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A Calculation of the Excitation Spectrum of Superfluid Helium-4

Description: The Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory of homogeneous boson systems at finite temperatures is rederived using, a free energy variational principle. It is shown that a t-matrix naturally emerges in the theory. Phenomenological modifications are made (1) to remove the energy gap at zero momentum, and (2) to eliminate the Hartree-Fock-like terms, which dress the kinetic energy of the particle. A numerical calculation of the energy spectrum is made over a temperature range of 0.00 to 3.14 K using the Morse dipole-dipole-2 potential and the Frost-Musulin potential. The energy spectrum of the elementary excitations is calculated self-consistently. It has a phonon behavior at low momentum and a roton behavior at higher momentum, so it is in qualitative agreement with the observed energy spectrum of liquid He II. However, the temperature dependence of the spectrum is incorrectly given. At the observed density of 0.0219 atoms A-3, the depletion of the zero-momentum state at zero temperature is 40.5% for the Morse dipole-dipole-2potential, and 43.2% for the Frost- Musulin potential. The depletion increases gradually until at 3.14 K the zero momentum density becomes zero discontinuously, which indicates a transition to the ideal Bose gas.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Goble, Gerald W.

The Effect of Intervalence-Band Absorption, Auger Recombination, Surface Recombination, Diffusion and Carrier Cooling on the Picosecond Dynamics of Laser-Induced Plasmas in Germanium

Description: The picosecond optical response of germanium is investigated by performing excitation-probe experiments on a thin, intrinsic-germanium wafer maintained at 135 K. The results of three distinct experiments are reported: (1) the transmission of a single pulse is measured as a function of irradiance, (2) the probe transmission is measured at a fixed time after excitation as a function of the excitation energy, and (3) the transmission of a probe pulse is monitored as a function of time after excitation. These experiments employ 10-picosecond laser pulses at 1.06 um and Stokes-shifted pulses at 1.55-um.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Lindle, James Ryan

Electron-Ion Time-of-Flight Coincidence Measurements of K-K Electron Capture, Cross Sections for Nitrogen, Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Carbon Dioxide and Argon (L-K) Targets

Description: Protons with energies ranging from 0.4 to 2.0 MeV were used to measure K-shell vacancy production cross sections (oVK) for N_2, CH_4, C_2H_4, C_2H_6, and CO_2 gas targets under single collision conditions. An electron-ion time-of-flight coincidence technique was used to determind the ration of the K-K electron capture cross section, OECK, to the K-vacancy production cross section, oVK. These ratios were then combined with the measured values of oVK to extract the K-K electron capture cross sections. Measurements were also made for protons of the same energy range but with regard to L-shell vacancy production and L-K electron capture for Ar targets. In addition, K-K electron capture cross sections were measured for 1.0 to 2.0 Mev 42He^_ ions on CH_4.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Toten, Arvel D.

K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections of Selected Elements from Ag to La for Proton Bombardment from 0.6 to 2.0 MeV

Description: The K-shell x-ray and ionization cross sections are measured for protons on Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, and La over the ion energy range of 0.6 to 2.0 MeV. The data are compared to the predictions of the PWBA, the PWBA with corrections for binding energy and/or Coulomb deflection, the BEA, and the constrained BEA predictions. In general, the non-relativistic PWBA with binding energy correction gives the best overall agreement with the measurements of proton-induced x-ray processes for the K-shell of the elements studied in this work. The data further suggest the need for relativistic PWBA treatment of the interactions in the K-shell for the range of binding energies represented by the elements investigated in this work.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Khelil, Najat Arafat

M-Shell X-Ray Production of Gold, Lead, Bismuth, Uranium for Incident Hydrogen, Helium and Fluorine Ions

Description: Incident ¹H⁺ and ⁴He⁺ ions at 0.3-2.6 MeV and ¹⁹F^q⁺ ions at 25, 27 and 35 MeV were used to study the M-shell x-ray production cross sections of Au, Pb, Bi and U. For the incident fluorine ions, projectile charge state dependence of the cross sections were extracted from measurements made with varying target thicknesses ( ~1 to ~300 μg/cm²). The efficiency of the Si(Li) detector was determined by measuring the K-shell x-ray production of various low Z elements and comparing these values to the prediction of the CPSS theory. The experimental results are compared to the prediction of first Born approximation for direct ionization to the continuum and to the OBK of Nikolaev for the electron capture to the K-, L-, M-...shells of the incident ion. Comparison is also made with the ECPSSR theory that accounts for the energy loss, Coulomb deflection, and relativistic effects in the perturbed stationary state theory.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Mehta, Rahul

Operator Gauge Transformations in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics

Description: A system of nonrelativistic charged particles and radiation is canonically quantized in the Coulomb gauge and Maxwell's equations in quantum electrodynamics are derived. By requiring form invariance of the Schrodinger equation under a space and time dependent unitary transformation, operator gauge transformations on the quantized electromagnetic potentials and state vectors are introduced. These gauge transformed potentials have the same form as gauge transformations in non-Abelian gauge field theories. A gauge-invariant method for solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation in quantum electrodynamics is given. Maxwell's equations are written in a form which holds in all gauges and which has formal similarity to the equations of motion of non-Abelian gauge fields. A gauge-invariant derivation of conservation of energy in quantum electrodynamics is given. An operator gauge transformation is made to the multipolar gauge in which the potentials are expressed in terms of the electromagnetic fields. The multipolar Hamiltonian is shown to be the minimally coupled Hamiltonian with the electromagnetic potentials in the multipolar gauge. The model of a charged harmonic oscillator in a single-mode electromagnetic field is considered as an example. The gauge-invariant procedure for solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation is used to obtain the gauge-invariant probabilities that the oscillator is in an energy eigenstate For comparison, the conventional approach is also used to solve the harmonic oscillator problem and is shown to give gauge-dependent amplitudes.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Gray, Raymond Dale

Parametric Studies of Picosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown in Fused Quartz and NaCl

Description: Bulk laser-induced breakdown and self-focusing in single samples of fused quartz and NaCl were examined using picosecond optical pulses at 1.0 ym and 0.5 ym. The results of three separate but related experiments are reported. First the nonlinear index of refraction, n2, of each of the test materials is measured near the respective damage thresholds of the samples. The values of 1*2 were determined by detecting beam distortions in the far field, transmitted laser beam profile caused by the irradiance dependent index of refraction. The experimental traces were compared to theoretical beam profiles generated by a nonlinear propagation code and n2 was extracted from the resulting fits.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Williams, William Ely

Photon Exchange Between a Pair of Nonidentical Atoms with Two Forms of Interactions

Description: A pair of nonidentical two-level atoms, separated by a fixed distance R, interact through photon exchange. The system is described by a state vector which is assumed to be a superposition of four "essential states": (1) the first atom is excited, the second one is in the ground state, and no photon is present, (2) the first atom is in its ground state, the second one is excited, and no photon is present, (3) both atoms are in their ground states and a photon is present, and (4) both atoms are excited and a photon is also present. The system is initially in state (1). The probabilities of each atom being excited are calculated for both the minimally-coupled interaction and the multipolar interaction in the electric dipole approximation. For the minimally-coupled interaction Hamiltonian, the second atom has a probability of being instantaneously excited, so the interaction is not retarded. For the multipolar interaction Hamiltonian, the second atom is not excited before the retardation time, which agrees with special relativity. For the minimally-coupled interaction the nonphysical result occurs because the unperturbed Hamiltonian is not the energy operator in the Coulomb gauge. For the multipolar Hamiltonian in the electric dipole approximation the unperturbed Hamiltonian is the energy operator. An active view of unitary transformations in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics is used to derive transformation laws for the potentials of the electromagnetic field and the static Coulomb potential. For a specific choice of unitary transformation the transformation laws for the potentials are used in the minimally-coupled second-quantized Hamiltonian to obtain the multipolar Hamiltonian, which is expressed in terms of the quantized electric and magnetic fields.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Golshan, Shahram Mohammad-Mehdi

Picosecond Measurement of Nonlinear Diffusion and Recombination Processes in Germanium

Description: A variation of the excite-and-probe technique is used to measure the picosecond evolution of laser-induced transient gratings that are produced in germanium by the direct absorption of 40 psec optical pulses at 1.06-μm. Grating lifetimes are determined for free carrier densities between 10¹⁸ cm⁻³ and 10²¹ cm⁻³ . For carrier densities less than 10¹⁹ cm⁻³ , a linear diffusion-recombination model for the grating provides a good fit to the experimental data and allows the extraction of the diffusion coefficient and an estimation of the linear recombination lifetime. Above carrier densities of approximately 10²⁰ cm⁻³ , the density dependence of the diffusion coefficient and nonlinear recombination processes must be considered. Numerical solutions to the resulting nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained that allow extraction of information concerning the high density diffusion coefficient and the nonlinear recombination rates.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Moss, Steven Charles

Test of Gauge Invariance: Charged Harmonic Oscillator in an Electromagnetic Field

Description: The gauge-invariant formulation of quantum mechanics is compared to the conventional approach for the case of a one-dimensional charged harmonic oscillator in an electromagnetic field in the electric dipole approximation. The probability of finding the oscillator in the ground state or excited states as a function of time is calculated, and the two approaches give different results. On the basis of gauge invariance, the gauge-invariant formulation of quantum mechanics gives the correct probability, while the conventional approach is incorrect for this problem. Therefore, expansion coefficients or a wave function cannot always be interpreted as probability amplitudes. For a physical interpretation as probability amplitudes the expansion coefficients must be gauge invariant.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Wen, Chang-tai

A Theoretical Investigation of Bound Roton Pairs in Superfluid Helium-4

Description: The Bogoliubov theory of excitations in superfluid helium is used to study collective modes at zero temperature. A repulsive delta function shell potential is used in the quasiparticle excitation energy spectrum to fit the observed elementary excitation spectrum, except in the plateau region. The linearized equation of motion method is used to obtain the secular equation for a collective mode consisting of a linear combination of one and two free quasiparticles of zero total momentum. It is shown that in this case for high-lying collective modes, vertices involving three quasiparticles cancel, and only vertices involving four quasiparticles are important. A decomposition into various angular momentum states is then made. Bound roton pairs in the angular momentum D-state observed in light-scattering experiments exist only for an attractive coupling between helium atoms in this oversimplified model. Thus, the interaction between particles can be reinterpreted as a phenomenological attractive coupling between quasiparticles, in order to explain the Raman scattering from bound roton pairs in superfluid helium.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Cheng, Shih-ta

Virial Theorem for a Molecule

Description: The usual virial theorem, relating kinetic and potential energy, is extended to a molecule by the use of the true wave function. The virial theorem is also obtained for a molecule from a trial wave function which is scaled separately for electronic and nuclear coordinates.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Ranade, Manjula A.