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ABOUT BROWSE FEED

Optical Nonlinearities in Semiconductors for Limiting

Description: I have conducted detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor materials useful for optical limiting. I have constructed optical limiters utilizing two-photon absorption along with photogenerated carrier defocusing as well as the bound electronic nonlinearity using the semiconducting material ZnSe. I have optimized the focusing geometry to achieve a large dynamic range while maintaining a low limiting energy for the device. The ZnSe monolithic optical limiter has achieved a limiting energy as low as 13 nJ (corresponding to 300W peak power) and a dynamic range as large as 105 at 532 nm using psec pulses. Theoretical analysis showed that the ZnSe device has a broad-band response covering the wavelength range from 550 nm to 800 nm. Moreover, I found that existing theoretical models (e.g. the Auston model and the band-resonant model using Boltzmann statistics) adequately describe the photo-generated carriers refractive nonlinearity in ZnSe. Material nonlinear optical parameters, such as the two-photon absorption coefficient β_2=5.5cm/GW, the refraction per unit carrier density σ_n=-0.8∗10^-21cm^3 and the bound electronic refraction n_2=-4∗10^-11esu, have been measured via time-integrated beam distortion experiments in the near field. A numerical code has been written to simulate the beam distortion in order to extract the previously mentioned material parameters. In addition, I have performed time-resolved distortion measurements that provide an intuitive picture of the carrier generation process via two-photon absorption. I also characterized the optical nonlinearities in a ZnSe Fabry-Perot thin film structure (an interference filter). I concluded that the nonlinear absorption alone in the thin film is insufficient to build an effective optical limiter, as it did not show a net change in refraction using psec pulses. An innovative numerical program was developed to simulate the nonlinear beam propagation inside the Fabry-Perot structure. For comparison, pump-probe experiments were performed using both thin film and ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Wu, Yuan-Yen

Anomalous Behavior in the Rotational Spectra of the v₈=2 and the v₈=3 Vibrations for the ¹³C and ¹⁵N Tagged Isotopes of the CH₃CN Molecule in the Frequency Range 17-95 GHz

Description: The rotational microwave spectra of the three isotopes (^13CH_3^12C^15N, ^12CH_3^13C^15N, and ^13CH_3^13C^15N) of the methyl cyanide molecule in the v_8=3, v_8=2, v_7=1 and v_4=1 vibrational energy levels for the rotational components 1£J£5 (for a range of frequency 17-95 GHz.) were experimentally and theoretically examined. Rotational components in each vibration were measured to determine the mutual interactions in each vibration between any of the vibrational levels investigated. The method of isotopic substitution was employed for internal tuning of each vibrational level by single and double substitution of ^13C in the two sites of the molecule. It was found that relative frequencies within each vibration with respect to another vibration were shifted in a systematic way. The results given in this work were interpreted on the basis of these energy shifts. Large departure between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted frequency for the quantum sets (J, K=±l, ϑ=±1), Kϑ-l in the v_8=3 vibrational states for the ^13c and ^15N tagged isotopes of CH_3CN showed anomalous behavior which was explained as being due to Fermi resonance. Accidently strong resonances (ASR) were introduced to account for some departures which were not explained by Fermi resonance.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Al-Share, Mohammad A. (Mohammad Abdel)

Magneto-Optical and Chaotic Electrical Properties of n-InSb

Description: This thesis investigation concerns the optical and nonlinear electrical properties of n-InSb. Two specific areas have been studied. First is the magneto-optical study of magneto-donors, and second is the nonlinear dynamic study of nonlinear and chaotic oscillations in InSb. The magneto-optical study of InSb provides a physical picture of the magneto-donor levels, which has an important impact on the physical model of nonlinear and chaotic oscillations. Thus, the subjects discussed in this thesis connect the discipline of semiconductor physics with the field of nonlinear dynamics.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Song, Xiang-Ning

Expulsion of Carriers from the Double-Barrier Quantum Well and Investigation of Its Spectral and Transport Consequences

Description: In this work I investigate the expulsion of carriers from nanostructures using the double-barrier quantum well (DBQW) as an example and discuss manifestations of this effect in the spectrum of the DBQW in absence of bias, and in the tunneling current in presence of bias. Assuming equality of the Fermi energy in all regions of the considered system, I compute the relative density of carriers localized in the DBQW and conclude that a fraction of carriers is expelled from this nanostructure.
Date: March 1992
Creator: Chyla, Wojciech Tadeusz

L-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections for ₂₀Ca, ₂₆Fe, ₂₈Ni, ₂₉Cu, ₃₀Zn, ₃₁Ga, and ₃₂Ge by Hydrogen, Helium, and Lithium Ions

Description: L-shell x-ray production cross sections are presented for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, and Ge by 0.5- to 5.0-MeV protons and by 0.5- to 8.0-MeV helium ions and Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ge by 0.75- to 4.5-MeV lithium ions. These measurements are compared to the first Born theory and the perturbed-stationary- state theory with energy-loss, Coulomb deflection, and relativistic corrections (ECPSSR). The results are also compared to previous experimental investigations. The high precision x-ray measurements were performed with a windowless Si(Li) detector. The efficiency of the detector was determined by the use of thin target atomic-field bremsstrahlung produced by 66.5 keV electrons. The measured bremsstrahlung spectra were compared to theoretical bremsstrahlung distributions in order to obtain an efficiency versus energy curve. The targets for the measurement were manufactured by the vacuum evaporation of the target element onto thin foils of carbon. Impurities in the carbon caused interferences inthe L-shell x-ray peaks. Special cleansing procedures were developed that reduced the impurity concentrations in the carbon foil, making the use of less than 5 μg/cm^2 targets possible. The first Born theory is seen to greatly overpredict the data at low ion energies. The ECPSSR theory matches the data very well at the high energy region. At low energies, while fitting the data much more closely than the first Born theory, the ECPSSR theory does not accurately predict the trend of the data. This is probably due to the onset of molecular-orbital effects, a mechanism not accounted for in the ECPSSR theory.
Date: May 1992
Creator: McNeir, Michael Ridge

Studies of Classically Chaotic Quantum Systems within the Pseudo-Probablilty Formalism

Description: The evolution of classically chaotic quantum systems is analyzed within the formalism of Quantum Pseudo-Probability Distributions. Due to the deep connections that a quantum system shows with its classical correspondent in this representation, the Pseudo-Probability formalism appears to be a useful method of investigation in the field of "Quantum Chaos." In the first part of the thesis we generalize this formalism to quantum systems containing spin operators. It is shown that a classical-like equation of motion for the pseudo-probability distribution ρw can be constructed, dρw/dt = (L_CL + L_QGD)ρw, which is rigorously equivalent to the quantum von Neumann-Liouville equation. The operator L_CL is undistinguishable from the classical operator that generates the semiclassical equations of motion. In the case of the spin-boson system this operator produces semiclassical chaos and is responsible for quantum irreversibility and the fast growth of quantum uncertainty. Carrying out explicit calculations for a spin-boson Hamiltonian the joint action of L_CL and L_QGD is illustrated. It is shown that the latter operator, L_QGD makes the spin system 'remember' its quantum nature, and competes with the irreversibility induced by the former operator. In the second part we test the idea of the enhancement of the quantum uncertainty triggered by the classical chaos by investigating the analogous effect of diffusive excitation in periodically kicked quantum systems. The classical correspondents of these quantum systems exhibit, in the chaotic region, diffusive behavior of the unperturbed energy. For the Quantum Kicked Harmonic Oscillator, in the case of quantum resonances, we provide an exact solution of the quantum evolution. This proves the existence of a deterministic drift in the energy increase over time of the system considered. More generally, this "superdiffusive" excitation of the energy is due to coherent quantum mechanical tunnelling between degenerate tori of the classical phase space. In conclusion we find ...
Date: August 1992
Creator: Roncaglia, Roberto

Nonlinear Optical Absorption and Refraction Study of Metallophthalocyanine Dyes

Description: This dissertation deals with the characterization of the nonlinear absorption and refraction of two representative metallophthalocyanine dyes: chloro aluminum phthalocyanine dissolved in methanol, referred to as CAP, and a silicon naphthalocyanine derivative dissolved in toluene, referred to as SiNc. Using the Z-scan technique, the experiments are performed on both the picosecond and nanosecond timescales at a wavelength of 0.532 μm.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Wei, Tai-Huei

An Experimental Study of Collision Broadening of some Excited Rotational States of the Bending Vibration of Methyl Cyanide

Description: A double modulation microwave spectrometer is used to evaluate the linewidth parameters for some excited rotational components in the bending vibration v_8 of 13CH3 13C 15N and 13CH3C15N isotopomers of methyl cyanide. The linewidth parameters for self-broadening of the ΔJ=2←1 rotational components for the ground v_8 , 1v_8, and the 2v_8 vibrations were determined over a pressure range of 1 to 13 mtorr and at a temperature of 300 K. The double modulation technique is used to explore the high eighth derivative of the line shape profile of the spectral line. This technique proved to give good signal-to-noise ratios and enabled the recovery of weak signals. An experimental method is developed to correct for source modulation broadening. The tests of the ratios of the two inner peak's separation of the eighth derivative of the line showed that they were up to 95% similar to those for a Lorentzian line shape function. The line shapes were assumed to be Lorentzian for the theoretical analysis of the derivative profiles and comparisons were made between experiment and theory on this basis. Dipole moments for vibrationally excited states were calculated from linewidth parameters and show systematic decrease with the increase of excitation. Impact parameters were calculated using the "hard sphere" model of the kinetic theory of gases. The results were many times larger than the size of the molecule itself. This suggests that the dominant interaction is a long range dipole-dipole force interaction.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Hajsaleh, Jamal Y. (Jamal Yousef)

Deterministic Brownian Motion

Description: The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscpoic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism - the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a long-standing problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a first-order perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous ...
Date: August 1993
Creator: Trefán, György

Synchronous Chaos, Chaotic Walks, and Characterization of Chaotic States by Lyapunov Spectra

Description: Four aspects of the dynamics of continuous-time dynamical systems are studied in this work. The relationship between the Lyapunov exponents of the original system and the Lyapunov exponents of induced Poincare maps is examined. The behavior of these Poincare maps as discriminators of chaos from noise is explored, and the possible Poissonian statistics generated at rarely visited surfaces are studied.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Albert, Gerald (Gerald Lachian)

Linear, Nonlinear Optical and Transport Properties of Quantum Wells Composed of Short Period Strained InAs/GaAs Superlattices

Description: In this work, ordered all-binary short-period strained InAs/GaAs superlattice quantum wells were studied as an alternative to strained ternary alloy InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells. InGaAs quantum wells QWs have been of great interest in recent years due to the great potential applications of these materials in future generations of electronic and optoelectronic devices. The all binary structures are expected to have all the advantages of their ternary counterparts, plus several additional benefits related to growth, to the elimination of alloy disorder scattering and to the presence of a higher average indium content.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Huang, Xuren

Z1 Dependence of Ion-Induced Electron Emission

Description: Knowledge of the atomic number (Zt) dependence of ion-induced electron emission yields (Y) can be the basis for a general understanding of ion-atom interaction phenomena and, in particular, for the design of Zrsensitive detectors that could be useful, for example, in the separation of isobars in accelerator mass spectrometry. The Zx dependence of ion-induced electron emission yields has been investigated using heavy ions of identical velocity (v = 2 v0, with v0 as the Bohr velocity) incident in a normal direction on sputter-cleaned carbon foils. Yields measured in this work plotted as a function of the ion's atomic number reveal an oscillatory behavior with pronounced maxima and minima. This nonmonotonic dependence of the yield on Zx will be discussed in the light of existing theories.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Arrale, Abdikarim M. (Abdikarim Mohamed)

Nonlinear Dynamics of Semiconductor Device Circuits and Characterization of Deep Energy Levels in HgCdTe by Using Magneto-Optical Spectroscopy

Description: The nonlinear dynamics of three physical systems has been investigated. Diode resonator systems are experimentally shown to display a period doubling route to chaos, quasiperiodic states, periodic locking states, and Hopf bifurcation to chaos. Particularly, the transition from quasiperiodic states to chaos in line-coupled systems agrees well with the Curry-Yorke model. The SPICE program has been modified to give realistic models for the diode resonator systems.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Yü, Chi

Scaling Behaviors and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Gels

Description: Polymer gels undergo a volume phase transition in solvent in response to an infinitesimal environmental change. This remarkable phenomenon has resulted in many potential applications of polymer gels. The understanding of its mechanical properties has both scientific and technological importance. For this purpose, we have developed a novel method for measuring Poisson's ratio, which is one of the most important parameters determining the mechanical property of gels. Using this method, Poisson's ratio in N-isopropyacrylamide (NIPA) and polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels has been studied.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Li, Chʻun-fang

Transport Processes in Synchrotrons

Description: This thesis examines the evolution of beams in synchrotrons. Following an introduction to accelerator physics in Chapter 1, in Chapter 2 I describe the Fermilab E778 'diffusion' experiment. Families of sextupoles were powered to drive the 2/5 resonance, and a beam was then kicked to populate a nonlinear region of the transverse phase space. The beam was then observed over periods of approximately 30 minutes for a variety of kick amplitudes and physical apertures. In Chapter 3 comments about the analytic treatment of such systems are discussed, including the assumptions inherent in the conventional treatment. I motivate my use of a simplified model in Chapter 4 after examining common computational methods. Deriving the model from the formalism of traditional accelerator physics, I discuss its implementation on a massively parallel computer, the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube, and examine the performance of this algorithm in detail. Using the simple model to perform the numerical experiment equivalent to E778 is the subject of Chapter 5. I derive the parameters needed for the simple model based upon the physical experiment. Both three dimensional cases and cases with reduced dimensionality are run. From power supply ripple data and an electrical model of the magnet string, I compute tune modulation depths, and a subset of these are run. I conclude that tune modulation from power supply ripple is not a significant source of transport for this system. In Chapter 6, the intensities of the beams are used to compare the experimental and numerical runs, using both exponential and algebraic decays, and the algebraic form is seen to provide a better fit. The agreement between numerical and experimental results is best for fully three-dimensional runs, but the numerical results show slower decay than the experimental. Individual particles are examined, whose motion consists of stochastic motion interspersed with regular ...
Date: May 1994
Creator: Cole, Benjamin H. (Benjamin Holland)

Charge State Dependence of M-Shell X-Ray Production in 67Ho by 2-12 MeV Carbon Ions

Description: The charge state dependence of M-shell x-ray production cross sections of 67HO bombarded by 2-12 MeV carbon ions with and without K-vacancies are reported. The experiment was performed using an NEC 9SDH-2 tandem accelerator at the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory of the University of North Texas. The high charge state carbon ions were produced by a post-accelerator stripping gas cell. Ultra-clean holmium targets were used in ion-atom collision to generate M-shell x rays at energies from 1.05 to 1.58 keV. The x-ray measurements were made with a windowless Si(Li) x-ray detector that was calibrated using radiative sources, particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE), and the atomic field bremsstrahlung (AFB) techniques.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Sun, Hsueh-Li

Dielectric Relaxation of Aqueous Solutions at Microwave Frequencies for 335 GHz. Using a Loaded Microwave Cavity Operating in the TM010 Mode

Description: The frequency dependence and temperature dependence of the complex dielectric constant of water is of great interest. The temperature dependence of the physical properties of water given in the literature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, pH, etc. are compared to the a. c. (microwave) and d. c. conductivity of water with a variety of concentration of different substances such as HC1, NaCl, HaS04, etc. When each of these properties is plotted versus inverse absolute temperature, it can be seen that each sample shows "transition temperatures". In this work, Slater's perturbation equations for a resonant microwave cavity were used to analyze the experimental results for the microwave data.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Wang, Henry F. S. (Henry Fu-Sen)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Studies of Highly Charged Molecular Ions

Description: The existence of singly, doubly, and triply charged diatomic molecular ions was observed by using an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique. The mean lifetimes of 3 MeV boron diatomic molecular ions were measured. No isotopic effects on the mean lifetimes of boron diatomic molecules were observed for charge state 3+. Also, the mean lifetime of SiF^3+ was measured.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Kim, Yong-Dal

Experimental Synchronization of Chaotic Attractors Using Control

Description: The focus of this thesis is to theoretically and experimentally investigate two new schemes of synchronizing chaotic attractors using chaotically operating diode resonators. The first method, called synchronization using control, is shown for the first time to experimentally synchronize dynamical systems. This method is an economical scheme which can be viably applied to low dimensional dynamical systems. The other, unidirectional coupling, is a straightforward means of synchronization which can be implemented in fast dynamical systems where timing is critical. Techniques developed in this work are of fundamental importance for future problems regarding high dimensional chaotic dynamical systems or arrays of mutually linked chaotically operating elements.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Newell, Timothy C. (Timothy Charles)

The Stopping Power of Amorphous and Channelled Silicon at All Energies as Computed with the Binary Encounter Approximation

Description: This thesis utilizes the binary encounter approximation to calculate the stopping power of protons penetrating silicon. The main goal of the research was to make predictions of the stopping power of silicon for low-energy and medium-energy channelled protons, in the hope that this will motivate experiments to test the theory developed below. In attaining this goal, different stopping power theories were compared and the binary encounter approach was applied to random (non-channelled) and high-energy channelled protons in silicon, and these results were compared with experimental data.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Bickel, David, 1970-