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Accurate Energetics Across the Periodic Table Via Quantum Chemistry

Description: Greater understanding and accurate predictions of structural, thermochemical, and spectroscopic properties of chemical compounds is critical for the advancements of not only basic science, but also in applications needed for the growth and health of the U.S. economy. This dissertation includes new ab initio composite approaches to predict accurate energetics of lanthanide-containing compounds including relativistic effects, and optimization of parameters for semi-empirical methods for transition metals. Studies of properties and energetics of chemical compounds through various computational methods are also the focus of this research, including the C-O bond cleavage of dimethyl ether by transition metal ions, the study of thermochemical and structural properties of small silicon containing compounds with the Multi-Reference correlation consistent Composite Approach, the development of a composite method for heavy element systems, spectroscopic of compounds containing noble gases and metals (ArxZn and ArxAg+ where x = 1, 2), and the effects due to Basis Set Superposition Error (BSSE) on these van der Waals complexes.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Peterson, Charles Campbell

Computational Modeling of Small Molecules

Description: Computational chemistry lies at the intersection of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and computer science, and can be used to explain the behavior of atoms and molecules, as well as to augment experiment. In this work, computational chemistry methods are used to predict structural and energetic properties of small molecules, i.e. molecules with less than 60 atoms. Different aspects of computational chemistry are examined in this work. The importance of examining the converged orbitals obtained in an electronic structure calculation is explained. The ability to more completely describe the orbital space through the extrapolation of energies obtained at increasing quality of basis set is investigated with the use of the Sapporo-nZP-2012 family of basis set. The correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is utilized to compute the enthalpies of formation of a set of molecules and the accuracy is compared with the target method, CCSD(T,FC1)/aug-cc-pCV∞Z-DK. Both methodologies are able to produce computed enthalpies of formation that are typically within 1 kcal mol-1 of reliable experiment. This demonstrates that ccCA can be used instead of much more computationally intensive methods (in terms of memory, processors, and time required for a calculation) with the expectation of similar accuracy yet at a reduced computational cost. The enthalpies of formation for systems containing s-block elements have been computed using the multireference variant of ccCA (MR-ccCA), which is designed specifically for systems that require an explicit treatment of nondynamical correlation. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used for the prediction of the structural properties of a set of lanthanide trihalide molecules as well as the reaction energetics for the rearrangement of diphosphine ligands around a triosmium cluster.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Weber, Rebecca J.

Computational Studies on Group 14 Elements (C, Si and Ge) in Organometallic and Biological Compounds.

Description: A series of computational studies were carried out on Group 14 (C, Si and Ge) elements in organometallic and biological compounds. Theoretical studies on classical and H-bridged A3H3+ (A=C, Si and Ge) as p ligands with different organometallic fragments at B3LYP and B3P86 level reveal a reverse charge transfer from ligand to metal in Si and Ge complexes whereas in C complexes there is a small charge transfer from metal to ligand. The H-bridged complexes are more stable than the complexes based on Si3H3+ and Ge3H3+ ligands with terminal hydrogens. The stability of the bridged systems increases from Si to Ge. Corrective scale factors for computed harmonic CºO vibrational frequencies for 31 organometallic complexes have been determined at the HF and B3LYP levels. The scaled B3LYP frequencies exhibit a greater reliability than do HF frequencies. Experimental data have shown that Si/Ge-substituted decapeptides are advantageous over their C analog in vitro and in vivo studies in modern hormone therapy. A computational investigation was carried out on the synthesized decapeptides focusing on position 5 containing Si and Ge. The results have shown that there are some differences in C, Si and Ge-containing analogs. However, further investigations are needed to elucidate the observed advantages of Si/Ge over C analogs.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Yu, Liwen

The evaluation, development, and application of the correlation consistent basis sets.

Description: Employing correlation consistent basis sets coupled with electronic structure methods has enabled accurate predictions of chemical properties for second- and third-row main group and transition metal molecular species. For third-row (Ga-Kr) molecules, the performance of the correlation consistent basis sets (cc-pVnZ, n=D, T, Q, 5) for computing energetic (e.g., atomization energies, ionization energies, electron and proton affinities) and structural properties using the ab initio coupled cluster method including single, double, and quasiperturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] and the B3LYP density functional method was examined. The impact of relativistic corrections on these molecular properties was determined utilizing the Douglas-Kroll (cc-pVnZ-DK) and pseudopotential (cc-pVnZ-PP) forms of the correlation consistent basis sets. This work was extended to the characterization of molecular properties of novel chemically bonded krypton species, including HKrCl, FKrCF3, FKrSiF3, FKrGeF3, FKrCCF, and FKrCCKrF, and provided the first evidence of krypton bonding to germanium and the first di-krypton system. For second-row (Al-Ar) species, the construction of the core-valence correlation consistent basis sets, cc-pCVnZ was reexamined, and a revised series, cc-pCV(n+d)Z, was developed as a complement to the augmented tight-d valence series, cc-pV(n+d)Z. Benchmark calculations were performed to show the utility of these new sets for second-row species. Finally, the correlation consistent basis sets were used to study the structural and spectroscopic properties of Au(CO)Cl, providing conclusive evidence that luminescence in the solid-state can be attributed to oligomeric species rather than to the monomer.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Yockel, Scott

The Impact of Computational Methods on Transition Metal-containing Species

Description: Quantum chemistry methodologies can be used to address a wide variety of chemical problems. Key to the success of quantum chemistry methodologies, however, is the selection of suitable methodologies for specific problems of interest, which often requires significant assessment. To gauge a number of methodologies, the utility of density functionals (BLYP, B97D, TPSS, M06L, PBE0, B3LYP, M06, and TPSSh) in predicting reaction energetics was examined for model studies of C-O bond activation of methoxyethane and methanol. These species provide excellent representative examples of lignin degradation via C-O bond cleavage. PBE0, which performed better than other considered DFT functionals, was used to investigate late 3d (Fe, Co, and Ni), 4d (Ru, Rh, and Pd), and 5d (Re, Os, and Ir) transition metal atom mediated Cβ -O bond activation of the β–O–4 linkage of lignin. Additionally, the impact of the choice of DFT functionals, basis sets, implicit solvation models, and layered quantum chemical methods (i.e., ONIOM, Our Own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital and molecular Mechanics) was investigated for the prediction of pKa for a set of Ni-group metal hydrides (M = Ni, Pd, and Pt) in acetonitrile. These investigations have provided insight about the utility of a number of theoretical methods in the computation of thermodynamic properties of transition metal hydrides in solution. As single reference wavefunction methods commonly perform poorly in describing molecular systems that involve bond-breaking and forming or electronic near-degeneracies and are typically best described with computationally costly multireference wavefunction-based methods, it is imperative to a priori analyze the multireference character for molecular systems so that the proper methodology choice is applied. In this work, diagnostic criteria for assessing the multireference character of 4d transition metal-containing molecules was investigated. Four diagnostics were considered in this work, including the weight of the leading configuration of the CASSCF wavefunction, C02; T1, ...
Date: December 2015
Creator: Wang, Jiaqi

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Ligand Exchange Reactions of Chelate Complexes

Description: Certain ligand substitution reactions proceed to a complete displacement of the chelate ligand. Certain reactions proceed through a mechanism involving an initial fission of the tungsten-sulfur bond to afford a coordinatively-unsaturated intermediate which is rapidly attacked by chlorobenzene. The resulting solvated intermediate establishes an equilibrium which involves desolvation-solvation. Although main group organometallic chemistry has received a great deal of attention, this discussion will be centered in organotransition metal chemistry, in particular, metal carbonyls.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Cortés, José E. (José Enrique)

Quantum Perspectives on Physical and Inorganic Chemistry

Description: Applications of computational quantum chemistry are presented, including an analysis of the photophysics of cyclic trinuclear coinage metal pyrazolates, an investigation into a potential catalytic cycle utilizing transition metal scorpionates to activate arene C-H bonds, and a presentation of the benchmarking of a new composite model chemistry (the correlation consistent composite approach, ccCA) for the prediction of classical barrier heights. Modeling the pyrazolate photophysics indicates a significant geometric distortion upon excitation and the impact of both metal identity and substituents on the pyrazolates, pointing to ways in which these systems may be used to produce rationally-tuned phosphors. Similarly, thermodynamic and structural investigations into the catalyst system points to promising candidates for clean catalytic activation of arenes. The ccCA was found to reproduce classical reaction barriers with chemical accuracy, outperforming all DFT, ab initio, and composite methods benchmarked.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Grimes-Marchan, Thomas V.

Systematic Approaches to Predictive Computational Chemistry using the Correlation Consistent Basis Sets

Description: The development of the correlation consistent basis sets, cc-pVnZ (where n = D, T, Q, etc.) have allowed for the systematic elucidation of the intrinsic accuracy of ab initio quantum chemical methods. In density functional theory (DFT), where the cc-pVnZ basis sets are not necessarily optimal in their current form, the elucidation of the intrinsic accuracy of DFT methods cannot always be accomplished. This dissertation outlines investigations into the basis set requirements for DFT and how the intrinsic accuracy of DFT methods may be determined with a prescription involving recontraction of the cc-pVnZ basis sets for specific density functionals. Next, the development and benchmarks of a set of cc-pVnZ basis sets designed for the s-block atoms lithium, beryllium, sodium, and magnesium are presented. Computed atomic and molecular properties agree well with reliable experimental data, demonstrating the accuracy of these new s-block basis sets. In addition to the development of cc-pVnZ basis sets, the development of a new, efficient formulism of the correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) using the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation is employed. The new formulism, denoted 'RI-ccCA,' has marked efficiency in terms of computational time and storage, compared with the ccCA formulism, without the introduction of significant error. Finally, this dissertation reports three separate investigations of the properties of FOOF-like, germanium arsenide, and silicon hydride/halide molecules using high accuracy ab initio methods and the cc-pVnZ basis sets.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Prascher, Brian P.