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A Dynamic and Thermodynamic Approach to Complexity.

Description: The problem of establishing the correct approach to complexity is a very hot and crucial issue to which this dissertation gives some contributions. This dissertation considers two main possibilities, one, advocated by Tsallis and co-workers, setting the foundation of complexity on a generalized, non-extensive , form of thermodynamics, and another, proposed by the UNT Center for Nonlinear Science, on complexity as a new condition that, for physical systems, would be equivalent to a state of matter intermediate between dynamics and thermodynamics. In the first part of this dissertation, the concept of Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is introduced. The Pesin theorem is generalized in the formalism of Tsallis non-extensive thermodynamics. This generalized form of Pesin theorem is used in the study of two major classes of problems, whose prototypes are given by the Manneville and the logistic map respectively. The results of these studies convince us that the approach to complexity must be made along lines different from those of the non-extensive thermodynamics. We have been convinced that the Lévy walk can be used as a prototype model of complexity, as a condition of balance between order and randomness that yields new phenomena such as aging, and multifractality. We reach the conclusions that these properties must be studied within a dynamic rather than thermodynamic perspective. The second part focuses on the study of the heart beating problem using a dynamic model, the so-called memory beyond memory, based on the Lévy walker model. It is proved that the memory beyond memory effect is more obvious in the healthy heart beating sequence. The concepts of fractal, multifractal, wavelet transformation and wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method are introduced. Artificial time sequences are generated by the memory beyond memory model to mimic the heart beating sequence. Using WTMM method, the multifratal singular spectrums of the sequences ...
Date: August 2003
Creator: Yang, Jin

The Dynamic Foundation of Fractal Operators.

Description: The fractal operators discussed in this dissertation are introduced in the form originally proposed in an earlier book of the candidate, which proves to be very convenient for physicists, due to its heuristic and intuitive nature. This dissertation proves that these fractal operators are the most convenient tools to address a number of problems in condensed matter, in accordance with the point of view of many other authors, and with the earlier book of the candidate. The microscopic foundation of the fractal calculus on the basis of either classical or quantum mechanics is still unknown, and the second part of this dissertation aims at this important task. This dissertation proves that the adoption of a master equation approach, and so of probabilistic as well as dynamical argument yields a satisfactory solution of the problem, as shown in a work by the candidate already published. At the same time, this dissertation shows that the foundation of Levy statistics is compatible with ordinary statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The problem of the connection with the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is a delicate problem that, however, can be successfully solved. The derivation from a microscopic Liouville-like approach based on densities, however, is shown to be impossible. This dissertation, in fact, establishes the existence of a striking conflict between densities and trajectories. The third part of this dissertation is devoted to establishing the consequences of the conflict between trajectories and densities in quantum mechanics, and triggers a search for the experimental assessment of spontaneous wave-function collapses. The research work of this dissertation has been the object of several papers and two books.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Bologna, Mauro

Dielectric Relaxation of Aqueous Solutions at Microwave Frequencies for 335 GHz. Using a Loaded Microwave Cavity Operating in the TM010 Mode

Description: The frequency dependence and temperature dependence of the complex dielectric constant of water is of great interest. The temperature dependence of the physical properties of water given in the literature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, pH, etc. are compared to the a. c. (microwave) and d. c. conductivity of water with a variety of concentration of different substances such as HC1, NaCl, HaS04, etc. When each of these properties is plotted versus inverse absolute temperature, it can be seen that each sample shows "transition temperatures". In this work, Slater's perturbation equations for a resonant microwave cavity were used to analyze the experimental results for the microwave data.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Wang, Henry F. S. (Henry Fu-Sen)

The Physics of Gaseous Exposures on Active Field Emission Microcathode Arrays

Description: The interaction of active molybdenum field emission microcathode arrays with oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen and helium gases was studied. Experiments were setup to measure the emission characteristics as a function of gas exposures. The resulting changes in the surface work function of the tips were determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots. The kinetics of the FEA-gas interaction were studied by observing the ion species originating from the array during and after gas exposures with a high resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer. With the work function data and the mass spectrometry information, the mechanisms responsible for emission degradation and subsequent device recovery after exposures have been determined. The data obtained was used in estimating the device lifetimes under various vacuum environments. Also it was found that the gas exposure effects are similar in dc and pulsed modes of operation of the arrays, thus permitting the use of dc mode testing as an effective acceleration method in establishing the device lifetimes under various vacuum conditions. The vacuum conditions required for the long term emission current stability and reliability of vacuum microelectronic devices employing FEAs are established. Exposure of Mo field emitter arrays to oxygen bearing species like oxygen, water and carbon dioxide resulted in serious emission current degradation. Whereas, exposure to methane and hydrogen caused a significant increase in emission current. The control of residual gases like 02, C02 and H20 in the vacuum envelope is essential for the emission current stability and long term reliability of vacuum microelectronic devices employing field emission microcathode technology.
Date: September 1996
Creator: Chalamala, Babu Reddy

A Study of Nonlinear Dynamics in an Internal Water Wave Field in a Deep Ocean

Description: The Hamiltonian of a stably stratified incompressible fluid in an internal water wave in a deep ocean is constructed. Studying the ocean internal wave field with its full dynamics is formidable (or unsolvable) so we consider a test-wave Hamiltonian to study the dynamical and statistical properties of the internal water wave field in a deep ocean. Chaos is present in the internal test-wave dynamics using actual coupling coefficients. Moreover, there exists a certain separatrix net that fills the phase space and is covered by a thin stochastic layer for a two-triad pure resonant interaction. The stochastic web implies the existence of diffusion of the Arnold type for the minimum dimension of a non-integrable autonomous system. For non-resonant case, stochastic layer is formed where the separatrix from KAM theory is disrupted. However, the stochasticity does not increase monotonically with increasing energy. Also, the problem of relaxation process is studied via microscopic Hamiltonian model of the test-wave interacting nonlinearly with ambient waves. Using the Mori projection technique, the projected trajectory of the test-wave is transformed to a form which corresponds to a generalized Langevin equation. The mean action of the test-wave grows ballistically for a short time regime, and quenches back to the normal diffusion for a intermediate time regime and regresses linearly to a state of statistical equilibrium. Applying the Nakajima-Zwanzig technique on the test-wave system, we get the generalized master equation on the test-wave system which is non-Markovian in nature. From our numerical study, the distribution of the test-wave has non-Gaussian statistics.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Kim, Won-Gyu, 1962-

Cross Section Measurements in Praseodymium-141 as a Function of Neutron Bombarding Energy

Description: Using the parallel disk method of activation analysis, the (n,2n) reaction cross section in 141-Pr was measured as a function of neutron energy in the range 15.4 to 18.4 MeV. The bombarding neutrons were produced from the 3-T(d,n)4-He reaction, where the deuterons were accelerated by the 3-MV Van de Graff generator of the North Texas Regional Physics Laboratory in Denton, Texas.
Date: May 1971
Creator: Marsh, Stephen Addison

Variational Wave Function for Sodium

Description: The practical method of applying the variation principle to the calculation of the energy of an atom demands a trial function which contains variable parameters. The previous work done using this approach was based on the use of some combination of hydrogenic wave functions containing parameters inserted in appropriate places. The present calculation of the energy of the eleven-electron atom has been brought about using this method.
Date: August 1953
Creator: Smith, Daniel Montague

Relaxation Time Measurements for Collision Processes in the Surface Layers of Conductors and Semiconductors Near 10 Ghz

Description: This thesis represents one phase of a joint effort of research on the properties of liquids and solids. This work is concerned primarily with the microwave properties of solids. In this investigation the properties exhibited by conductor and semiconductor materials when they are subjected to electromagnetic radiation of microwave frequency are studied. The method utilized in this experiment is the perturbation of a resonant cavity produced by introduction of a cylindrically shaped sample into it.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Childress, Larry Wayne

The Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics

Description: The Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a path integral representation for a propagator or probability amplitude in going between two points in space-time. The wave function is expressed in terms of an integral equation from which the Schrodinger equation can be derived. On taking the limit h — 0, the method of stationary phase can be applied and Newton's second law of motion is obtained. Also, the condition the phase vanishes leads to the Hamilton - Jacobi equation. The secondary objective of this paper is to study ways of relating quantum mechanics and classical mechanics. The Ehrenfest theorem is applied to a particle in an electromagnetic field. Expressions are found which are the hermitian Lorentz force operator, the hermitian torque operator, and the hermitian power operator.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Hefley, Velton Wade

A Search for Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Patterns in Select Proxy Data with a Goal to Understanding Temperature Variation

Description: In this work over 200 temperature proxy data sets have been analyzed to determine if periodic and or quasi-periodic patterns exist in the data sets. References to the journal articles where data are recorded are provided. Chapter 1 serves an introduction to the problem of temperature determination in providing information on how various proxy data sources are derived. Examples are given of the techniques followed in producing proxy data that predict temperature for each method used. In chapter 2 temperature proxy data spanning the last 4000 years, from 2,000 BCE to 2,000 CE, are analyzed to determine if overarching patterns exist in proxy data sets. An average of over 100 proxy data sets was used to produce Figure 4. An overview of the data shows that several “peaks” can be identified. The data were then subjected to analysis using a series of frequency modulated cosine waves. This analysis led to a function that can be expressed by equation 3. The literature was examined to determine what mathematical models had been published to fit the experimental proxy data for temperature. A number of attempts have been made to fit data from limited data sets with some degree of success. Some other papers have used a sinusoidal function to best fit the changes in the temperature. After consideration of many published papers and reviewing long time streams of proxy data that appeared to have sine wave patterns, a new model was proposed for trial. As the patterns observed showed “almost” repeating sine cycles, a frequency modulated sine wave was chosen to obtain a best fit function. Although other papers have used a sinusoidal function to best fit the changes in the temperature, the “best fit” was limited. Thus, it was decided that a frequency modulated sine wave may be a better model ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Otto, James

Quantum Coherent Control and Propagation in Lambda System

Description: Strong coherence in quasi-resonant laser driven system interferes with effective relaxations, resulting in behaviors like, coherent population trapping and Electromagnetically induced transparency. The Raman system can optimize this utilizing excited coherence in the lambda system when exposed to counter- intuitive pump-stokes pulses. The phenomenon can result in complete population transfer between vibrational levels called Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage(STIRAP). STIRAP and CHIRAP have been studied with Gaussian and chirped pulses. The optical propagation effects in dense medium for these phenomenon is studied to calculate the limitations and induced coherences. Further, the effect of rotational levels has been investigated. The molecular vibrational coherence strongly depends on the effect of rotational levels. The change in coherence interaction for ro-vibrational levels are reported and explained. We have considered the effects on the phase of radiation related to rotational mechanical motion of quantum system by taking advantages in ultra strong dispersion medium provided by quantum coherence in lambda system. The enhanced Fizeau effect on a single atom is observed.
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Singh, Pooja

Charged Particle Transport and Confinement Along Null Magnetic Curves and in Various Other Nonuniform Field Configurations for Applications in Antihydrogen Production

Description: Comparisons between measurements of the ground-state hyperfine structure and gravitational acceleration of hydrogen and antihydrogen could provide a test of fundamental physical theories such as CPT (charge conjugation, parity, time-reversal) and gravitational symmetries. Currently, antihydrogen traps are based on Malmberg-Penning traps. The number of antiprotons in Malmberg-Penning traps with sufficiently low energy to be suitable for trappable antihydrogen production may be reduced by the electrostatic space charge of the positrons and/or collisions among antiprotons. Alternative trap designs may be needed for future antihydrogen experiments. A computational tool is developed to simulate charged particle motion in customizable magnetic fields generated by combinations of current loops and current lines. The tool is used to examine charged particle confinement in two systems consisting of dual, levitated current loops. The loops are coaxial and arranged to produce a magnetic null curve. Conditions leading to confinement in the system are quantified and confinement modes near the null curve and encircling one or both loops are identified. Furthermore, the tool is used to examine and quantify charged particle motion parallel to the null curve in the large radius limit of the dual, levitated current loops. An alternative to new trap designs is to identify the effects of the positron space in existing traps and to find modes of operation where the space charge is beneficial. Techniques are developed to apply the Boltzmann density relation along curved magnetic field lines. Equilibrium electrostatic potential profiles for a positron plasma are computed by solving Poisson's equation using a finite-difference method. Equilibria are computed in a model Penning trap with an axially varying magnetic field. Also, equilibria are computed for a positron plasma in a model of the ALPHA trap. Electric potential wells are found to form self-consistently. The technique is expanded to compute equilibria for a two-species plasma with ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Lane, Ryan Andrew

A System for Measurement of Negative-Ion Charge-Exchange Cross Sections

Description: A radio-frequency positive-ion source and a fifty-kilovolt linear accelerator were designed and constructed in order to produce sizable quantities of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, neon, and argon. Plans were then made to equip this ion source with charge-exchange apparatus suitable for charge-exchange cross-sectional measurements. It is the purpose of this paper to present the design of the equipment and to present operational knowledge of the equipment and of ion beams which are producible.
Date: January 1960
Creator: Wingo, Dale T.

Microwave Line Widths of the Asymmetric Top Formic Acid Molecule

Description: This work consisted of an experimental investigation of the formic acid (HCOOH) molecule's rotational spectrum. Measurements of line widths were obtained for J = 5, 12, 13, 19, and 20 for a pressure range from 1 to 10 microns. A linear behavior between Av and p was observed as predicted by theory. The line width parameter Avp was observed to depend on the quantum number J. Hard sphere collision diameters b1 were calculated using the obtained AvP values. These deduced hard sphere values were found to be larger than the physical size of the molecule. This result was found to be in general agreement with other investigation in which long range forces (dipole-dipole) dominate.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Maynard, Wayne R.

Effects of Discharge Tube Geometry on Plasma Ion Oscillations

Description: This study considers the effect, on plasma ion oscillations, of various lengths of discharge tubes as well as various cross sections of discharge tubes. Four different gases were used in generating the plasma. Gas pressure and discharge voltage and current were varied to obtain a large number of signals. A historical survey is given to familiarize the reader with the field. The experimental equipment and procedure used in obtaining data is given. An analysis of the data obtained is presented along with possible explanations for the observed phenomena. Suggestions for future study are made.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Simmons, David Warren

Interaction of Plasmons and Excitons for Low-Dimension Semiconductors

Description: The effects of surface plasmon for InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and ZnO nanoparticles optical linear and nonlinear emission efficiency had been experimentally studied. Due to the critical design for InGaN MQWs with inverted hexagonal pits based on GaN, both contribution of surface plasmon effect and image charge effect at resonant and off resonant frequencies were experimentally and theoretically investigated. With off- resonant condition, the InGaN MQWs emission significantly enhanced by metal nanoparticles. This enhancement was caused by the image charge effect, due to the accumulation of carriers to NPs region. When InGaN emission resonated with metal particles SP modes, surface Plasmon effect dominated the emission process. We also studied the surface plasmon effect for ZnO nanoparticles nonlinear optical processes, SHG and TPE. Defect level emission had more contribution at high incident intensity. Emissions are different for pumping deep into the bulk and near surface. A new assumption to increase the TPE efficiency was studied. We thought by using Au nanorods localized surface plasmon mode to couple the ZnO virtual state, the virtual state’s life time would be longer and experimentally lead the emission enhancement. We studied the TPE phenomena at high and near band gap energy. Both emission intensity and decay time results support our assumption. Theoretically, the carriers dynamic mechanism need further studies.
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Date: December 2014
Creator: Lin, Jie (physicist)

Quaternion Representation of Crystal Point Groups

Description: The physical behavior of crystalline solids is very closely related to the internal symmetry of the crystal structure. For this reason it is desirable to represent mathematically this symmetry in such a way that the actual physical problems can be handled as they arise. In the case of this thesis the research has been guided by a list of desired properties for such a representation. No claim is made that the list is complete.
Date: August 1959
Creator: West, Richard Harrison

Anomalous Behavior in the Rotational Spectra of the v₈=2 and the v₈=3 Vibrations for the ¹³C and ¹⁵N Tagged Isotopes of the CH₃CN Molecule in the Frequency Range 17-95 GHz

Description: The rotational microwave spectra of the three isotopes (^13CH_3^12C^15N, ^12CH_3^13C^15N, and ^13CH_3^13C^15N) of the methyl cyanide molecule in the v_8=3, v_8=2, v_7=1 and v_4=1 vibrational energy levels for the rotational components 1£J£5 (for a range of frequency 17-95 GHz.) were experimentally and theoretically examined. Rotational components in each vibration were measured to determine the mutual interactions in each vibration between any of the vibrational levels investigated. The method of isotopic substitution was employed for internal tuning of each vibrational level by single and double substitution of ^13C in the two sites of the molecule. It was found that relative frequencies within each vibration with respect to another vibration were shifted in a systematic way. The results given in this work were interpreted on the basis of these energy shifts. Large departure between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted frequency for the quantum sets (J, K=±l, ϑ=±1), Kϑ-l in the v_8=3 vibrational states for the ^13c and ^15N tagged isotopes of CH_3CN showed anomalous behavior which was explained as being due to Fermi resonance. Accidently strong resonances (ASR) were introduced to account for some departures which were not explained by Fermi resonance.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Al-Share, Mohammad A. (Mohammad Abdel)

Automatic Frequency Control of Microwave Radiation Sources

Description: Resonant cavity controlled klystron frequency stabilization circuits and quartz-crystal oscillator frequency stabilization circuits were investigated for reflex klystrons operating at frequencies in the X-band range. The crystal oscillator circuit employed achieved better than 2 parts in 10 in frequency stability. A test of the functional properties of the frequency standard was made using the Stark effect in molecules.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Payne, Bobby D.

Carbon K-Shell X-Ray and Auger-Electron Cross Sections and Fluorescence Yields for Selected Molecular Gases by 0.6 To 2 .0 MeV Proton Impact

Description: Absolute K-shell x-ray cross sections and Auger-electron cross sections are measured for carbon for 0.6 to 2.0 MeV proton incident on CH₄, n-C₄H₁₀ (n-Butane), i-C₄H₁₀ (isobutane), C₆H₆ (Benzene), C₂H₂ (Acetylene), CO and CO₂. Carbon K-shell fluorescence yields are calculated from the measurements of x-ray and Auger-electron cross sections. X-ray cross sections are measured using a variable geometry end window proportional counter. An alternate method is described for the measurement of the transmission of the proportional counter window. Auger electrons are detected by using a constant transmission energy Π/4 parallel pi ate electrostatic analyzer. Absolute carbon K-shell x-ray cross sections for CH₄ are compared to the known results of Khan et al. (1965). Auger-electron cross sections for proton impact on CH₄ are compared to the known experimental values of RΦdbro et al. (1979), and to the theoretical predictions of the first Born and ECPSSR. The data is in good agreement with both the first Born and ECPSSR, and within our experimental uncertainties with the measurements of RΦdbro et al. The x-ray cross sections, Auger-electron cross sections and fluorescence yields are plotted as a function of the Pauling charge, and show significant variations. These changes in the x-ray cross sections are compared to a model based on the number of electrons present in the 2s and 2p sub shells of these carbon based molecules. The changes in the Auger-electron cross sections are compared to the calculations of Matthews and Hopkins. The variation in the fluorescence yield is explained on the basis of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock model.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Bhalla, Raj P. (Raj Pal), 1948

Electron-Ion Time-of-Flight Coincidence Measurements of K-K Electron Capture, Cross Sections for Nitrogen, Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Carbon Dioxide and Argon (L-K) Targets

Description: Protons with energies ranging from 0.4 to 2.0 MeV were used to measure K-shell vacancy production cross sections (oVK) for N_2, CH_4, C_2H_4, C_2H_6, and CO_2 gas targets under single collision conditions. An electron-ion time-of-flight coincidence technique was used to determind the ration of the K-K electron capture cross section, OECK, to the K-vacancy production cross section, oVK. These ratios were then combined with the measured values of oVK to extract the K-K electron capture cross sections. Measurements were also made for protons of the same energy range but with regard to L-shell vacancy production and L-K electron capture for Ar targets. In addition, K-K electron capture cross sections were measured for 1.0 to 2.0 Mev 42He^_ ions on CH_4.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Toten, Arvel D.