare maps as discriminators of chaos from noise is explored, and the possible Poissonian statistics generated at rarely visited surfaces are studied.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Albert, Gerald (Gerald Lachian)

An Experimental Study of Collision Broadening of some Excited Rotational States of the Bending Vibration of Methyl Cyanide

Description: A double modulation microwave spectrometer is used to evaluate the linewidth parameters for some excited rotational components in the bending vibration v_8 of 13CH3 13C 15N and 13CH3C15N isotopomers of methyl cyanide. The linewidth parameters for self-broadening of the ΔJ=2←1 rotational components for the ground v_8 , 1v_8, and the 2v_8 vibrations were determined over a pressure range of 1 to 13 mtorr and at a temperature of 300 K. The double modulation technique is used to explore the high eighth derivative of the line shape profile of the spectral line. This technique proved to give good signal-to-noise ratios and enabled the recovery of weak signals. An experimental method is developed to correct for source modulation broadening. The tests of the ratios of the two inner peak's separation of the eighth derivative of the line showed that they were up to 95% similar to those for a Lorentzian line shape function. The line shapes were assumed to be Lorentzian for the theoretical analysis of the derivative profiles and comparisons were made between experiment and theory on this basis. Dipole moments for vibrationally excited states were calculated from linewidth parameters and show systematic decrease with the increase of excitation. Impact parameters were calculated using the "hard sphere" model of the kinetic theory of gases. The results were many times larger than the size of the molecule itself. This suggests that the dominant interaction is a long range dipole-dipole force interaction.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Hajsaleh, Jamal Y. (Jamal Yousef)

Nonlinear Dynamics of Semiconductor Device Circuits and Characterization of Deep Energy Levels in HgCdTe by Using Magneto-Optical Spectroscopy

Description: The nonlinear dynamics of three physical systems has been investigated. Diode resonator systems are experimentally shown to display a period doubling route to chaos, quasiperiodic states, periodic locking states, and Hopf bifurcation to chaos. Particularly, the transition from quasiperiodic states to chaos in line-coupled systems agrees well with the Curry-Yorke model. The SPICE program has been modified to give realistic models for the diode resonator systems.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Yü, Chi