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Analysis of Biological Materials Using a Nuclear Microprobe

Description: The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe (III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world’s agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices) for the improvement of lead-phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Mulware, Stephen Juma

Broad-band Light Emission From Ion Implanted Silicon Nanocrystals Via Plasmonic and Non-plasmonic Effects for Optoelectronics

Description: Broad band light emission ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR) has been observed from silicon nanoparticles fabricated using low energy (30-45 keV) metal and non-metal ion implantation with a fluence of 5*1015 ions/cm2 in crystalline Si(100). It is found from a systematic study of the annealing carried out at certain temperatures that the spectral characteristics remains unchanged except for the enhancement of light emission intensity due to annealing. The annealing results in nucleation of metal nanoclusters in the vicinity of Si nanoparticles which enhances the emission intensity. Structural and optical characterization demonstrate that the emission originates from both highly localized defect bound excitons at the Si/Sio2 interface, as well as surface and interface traps associated with the increased surface area of the Si nanocrystals. The emission in the UV is due to interband transitions from localized excitonic states at the interface of Si/SiO2 or from the surface of Si nanocrystals. The radiative efficiency of the UV emission from the Si nanoparticles can be modified by the localized surface plasmon (LSP) interaction induced by the nucleation of silver nanoparticles with controlled annealing of the samples. The UV emission from Si nanoclusters are coupled resonantly to the LSP modes. The non-resonant emission can be enhanced by electrostatic-image charge effects. The emission in the UV (~3.3 eV) region can also be significantly enhanced by electrostatic image charge effects induced by Au nanoparticles. The UV emission from Si nanoclusters, in this case, can be coupled without LSP resonance. The recombination of carriers in Si bound excitons is mediated by transverse optical phonons due to the polarization of the surface bound exciton complex. The low energy side of emission spectrum at low temperature is dominated by 1st and 2nd order phonon replicas. Broad band emission ranging from the UV to the ...
Date: December 2012
Creator: Singh, Akhilesh K.

Charged Particle Transport and Confinement Along Null Magnetic Curves and in Various Other Nonuniform Field Configurations for Applications in Antihydrogen Production

Description: Comparisons between measurements of the ground-state hyperfine structure and gravitational acceleration of hydrogen and antihydrogen could provide a test of fundamental physical theories such as CPT (charge conjugation, parity, time-reversal) and gravitational symmetries. Currently, antihydrogen traps are based on Malmberg-Penning traps. The number of antiprotons in Malmberg-Penning traps with sufficiently low energy to be suitable for trappable antihydrogen production may be reduced by the electrostatic space charge of the positrons and/or collisions among antiprotons. Alternative trap designs may be needed for future antihydrogen experiments. A computational tool is developed to simulate charged particle motion in customizable magnetic fields generated by combinations of current loops and current lines. The tool is used to examine charged particle confinement in two systems consisting of dual, levitated current loops. The loops are coaxial and arranged to produce a magnetic null curve. Conditions leading to confinement in the system are quantified and confinement modes near the null curve and encircling one or both loops are identified. Furthermore, the tool is used to examine and quantify charged particle motion parallel to the null curve in the large radius limit of the dual, levitated current loops. An alternative to new trap designs is to identify the effects of the positron space in existing traps and to find modes of operation where the space charge is beneficial. Techniques are developed to apply the Boltzmann density relation along curved magnetic field lines. Equilibrium electrostatic potential profiles for a positron plasma are computed by solving Poisson's equation using a finite-difference method. Equilibria are computed in a model Penning trap with an axially varying magnetic field. Also, equilibria are computed for a positron plasma in a model of the ALPHA trap. Electric potential wells are found to form self-consistently. The technique is expanded to compute equilibria for a two-species plasma with ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Lane, Ryan Andrew

Complex Numbers in Quantum Theory

Description: In 1927, Nobel prize winning physicist, E. Schrodinger, in correspondence with Ehrenfest, wrote the following about the new theory: “What is unpleasant here, and indeed directly to be objected to, is the use of complex numbers. Psi is surely fundamentally a real function.” This seemingly simple issue remains unexplained almost ninety years later. In this dissertation I elucidate the physical and theoretical origins of the complex requirement. I identify a freedom/constraint situation encountered by vectors when, employed in accordance with adopted quantum representational methodology, and representing angular momentum states in particular. Complex vectors, quite simply, provide more available adjustable variables than do real vectors. The additional variables relax the constraint situation allowing the theory’s representational program to carry through. This complex number issue, which lies at the deepest foundations of the theory, has implications for important issues located higher in the theory. For example, any unification of the classical and quantum accounts of the settled order of nature, will rest squarely on our ability to account for the introduction of the imaginary unit.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Maynard, Glenn

Cooperation-induced Criticality in Neural Networks

Description: The human brain is considered to be the most complex and powerful information-processing device in the known universe. The fundamental concepts behind the physics of complex systems motivate scientists to investigate the human brain as a collective property emerging from the interaction of thousand agents. In this dissertation, I investigate the emergence of cooperation-induced properties in a system of interacting units. I demonstrate that the neural network of my research generates a series of properties such as avalanche distribution in size and duration coinciding with the experimental results on neural networks both in vivo and in vitro. Focusing attention on temporal complexity and fractal index of the system, I discuss how to define an order parameter and phase transition. Criticality is assumed to correspond to the emergence of temporal complexity, interpreted as a manifestation of non-Poisson renewal dynamics. In addition, I study the transmission of information between two networks to confirm the criticality and discuss how the network topology changes over time in the light of Hebbian learning.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Zare, Marzieh

Criticality in Cooperative Systems

Description: Cooperative behavior arises from the interactions of single units that globally produce a complex dynamics in which the system acts as a whole. As an archetype I refer to a flock of birds. As a result of cooperation the whole flock gets special abilities that the single individuals would not have if they were alone. This research work led to the discovery that the function of a flock, and more in general, that of cooperative systems, surprisingly rests on the occurrence of organizational collapses. In this study, I used cooperative systems based on self-propelled particle models (the flock models) which have been proved to be virtually equivalent to sociological network models mimicking the decision making processes (the decision making model). The critical region is an intermediate condition between a highly disordered state and a strong ordered one. At criticality the waiting times distribution density between two consecutive collapses shows an inverse power law form with an anomalous statistical behavior. The scientific evidences are based on measures of information theory, correlation in time and space, and fluctuation statistical analysis. In order to prove the benefit for a system to live at criticality, I made a flock system interact with another similar system, and then observe the information transmission for different disturbance values. I proved that at criticality the transfer of information gets the maximal efficiency. As last step, the flock model has been shown that, despite its simplicity, is sufficiently a realistic model as proved via the use of 3D simulations and computer animations.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Vanni, Fabio

A Determination of the Fine Structure Constant Using Precision Measurements of Helium Fine Structure

Description: Spectroscopic measurements of the helium atom are performed to high precision using an atomic beam apparatus and electro-optic laser techniques. These measurements, in addition to serving as a test of helium theory, also provide a new determination of the fine structure constant α. An apparatus was designed and built to overcome limitations encountered in a previous experiment. Not only did this allow an improved level of precision but also enabled new consistency checks, including an extremely useful measurement in 3He. I discuss the details of the experimental setup along with the major changes and improvements. A new value for the J = 0 to 2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of 4He is measured to be 31 908 131.25(30) kHz. The 300 Hz precision of this result represents an improvement over previous results by more than a factor of three. Combined with the latest theoretical calculations, this yields a new determination of α with better than 5 ppb uncertainty, α-1 = 137.035 999 55(64).
Date: August 2010
Creator: Smiciklas, Marc

EEG, Alpha Waves and Coherence

Description: This thesis addresses some theoretical issues generated by the results of recent analysis of EEG time series proving the brain dynamics are driven by abrupt changes making them depart from the ordinary Poisson condition. These changes are renewal, unpredictable and non-ergodic. We refer to them as crucial events. How is it possible that this form of randomness be compatible with the generation of waves, for instance alpha waves, whose observation seems to suggest the opposite view the brain is characterized by surprisingly extended coherence? To shed light into this apparently irretrievable contradiction we propose a model based on a generalized form of Langevin equation under the influence of a periodic stimulus. We assume that there exist two different forms of time, a subjective form compatible with Poisson statistical physical and an objective form that is accessible to experimental observation. The transition from the former to the latter form is determined by the brain dynamics interpreted as emerging from the cooperative interaction among many units that, in the absence of cooperation would generate Poisson fluctuations. We call natural time the brain internal time and we make the assumption that in the natural time representation the time evolution of the EEG variable y(t) is determined by a Langevin equation perturbed by a periodic process that in this time representation is hardly distinguishable from an erratic process. We show that the representation of this random process in the experimental time scale is characterized by a surprisingly extended coherence. We show that this model generates a sequence of damped oscillations with a time behavior that is remarkably similar to that derived from the analysis of real EEG's. The main result of this research work is that the existence of crucial events is not incompatible with the alpha wave coherence. In addition to this important ...
Date: May 2010
Creator: Ascolani, Gianluca

Effects of Dissipation on Propagation of Surface Electromagnetic and Acoustic Waves

Description: With the recent emergence of the field of metamaterials, the study of subwavelength propagation of plane waves and the dissipation of their energy either in the form of Joule losses in the case of electomagnetic waves or in the form of viscous dissipation in the case of acoustic waves in different interfaced media assumes great importance. with this motivation, I have worked on problems in two different areas, viz., plasmonics and surface acoustics. the first part (chapters 2 & 3) of the dissertation deals with the emerging field of plasmonics. Researchers have come up with various designs in an efort to fabricate efficient plasmonic waveguides capable of guiding plasmonic signals. However, the inherent dissipation in the form of Joule losses limits efficient usage of surface plasmon signal. a dielectric-metal-¬dielectric planar structure is one of the most practical plasmonic structures that can serve as an efficient waveguide to guide electromagnetic waves along the metal-dielectric boundary. I present here a theoretical study of propagation of surface plasmons along a symmetric dielectric-metal-dielectric structure and show how proper orientation of the optical axis of the anisotropic substrate enhances the propagation length. an equation for propagation length is derived in a wide range of frequencies. I also show how the frequency of coupled surface plasmons can be modulated by changing the thickness of the metal film. I propose a Kronig-Penny model for the plasmonic crystal, which in the long wavelength limit, may serve as a homogeneous dielectric substrate with high anisotropy which do not exist for natural optical crystals. in the second part (chapters 4 & 5) of the dissertation, I discuss an interesting effect of extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two metal plates. Starting from the elastic properties of the ...
Date: May 2012
Creator: Nagaraj, Nagaraj

The Effects of Residual Gases on the Field Emission Properties of ZnO, GaN, ZnS Nanostructures, and the Effects of Light on the Resistivity of Graphene

Description: In this dissertation, I present that at a vacuum of 3×10-7 Torr, residual O2, CO2, H2 and Ar exposure do not significantly degrade the field emission (FE) properties of ZnO nanorods, but N2 exposure significantly does. I propose that this could be due to the dissociation of N2 into atomic nitrogen species and the reaction of such species with ZnO. I also present the effects of O2, CO2, H2O, N2, H2, and Ar residual gas exposure on the FE properties of GaN and ZnS nanostructure. A brief review of growth of ZnO, GaN and ZnS is provided. In addition, Cs deposition on GaN nanostructures at ultra-high vacuum results in 30% decrease in turn-on voltage and 60% in work function. The improvement in FE properties could be due to a Cs-induced space-charge layer at the surface that reduces the barrier for FE and lowers the work function. I describe a new phenomenon, in which the resistivity of CVD-grown graphene increases to a higher saturated value under light exposure, and depends on the wavelength of the light—the shorter the wavelength, the higher the resistivity. First-principle calculations and theoretical analysis based on density functional theory show that (1) a water molecule close to a graphene defect is easier to be split than that of the case of no defect existing and (2) there are a series of meta-stable partially disassociated states for an interfacial water molecule. Calculated disassociation energies are from 2.5 eV to 4.6 eV, that match the experimental observation range of light wavelength from visible to 254 nm UV light under which the resistivity of CVD-grown graphene is increased.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Mo, Yudong

Electrical Conduction Mechanisms in the Disordered Material System P-type Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon

Description: The electrical and optical properties of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films (a-Si) were investigated to determine the effect of boron and hydrogen incorporation on carrier transport. The a-Si thin films were grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at various boron concentrations, hydrogen dilutions, and at differing growth temperatures. The temperature dependent conductivity generally follows the hopping conduction model. Above a critical temperature, the dominant conduction mechanism is Mott variable range hopping conductivity (M-VRH), where p = ¼, and the carrier hopping depends on energy. However, at lower temperatures, the coulomb interaction between charge carriers becomes important and Efros-Shklosvkii variable hopping (ES-VRH) conduction, where p=1/2, must be included to describe the total conductivity. To correlate changes in electrical conductivity to changes in the local crystalline order, the transverse optical (TO) and transverse acoustic (TA) modes of the Raman spectra were studied to relate changes in short- and mid-range order to the effects of growth temperature, boron, and hydrogen incorporation. With an increase of hydrogen and/or growth temperature, both short and mid-range order improve, whereas the addition of boron results in the degradation of short range order. It is seen that there is a direct correlation between the electrical conductivity and changes in the short and mid-range order resulting from the passivation of defects by hydrogen and the creation of trap states by boron. This work was done under the ARO grant W911NF-10-1-0410, William W. Clark Program Manager. The samples were provided by L-3 Communications.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Shrestha, Kiran (Engineer)

An Electro- Magneto-static Field for Confinement of Charged Particle Beams and Plasmas

Description: A system is presented that is capable of confining an ion beam or plasma within a region that is essentially free of applied fields. An Artificially Structured Boundary (ASB) produces a spatially periodic set of magnetic field cusps that provides charged particle confinement. Electrostatic plugging of the magnetic field cusps enhances confinement. An ASB that has a small spatial period, compared to the dimensions of a confined plasma, generates electro- magneto-static fields with a short range. An ASB-lined volume thus constructed creates an effectively field free region near its center. It is assumed that a non-neutral plasma confined within such a volume relaxes to a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Space charge based confinement of a second species of charged particles is envisioned, where the second species is confined by the space charge of the first non-neutral plasma species. An electron plasma confined within an ASB-lined volume can potentially provide confinement of a positive ion beam or positive ion plasma. Experimental as well as computational results are presented in which a plasma or charged particle beam interact with the electro- magneto-static fields generated by an ASB. A theoretical model is analyzed and solved via self-consistent computational methods to determine the behavior and equilibrium conditions of a relaxed plasma. The equilibrium conditions of a relaxed two species plasma are also computed. In such a scenario, space charge based electrostatic confinement is predicted to occur where a second plasma species is confined by the space charge of the first plasma species. An experimental apparatus with cylindrical symmetry that has its interior surface lined with an ASB is presented. This system was developed by using a simulation of the electro- magneto-static fields present within the trap to guide mechanical design. The construction of the full experimental apparatus is discussed. Experimental results that show the characteristics of ...
Date: May 2014
Creator: Pacheco, Josè L.

Electrostatic Mechanism of Emission Enhancement in Hybrid Metal-semiconductor Light-emitting Heterostructures

Description: III-V nitrides have been put to use in a variety of applications including laser diodes for modern DVD devices and for solid-state white lighting. Plasmonics has come to the foreground over the past decade as a means for increasing the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of devices through resonant interaction with surface plasmons which exist at metal/dielectric interfaces. Increases in emission intensity of an order of magnitude have been previously reported using silver thin-films on InGaN/GaN MQWs. the dependence on resonant interaction between the plasmons and the light emitter limits the applications of plasmonics for light emission. This dissertation presents a new non-resonant mechanism based on electrostatic interaction of carriers with induced image charges in a nearby metallic nanoparticle. Enhancement similar in strength to that of plasmonics is observed, without the restrictions imposed upon resonant interactions. in this work we demonstrate several key features of this new interaction, including intensity-dependent saturation, increase in the radiative recombination lifetime, and strongly inhomogeneous light emission. We also present a model for the interaction based on the aforementioned image charge interactions. Also discussed are results of work done in the course of this research resulting in the development of a novel technique for strain measurement in light-emitting structures. This technique makes use of a spectral fitting model to extract information about electron-phonon interactions in the sample which can then be related to strain using theoretical modeling.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Llopis, Antonio

Enhancements of Mechanical, Thermal Stability, and Tribological Properties by Addition of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide in Epoxy

Description: The effects of octadecylamine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (FRGO) on the frictional and wear properties of diglycidylether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy are studied using a pin-on-disk tribometer. It was observed that the addition of FRGO significantly improves the tribological, mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy matrix. Graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized with octadecylamine (ODA), and then reduction of oxygen-containing functional groups was carried out using hydrazine monohydrate. The Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm significant reduction in oxygen-containing functional groups and formation of ODA functionalized reduced GO. The nanocomposites are prepared by adding 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 wt % of FRGO to the epoxy. The addition of FRGO increases by more than an order of magnitude the sliding distance during which the dynamic friction is ≤ 0.1. After this distance, the friction sharply increases to the range of 0.4 - 0.5. We explain the increase in sliding distance during which the friction is low by formation of a transfer film from the nanocomposite to the counterface. The wear rates in the low and high friction regimes are approximately 1.5 x 10-4 mm3/N·m and 5.5 x 10-4 mm3/N·m, respectively. The nanocomposites exhibit a 74 % increase in Young’s modulus with 0.5 wt. % of FRGO, and an increase in glass transition and thermal degradation temperatures.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Shah, Rakesh K.

Fractional Calculus and Dynamic Approach to Complexity

Description: Fractional calculus enables the possibility of using real number powers or complex number powers of the differentiation operator. The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation for a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. With an ensemble average perspective, the explanation of the behavior of fractional chaotic systems changes dramatically. Before now what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction is actually a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. Nonlinear Langevin equation describes the mean field of a finite size complex network at criticality. Critical phenomena and temporal complexity are two very important issues of modern nonlinear dynamics and the link between them found by the author can significantly improve the understanding behavior of dynamical systems at criticality. The subject of temporal complexity addresses the challenging and especially helpful in addressing fundamental physical science issues beyond the limits of reductionism.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Beig, Mirza Tanweer Ahmad

High Efficiency High Power Blue Laser by Resonant Doubling in PPKTP

Description: I developed a high power blue laser for use in scientific and technical applications (eg. precision spectroscopy, semiconductor inspection, flow cytometry, etc). It is linearly polarized, single longitudinal and single transverse mode, and a convenient fiber coupled continuous wave (cw) laser source. My technique employs external cavity frequency doubling and provides better power and beam quality than commercially available blue diode lasers. I use a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) stabilized infrared (IR) semiconductor laser source with a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber coupled output. Using a custom made optical and mechanical design this output is coupled with a mode matching efficiency of 96% into the doubling cavity. With this carefully designed and optimized cavity, measurements were carried out at various fundamental input powers. A net efficie ncy of 81 % with an output power of 680 mW at 486 nm was obtained using 840 mW of IR input. Also I report an 87.5 % net efficiency in coupling of blue light from servo locked cavity into a single mode PM fiber. Thus I have demonstrated a total fiber to fiber efficiency of 71% can be achieved in our approach using periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP). To obtain these results, all losses in the system were carefully studied and minimized.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Danekar, Koustubh

Highly Efficient Single Frequency Blue Laser Generation by Second Harmonic Generation of Infrared Lasers Using Quasi Phase Matching in Periodically Poled Ferroelectric Crystals

Description: Performance and reliability of solid state laser diodes in the IR region exceeds those in the visible and UV part of the light spectrum. Single frequency visible and UV laser diodes with higher than 500 mW power are not available commercially. However we successfully stabilized a multi-longitudinal mode IR laser to 860 mW single frequency. This means high efficiency harmonic generation using this laser can produce visible and UV laser light not available otherwise. In this study we examined three major leading nonlinear crystals: PPMgO:SLN, PPKTP and PPMgO:SLT to generate blue light by second harmonic generation. We achieved record high net conversion efficiencies 81.3% using PPMgO:SLT (~500 mW out), and 81.1% using PPKTP (~700 mW out). In both these cases an external resonance buildup cavity was used. We also studied a less complicated single pass waveguide configuration (guided waist size of ~ 5 um compared to ~60 um) to generate blue. With PPMgO:SLN we obtained net 40.4% and using PPKT net 6.8% (110mW and 10.1 mW respectively).
Date: August 2014
Creator: Khademian, Ali

How Cooperative Systems Respond to External Forces

Description: Cooperative interactions permeate through nature, bringing about emergent behavior and complexity. Using a simple cooperative model, I illustrate the mean field dynamics that occur at the critical point of a second order phase transition in the framework of Langevin equations. Through this formalism I discuss the response, both linear and nonlinear, to external forces. Emphasis is placed on how information is transferred from one individual to another in order to facilitate the collective response of the cooperative network to a localized perturbation. The results are relevant to a wide variety of systems, ranging from nematic liquid crystals, to flocks and swarms, social groups, and neural networks.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Svenkeson, Adam

The Interactions of Plasma with Low-k Dielectrics: Fundamental Damage and Protection Mechanisms

Description: Nanoporous low-k dielectrics are used for integrated circuit interconnects to reduce the propagation delays, and cross talk noise between metal wires as an alternative material for SiO2. These materials, typically organosilicate glass (OSG) films, are exposed to oxygen plasmas during photoresist stripping and related processes which substantially damage the film by abstracting carbon, incorporating O and OH, eventually leading to significantly increased k values. Systematic studies have been performed to understand the oxygen plasma-induced damage mechanisms on different low-k OSG films of various porosity and pore interconnectedness. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to understand the damage kinetics of O radicals, ultraviolet photons and charged species, and possible ways to control the carbon loss from the film. FTIR results demonstrate that O radical present in the plasma is primarily responsible for carbon abstraction and this is governed by diffusion mechanism involving interconnected film nanopores. The loss of carbon from the film can be controlled by closing the pore interconnections, He plasma pretreatment is an effective way to control the damage at longer exposure by closing the connections between the pores.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Behera, Swayambhu Prasad

Ion Beam Synthesis of Binary and Ternary Transition Metal Silicide Thin Films

Description: Among the well-known methods to form or modify the composition and physical properties of thin films, ion implantation has shown to be a very powerful technique. In particular, ion beam syntheses of binary iron silicide have been studied by several groups. Further, the interests in transition metal silicide systems are triggered by their potential use in advanced silicon based opto-electronic devices. In addition, ternary silicides have been by far less studied than their binary counterparts despite the fact that they have interesting magnetic and electronic properties. In this study, we investigate ion beam synthesis of Fe-Si binary structures and Fe-Co-Si ternary structures. This work involves fundamental investigation into development of a scalable synthesis process involving binary and ternary transitional metal silicide thin films and Nano-structures using low energy ion beams. Binary structures were synthesized by implanting Fe- at 50 keV energy. Since ion implantation is a dynamic process, Dynamic simulation techniques were used in these studies to determine saturation fluences for ion implantation. Also, static and dynamic simulation results were compared with experimental results. The outcome of simulations and experimental results indicate, dynamic simulation codes are more suitable than static version of the TRIM to simulate high fluence, low energy and, heavy ion implantation processes. Furthermore, binary Fe-Si phase distribution was determined at different implantation fluences and annealing temperatures. A higher fluence implantation at 2.16×1017 atoms/cm2 and annealing at 500 oC showed three different Fe-Si phase formations (β-FeSi2, FeSi and Fe3Si) in substrate. Further, annealing the samples at 800 oC for 60 minutes converted the Fe3Si phase into FeSi2 and FeSi phases. As an extension, a second set of Fe- ion implantations was carried with the same parameters while the substrate was placed under an external magnetic field. External magnetic fields stimulate the formation of magnetic phase centers in the ...
Date: December 2016
Creator: Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige Jayampath

Ion Beam Synthesis of Carbon Assisted Nanosystems in Silicon Based Substrates

Description: The systematic study of the formation of β-SiC formed by low energy carbon ion (C-)implantation into Si followed by high temperature annealing is presented. The research is performed to explore the optimal annealing conditions. The formation of crystalline β-SiC is clearly observed in the sample annealed at 1100 °C for a period of 1 hr. Quantitative analysis is performed in the formation of β-SiC by the process of implantation of different carbon ion fluences of 1×1017, 2×1017, 5×1017, and 8×1017 atoms /cm2 at an ion energy of 65 keV into Si. It is observed that the average size of β-SiC crystals decreased and the amount of β-SiC crystals increased with the increase in the implanted fluences when the samples were annealed at 1100°C for 1 hr. However, it is observed that the amount of β-SiC linearly increased with the implanted fluences up to 5×1017 atoms /cm2. Above this fluence the amount of β-SiC appears to saturate. The stability of graphitic C-C bonds at 1100°C limits the growth of SiC precipitates in the sample implanted at a fluence of 8×1017 atoms /cm2 which results in the saturation behavior of SiC formation in the present study. Secondly, the carbon cluster formation process in silica and the characterization of formed clusters is presented. Silicon dioxide layers ~500 nm thick are thermally grown on a Si (100) wafer. The SiO2 layers are then implanted with 70 keV carbon ions at a fluence of 5×1017 atoms/cm2. The implanted samples are annealed 1100 °C for different time periods of 10 min., 30 min., 60 min., 90 min., and 120 min., in the mixture of argon and hydrogen gas (96 % Ar + 4% hydrogen). Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals UV to visible emission from the samples. A detail mechanism of the photoluminescence and its possible origin is discussed ...
Date: May 2011
Creator: Poudel, Prakash Raj

Local Phase Manipulation for Multi-Beam Interference Lithography for the Fabrication of Two and Three Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates

Description: In this work, we study the use of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for local manipulation of phase in interfering laser beams to fabricate photonic crystal templates with embedded, engineered defects. A SLM displaying geometric phase patterns was used as a digitally programmable phase mask to fabricate 4-fold and 6-fold symmetric photonic crystal templates. Through pixel-by-pixel phase engineering, digital control of the phases of one or more of the interfering beams was demonstrated, thus allowing change in the interference pattern. The phases of the generated beams were programmed at specific locations, resulting in defect structures in the fabricated photonic lattices such as missing lattice line defects, and single-motif lattice defects in dual-motif lattice background. The diffraction efficiency from the phase pattern was used to locally modify the filling fraction in holographically fabricated structures, resulting in defects with a different fill fraction than the bulk lattice. Through two steps of phase engineering, a spatially variant lattice defect with a 90° bend in a periodic bulk lattice was fabricated. Finally, by reducing the relative phase shift of the defect line and utilizing the different diffraction efficiency between the defect line and the background phase pattern, desired and functional defect lattices can be registered into the background lattice through direct imaging of the designed phase patterns.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Lutkenhaus, Jeffrey Ryan

Low-Energy Electron Irradiation of Preheated and Gas-Exposed Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

Description: We investigate the conditions under which electron irradiation of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles with 2 keV electrons produces an increase in the Raman D peak. We find that an increase in the D peak does not occur when SWCNTs are preheated in situ at 600 C for 1 h in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) before irradiation is performed. Exposing SWCNTs to air or other gases after preheating in UHV and before irradiation results in an increase in the D peak. Small diameter SWCNTs that are not preheated or preheated and exposed to air show a significant increase in the D and G bands after irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows no chemical shifts in the C1s peak of SWCNTs that have been irradiated versus SWCNTs that have not been irradiated, suggesting that the increase in the D peak is not due to chemisorption of adsorbates on the nanotubes.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Ecton, Philip

Modification of Graphene Properties: Electron Induced Reversible Hydrogenation, Oxidative Etching and Layer-by-layer Thinning

Description: In this dissertation, I present the mechanism of graphene hydrogenation via three different electron sources: scanning electron microscopy, e-beam irradiation and H2 and He plasma irradiation. in each case, hydrogenation occurs due to electron impact fragmentation of adsorbed water vapor from the sample preparation process. in the proposed model, secondary and backscattered electrons generated from incident electron interactions with the underlying silicon substrate are responsible for the dissociation of water vapor. Chemisorbed H species from the dissociation are responsible for converting graphene into hydrogenated graphene, graphane. These results may lead to higher quality graphane films having a larger band gap than currently reported. in addition, the dissertation presents a novel and scalable method of controllably removing single atomic planes from multi-layer graphene using electron irradiation from an intense He plasma under a positive sample bias. As the electronic properties or multi-layer graphene are highly dependent on the number of layers, n, reducing n in certain regions has many benefits. for example, a mask in conjunction with this thinning method could be used for device applications.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Jones, Jason David