UNT Libraries - 41 Matching Results

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Automatic Frequency Control of Microwave Radiation Sources

Description: Resonant cavity controlled klystron frequency stabilization circuits and quartz-crystal oscillator frequency stabilization circuits were investigated for reflex klystrons operating at frequencies in the X-band range. The crystal oscillator circuit employed achieved better than 2 parts in 10 in frequency stability. A test of the functional properties of the frequency standard was made using the Stark effect in molecules.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Payne, Bobby D.

A Calculation of the Excitation Spectrum of Superfluid Helium-4

Description: The Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory of homogeneous boson systems at finite temperatures is rederived using, a free energy variational principle. It is shown that a t-matrix naturally emerges in the theory. Phenomenological modifications are made (1) to remove the energy gap at zero momentum, and (2) to eliminate the Hartree-Fock-like terms, which dress the kinetic energy of the particle. A numerical calculation of the energy spectrum is made over a temperature range of 0.00 to 3.14 K using the Morse dipole-dipole-2 potential and the Frost-Musulin potential. The energy spectrum of the elementary excitations is calculated self-consistently. It has a phonon behavior at low momentum and a roton behavior at higher momentum, so it is in qualitative agreement with the observed energy spectrum of liquid He II. However, the temperature dependence of the spectrum is incorrectly given. At the observed density of 0.0219 atoms A-3, the depletion of the zero-momentum state at zero temperature is 40.5% for the Morse dipole-dipole-2potential, and 43.2% for the Frost- Musulin potential. The depletion increases gradually until at 3.14 K the zero momentum density becomes zero discontinuously, which indicates a transition to the ideal Bose gas.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Goble, Gerald W.

The Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics

Description: The Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a path integral representation for a propagator or probability amplitude in going between two points in space-time. The wave function is expressed in terms of an integral equation from which the Schrodinger equation can be derived. On taking the limit h — 0, the method of stationary phase can be applied and Newton's second law of motion is obtained. Also, the condition the phase vanishes leads to the Hamilton - Jacobi equation. The secondary objective of this paper is to study ways of relating quantum mechanics and classical mechanics. The Ehrenfest theorem is applied to a particle in an electromagnetic field. Expressions are found which are the hermitian Lorentz force operator, the hermitian torque operator, and the hermitian power operator.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Hefley, Velton Wade

CO₂-Laser Induced Hot Electron Magneto-Transport Effects in n-InSb

Description: The effects of optical heating via infrared free carrier absorption on the electron magneto-transport properties of n-InSb at helium temperatures have been studied for the first time. Oscillatory photoconductivity (OPC) type structure is seen in the photon energy dependence of the transport properties. A C0₂ laser (hω = 115 to 135 meV) was used as the optical source. Concentrations between 1 x 10¹⁵ cm⁻³ and 2 x 10¹⁶ cm⁻³ were studied. The conclusions of this study are that the energy relaxation of high energy photoexcited electrons, generated by free carrier absorption of C0₂ laser radiation in degenerate n-InSb at liquid helium temperatures, is by emission of a maximum number of optical phonons, and that this relaxation mechanism produces OPC type structure in the photon energy dependence of the electron temperature of the conduction band electron gas. This structure is seen, therefore, in the transport properties of the sample, including the Shubnikovde Haas effect, the effective absorption coefficient, and the photoconductivity (mobility) response (lower concentrations only). In addition, the highest concentration studied, nₑ = ~2 x 10¹⁶ cm⁻³, sets an experimental lower limit on the concentration at which electron-electron scattering will become the dominant energy relaxation mechanism for the photoexcited electrons, since OPC effects were present in this sample.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Moore, Bradley T.

Collision Broadening in the Microwave Rotational Spectrum of Gaseous Monomeric Formaldehyde

Description: A source-modulation microwave spectrograph was utilized to measure line width parameters for several spectral lines in the pure rotational spectrum of formaldehyde (H₂CO). The spectrograph featured high-gain ac amplification and phase-sensitive detection, and was capable of measuring microwave lines having absorption coefficients as small as 10⁻⁷ cm⁻¹ with a frequency resolution on the order of 30 kHz. Center frequencies of the measured lines varied from 4,830 MHz to 72,838 MHz; hence, most of the observations were made on transitions between K-doublets in the rotational spectrum. Corrections were applied to the measured line width parameters to account for Doppler broadening and, where possible, for deviations due to magnetic hyperfine structure in some of the K-doubled lines. Low modulation voltages and low microwave power levels were used to minimize modulation and saturation broadenings; other extraneous broadenings were found to be insignificant. The primary broadening mechanism at low gas pressure is pressure broadening, and a review of this topic is included. Line width parameters for the several observed transitions were determined by graphing half-widths versus pressure for each spectral line, and performing a linear least-squares fit to the data points. Repeatability measurements indicated the accuracy of the line width parameters to be better than ±10 percent. The reasons for this repeatability spread are discussed, Broadening of each line was measured for self- and foreign-gas broadening by atomic helium and diatomic hydrogen. Effective collision diameters were calculated for each broadening interaction, based on the observed rates of broadening.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Rogers, David Valmore

Cross Section Measurements in Praseodymium-141 as a Function of Neutron Bombarding Energy

Description: Using the parallel disk method of activation analysis, the (n,2n) reaction cross section in 141-Pr was measured as a function of neutron energy in the range 15.4 to 18.4 MeV. The bombarding neutrons were produced from the 3-T(d,n)4-He reaction, where the deuterons were accelerated by the 3-MV Van de Graff generator of the North Texas Regional Physics Laboratory in Denton, Texas.
Date: May 1971
Creator: Marsh, Stephen Addison

A Decay Scheme for 164 Ho

Description: The present investigation was prompted by several considerations. In previous studies there was considerable variance with regard to the reported values for the half-lives of the isomeric and ground states in 164 Ho. There was also considerable variance with regard to the values reported for the branching ratios and the relative intensities of the transitions. Thus a further study of the problem was needed.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Guertin, James

Distribution of Nighttime F-region Molecular Ion Concentrations and 6300 Å Nightglow Morphology

Description: The purpose of this study is two-fold. The first is to determine the dependence of the molecular ion profiles on the various ionospheric and atmospheric parameters that affect their distributions. The second is to demonstrate the correlation of specific ionospheric parameters with 6300 Å nightglow intensity during periods of magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Brasher, William Ernest, 1939-

Effects of Discharge Tube Geometry on Plasma Ion Oscillations

Description: This study considers the effect, on plasma ion oscillations, of various lengths of discharge tubes as well as various cross sections of discharge tubes. Four different gases were used in generating the plasma. Gas pressure and discharge voltage and current were varied to obtain a large number of signals. A historical survey is given to familiarize the reader with the field. The experimental equipment and procedure used in obtaining data is given. An analysis of the data obtained is presented along with possible explanations for the observed phenomena. Suggestions for future study are made.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Simmons, David Warren

Electrical Conductivity in Thin Films

Description: This thesis deals with electrical conductivity in thin films. Classical and quantum size effects in conductivity are discussed including some experimental evidence of quantum size effects. The component conductivity along the applied electric field of a thin film in a transverse magnetic field is developed in a density matrix method.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Meyer, Frederick Otto

Electron Density and Collision Frequency Studies Using a Resonant Microwave Cavity as a Probe

Description: Electron densities and collision frequencies were obtained on a number of gases in a dc discharge at low pressures (0.70-2mm of Hg). These measurements were performed by microwave probing of a filament of the dc discharge placed coaxially in a resonant cavity operating in a TM₀₁₀ mode. The equipment and techniques for making the microwave measurements employing the resonant cavity are described. One of the main features of this investigation is the technique of differentiating the resonance signal of the loaded cavity in order to make accurate measurements of the resonant frequency and half-power point frequencies.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Freeman, Ronald Harold

Fluid Spheres in General Relativity: Exact Solutions and Applications to Astrophysics

Description: Exact solutions to Einstein's field equations in the presence of matter are presented. A one parameter family of interior solutions for a static fluid is discussed. It is shown that these solutions can be joined to the Schwarzschild exterior, and hence represent fluid spheres of finite radius. Contained within this family is a set of solutions which are gaseous spheres defined by the vanishing of the density at the surface. One such solution yields an analytic expression which corresponds to the asymptotic numerical solution of Oppenheimer and Volkoff for the degenerate neutron gas. These gaseous spheres have ratios of specific heats that lie between one and two in the vicinity of the origin, increasing outward, but remaining less than the velocity of light throughout.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Whitman, Patrick G.

Formation of Supersaturated Alloys by Ion Implantation and Pulsed-Laser Annealing

Description: Supersaturated substitutional alloys formed by ion implantation and rapid liquid-phase epitaxial regrowth induced by pulsed-laser annealing have been studied using Rutherford-backscattering and ion-channeling analysis. A series of impurities (As, Sb, Bi, Ga, In, Fe, Sn, Cu) have been implanted into single-crystal (001) orientation silicon at doses ranging from 1 x 10^15/cm2 to 1 x 10^17/cm2. The samples were subsequently annealed with a Ω-switched ruby laser (energy density ~1.5 J/cm2, pulse duration 15 x 10-9 sec). Ion-channeling analysis shows that laser annealing incorporates the Group III (Ga, In) and Group V (As, Sb, Bi) impurities into substitutional lattice sites at concentrations far in excess of the equilibrium solid solubility. Channeling measurements indicate the silicon crystal is essentially defect free after laser annealing. The maximum Group III and Group V dopant concentrations that can be incorporated into substitutional lattice sites are determined for the present laser-annealing conditions. Dopant profiles have been measured before and after annealing using Rutherford backscattering. These experimental profiles are compared to theoretical model calculations which incorporate both dopant diffusion in liquid silicon and a distribution coefficient (k') from the liquid. It is seen that a distribution coefficient (k') far greater than the equilibrium value (k0) is required for the calculation to fit the experimental data. In the cases of Fe, Zn, and Cu, laser annealing causes the impurities to segregate toward the surface. After annealing, none of these impurities are observed to be substitutional in detectable concentrations. The systematics of these alloys systems are discussed.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Wilson, Syd Robert

K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections of Selected Elements from Ag to La for Proton Bombardment from 0.6 to 2.0 MeV

Description: The K-shell x-ray and ionization cross sections are measured for protons on Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, and La over the ion energy range of 0.6 to 2.0 MeV. The data are compared to the predictions of the PWBA, the PWBA with corrections for binding energy and/or Coulomb deflection, the BEA, and the constrained BEA predictions. In general, the non-relativistic PWBA with binding energy correction gives the best overall agreement with the measurements of proton-induced x-ray processes for the K-shell of the elements studied in this work. The data further suggest the need for relativistic PWBA treatment of the interactions in the K-shell for the range of binding energies represented by the elements investigated in this work.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Khelil, Najat Arafat

K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections of Selected Elements from Fe to As for Proton Bombardment from 0.5 to 2.0 MeV

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of making experimental measurements of proton-induced K-shell x-ray production cross sections and to study the dependence of these cross sections upon the energy of the incident proton. The measurements were made by detection of the characteristic x-rays emitted as a consequence of the ionization of the K-shell of the atom. The method for relating this characteristic x-ray emission to the x-ray production cross section is discussed in this work.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Lear, Richard Dean

Magnetomorphic Oscillations in Zinc

Description: In making this study it is important to search for ways to enhance and, if possible, make detection of MMO signals simpler in order that this technique for obtaining FS measurements may be extended to other materials. This attempt to improve measurement techniques has resulted in a significant discovery: the eddy-current techniques described in detail in a later section which should allow MMO to be observed and sensitively measured in many additional solids. The second major thrust of the study has been to use the newly discovered eddy-current technique in obtaining the first indisputable observation of MMO in zinc.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Waller, William Marvin

Measurement of the Rate Coefficients for the Bimolecular and Termolecular Charge Transfer Reactions of He₂⁺ with Ne, Ar, N₂, CO, CO₂, and CH₄

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of measuring the rate coefficients for termolecular charge transfer reactions of He2+ in atmospheric pressure afterglows with the minority reacting species. Of particular interest was the discovery that the presence of a third body can change an improbable charge transfer reaction involving He+2 into a very probable one, as in the case of the reaction with argon. For example, in Tables II and II it was shown that less than a 300 torr pressure of helium was required to double the effective rate of reaction of argon with He2+ while over 3000 torr was required for CH4. The sensitivity of the method has been sufficient to detect termolecular components as small as 2 x 10-30 cm /sec and values were found to range widely from 2 x 10 for Ne to 67 x 10-30 cm6/sec for CO2. The size of these termolecular rates not only served to explain specific anomalous efficiencies of the charge transfer process observed in atmospheric pressure lasers but also suggested the general importance of three-body ion-molecule reactions in higher pressure plasmas.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Lee, Francis Wha-Pyo

Microwave Line Widths of the Asymmetric Top Formic Acid Molecule

Description: This work consisted of an experimental investigation of the formic acid (HCOOH) molecule's rotational spectrum. Measurements of line widths were obtained for J = 5, 12, 13, 19, and 20 for a pressure range from 1 to 10 microns. A linear behavior between Av and p was observed as predicted by theory. The line width parameter Avp was observed to depend on the quantum number J. Hard sphere collision diameters b1 were calculated using the obtained AvP values. These deduced hard sphere values were found to be larger than the physical size of the molecule. This result was found to be in general agreement with other investigation in which long range forces (dipole-dipole) dominate.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Maynard, Wayne R.

Microwave Properties of Liquids and Solids, Using a Resonant Microwave Cavity as a Probe

Description: The frequency shifts and Q changes of a resonant microwave cavity were utilized as a basis for determining microwave properties of solids and liquids. The method employed consisted of varying the depth of penetration of a cylindrical sample of the material into a cavity operating in the TM0 1 0 Mode. The liquid samples were contained in a thin-walled quartz tube. The perturbation of the cavity was achieved by advancing the sample into the cavity along the symmetry axis by employing a micrometer drive appropriately calibrated for depth of penetration of the sample. A differentiation method was used to obtain the half-power points of the cavity resonance profile at each depth of penetration. The perturbation techniques for resonant cavities were used to reduce the experimental data obtained to physical parameters for the samples. The probing frequency employed was near 9 gHz.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Hong, Ki H.