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A Case Study of Interpersonal Influences in a Band Music Setting: Bohumil Makovsky (1878-1950) and His Association with Selected Individuals Involved in Instrumental Music in the State of Oklahoma

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interpersonal influences which Bohumil Makovsky, Director of Bands and Chairman of the Music Department at Oklahoma A&M College from 1915 to 1943, had on his students and peers, as confirmed through the perceptions of selected individuals, and to determine what personal characteristics and means he drew upon to induce changes in his students and peers.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Dugger, Richard Charles

Theoretical Constructs of Jazz Improvisation Performance

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop and test systematically a theoretical model that delineated the constructs and subsumed variables of jazz improvisation performance. The specific research questions were; what specific performance variables are related to single line jazz solo improvisation performance? and; what is the most cogent groupings of variables into underlying constructs which characterize single line jazz solo improvisation performances for all performers, student performers, and professional performers?
Date: December 1991
Creator: Tumlinson, Charles D. (Charles David)

"Wiggles and Volcanos": an Investigation of Children's Graphing Responses to Music

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in selected children's Graphing Response Patterns to elemental changes in compositions in theme and variation form. The research problems were (1) to determine points and degrees of elemental change in the compositional structure of the musical examples; (2) to determine number, degree, and nature of changes in subjects' graphing response pattern to aurally presented musical examples; (3) to determine percentages of agreement between changes in graphing response patterns and points of elemental change within the compositional structures; (4) to determine the relationship of changes in subjects' graphing response pattern to the quality and magnitude of elemental change within the compositional structure. Twenty second- and fourth-grade children were individually videotaped as they listened to and graphed a series of aurally-presented musical examples. Each musical example was analysed according to such parameters as timbre, range/interval size, texture, tempo/meter, attack/rhythmic density, key/mode, dynamic level, and melodic presentation. Change in each parameter was scored using an interval scale reflecting change/no change and degree of change. Changes in graphing response pattern were determined by an interval scale which reflected the presence of change/no change and amount of change, using as analytical units speed, size, shape, type, and pause. The following conclusions were made: findings showed an observable, quantifiable relationship between changes in children's graphing response patterns and elemental changes in music parameters. This relationship encompassed not only change/no change judgements but also magnitude of response. Overall, frequency and magnitude/degree of student response was proportionate to the frequency and magnitude of change in the music parameter/s. Results indicated the existence of high-ranking correlations between student response and certain parameters regardless of the degree-of-change/points-of-change ratio. Findings showed that one degree of change in a single music parameter was not sufficient to cause an observable change in the attention ...
Date: May 1993
Creator: Lehmann, Sharon Fincher

Music Performance Program Enrollment and Course Availability for Educationally Disadvantaged versus Non-Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to measure music performance program enrollments and course availability for educationally disadvantaged and non-educationally disadvantaged groups (grades 9-12) in Texas, and to further examine relationships which could help music educators understand the role which music performance programs play in the lives of educationally disadvantaged students. Data analyzed were collected by Texas' Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS). Educationally disadvantaged groups under consideration included economically disadvantaged, at risk (as defined by Texas Education Agency guidelines), limited English proficient, as well as Black and Hispanic students. Separate analyses were conducted for band, choir, and orchestra. Subjects included 907,327 students from 1,048 school districts.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Nabb, David B.

An Investigation into the Stability of Students' Timbre Preferences from the Sixth through the Tenth Grade

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students' timbre preferences in the sixth grade remain stable through the tenth grade. The investigation also examined whether gender, band instruction, or musical home environment makes any difference in influencing the stability of students' timbre preferences from grade six through ten. Students' timbre preferences at the beginning of the study were compared to their preferences four years later. The students' timbre preferences were obtained by employing Gordon's Instrument Timbre Preference Test (ITPT). A questionnaire was also utilized at the conclusion of the study to determine which students had musical home environments and which did not. All sixth grade students enrolled in a single school district took the ITPT. Each student's scores were tallied and ranked in order to determine their timbre preferences; four years later they were retested and their scores were ranked again.
Date: May 1995
Creator: May, Brack M. (Brack Miles)

The Professional Socialization of Arkansas Music Teachers as Musicians and Educators : The Role of Influential Persons from Childhood to Post-college Years

Description: The purpose was to investigate the role of influential persons in the professional socialization process of music educators as musicians and teachers. The problems were to determine: who encouraged subjects toward music and teaching during pre-college, college, and post-college years; and the interrerationships of gender and teaching specialty with influential persons in subjects' lives.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Cox, Patricia Huff

The Kinetic Structures of Metric Temporal Patterns in Selected Beginning Piano Method Series

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic structures or reinforcement schedules of metric temporal patterns (metric combination of note values within a measure) in five best-selling beginning piano method series. Based upon a survey mailed to 98 music dealers, the five best-selling beginning piano method series in 1992 and 1993 were identified as: the Alfred Basic Piano Library, Bastien Piano Basics, David Carr Glover Piano Library, John. W. Schaum Piano Course, and John Thompson Modern Course for Piano. A coding system was developed for identifying the numerical appearances and occurrences of various metric temporal patterns per learning piece within each method series. Several computer programs were written to compute the kinetic structures, scope, and pacing of metric temporal patterns for each method series. The derived data were then compared to delineate relationships between the three analytical variables.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Chan, Alton

A Nationwide Investigation of High School Band Directors' Reasons for Participating in Music Competitions

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess on a national level, high school band directors' reasons for their bands' participation in six different types of competitive music activities, identify important reasons for participation in competitive music activities, and examine if statistically significant differences existed between the magnitudes of importance reasons for participation when subjects' responses were grouped by type of competitive activity, frequency of participation in a competitive activity, and by groupings of U. S. states similar in terms of general participation in competitive music activities, emphasis upon ratings or rankings as an indication of a high school band directors' success, and emphasis upon participation in competitive music activities.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Hurst, Craig Willmore

An Investigation of Selected Muscle Potential Activity in Violin/Viola Vibrato

Description: The purpose was to investigate muscle potential during the vibrato motion for successful, healthy violin/viola performers. Electromyography was used to analyze parameters of muscle potentials during performance of a standardized exercise. These parameters were (a) evidence of potentials, (b) patterns of potentials, and (c) timing relationships (24 muscles). This study also sought to replicate and expand performance data from previous studies. Procedures from three pilot studies were used to standardize collection of EMG data. Synchronized video recordings were used to determine vibrato speed and conduct motion analysis. EMG data processing prior to analysis included power spectrum analysis and rectification, low-pass filtering, and smoothing data. Motion analysis findings (£D) were 1.09 for the elbow joints and 3.25 for the wrist joints. which was an indication of range of motion, suggested much greater activity in muscles controlling wrist movement than those moving the elbow. The degree of muscle potential and control were generally related to distance from the vibrating hand. Forearm muscle groups (8) demonstrated the greatest evidence of potential (76.5%) and were 18.1% non-periodic. Muscles of the upper arm (7) were off 59.4% and 57.0% non-periodic. Upper arm muscles had greater individual differences. Muscles of the chest and back (9) were collectively inactive (89.1%) and non-periodic (73.3%). With timing relationships, the forearm muscles demonstrated consistent firing patterns. Inconsistent firing patterns were evident in the upper arm, and to a greater degree in the chest and back muscles. Based on evaluations of performer motion and muscle potentials, it was strongly implied that there are (a) distinct roles for various muscles during vibrato (control vs. stabilization/support), (b) significant differences in potential between variables of rest, playing position, and performing, (c) significant differences in potential between some fingers, and (d) no significant differences between violinists and violists. The vibrato motion appeared to be controlled ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Weber, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)

An Attitude Assessment of Amateur Musicians in Adult Community Bands

Description: The purpose of this study was to ascertain certain factors which lead adults to participate in community band activity. This study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors of rewards for community band participants based on the responses of a selected sample to validated attitude statements? 2. What are the relationships that might exist between certain demographic characteristics of the sample such as age, gender, education, occupation, musical training, geographic region (independent variables) and factors of participation (dependent variables) determined by principal components analysis? 3. What are the relationships that might exist between the findings of this study using member generated attitude statements and the findings of other attitude studies using researcher generated attitude statements? A 179-item survey was developed from an initital pool of 839 attitude statements after two pilot studies and an expert review. A randomly selected, stratified cluster sample of 74 organizational members of the Association of Concert Bands participated in the study. The average number of band members present during the survey process was 35. The average number of surveys returned per band was 23.66 for a return rate of 65.9% One thousand seven hundred twenty five individuals participated in the study. Frequency distributions of responses revealed the 36-50 age group to be the most represented (33%) followed closely by the 51-65 age group (27.8%). Males outnumbered females (57.5% to 42.3%). Over 80% of respondents were married. Almost 75% of respondents were college graduates. Over 60% had performed in college ensembles. Over half (55.4%) of respondents were either employed in the professional trades or white collar occupations. Almost 10% considered themselves professional musicians. Principal components analysis of the 179 items yielded six main factors of participation which were labeled Intrinsic Motivators, Organizational Motivators, Membership Standards, Repertoire/Conductor, Rehearsals/Performances, and Quality. Further analysis of ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Spencer, William David, 1952-

Student Interpretations of Teacher Verbal Praise in Selected Seventh and Eighth Grade Choral Classes

Description: This study investigated the effect familiarity with a teacher had on student interpretations of teacher verbal praise in seventh and eighth grade choral ensembles. A stimulus tape was constructed of 16, 30-second videotaped clips containing verbal praise of four teachers. Teachers identified their intent in the use of praise in each example. Students (n = 80) from the four choirs responded to the tape by labeling the praise in each clip as deserved or as one of three types of instructional praise (i.e., praise to encourage, to send a message to other students, or to seek student cooperation). Comparisons were made between choirs in labeling the praise. Comparisons were made also between each teacher's stated purpose in praising and the interpretations of choirs familiar and unfamiliar with the teacher. Choirs who were unfamiliar with the teacher differed from the teachers' own students in interpreting the praise: Students who knew a teacher labeled the praise as deserved in five clips, but unfamiliar choirs thought the praise served an instructional purpose. In four clips, choirs differed in their interpretations of the type of instructional praise. Students familiar with a teacher recognized their teacher's intent in praising in 12 of 16 clips. In some situations, familiarity with a teacher and context made a difference in detecting the teacher's purpose for praising. In five clips where teachers identified the praise as deserved, students unfamiliar with the teacher and context thought the praise was intended to encourage students. Students across choirs were particularly sensitive to a teacher's use of praise to send a message to other students. Students are keen observers of teacher praise. Findings suggest students discriminate between praise directed at the performance and praise used for instructional purposes, suggesting that observation instruments that rely on a single label for praise might miss important ...
Date: December 1995
Creator: Taylor, Ouida O. (Ouida Oswalt)

An Examination of the Presence of Schön's Concept of "Reflective Conversation" as a Defining Component in the Applied Studio Music Lesson

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of Schön's concept of reflective conversation as a defining component in the applied studio music lesson. The research problems were (1) to determine the presence of complete and incomplete reflective conversations; (2) to determine the verbally exhibited knowledge base within complete conversations in relationship to conversation length; and (3) to establish an instructional profile of stable behaviors based on reflective conversation as a distinguishing characteristic among selected teachers. Videotapes of twenty-six applied studio music lessons of thirteen university teachers were analyzed according to problem solving, on-the-spot experimentation, and evaluation. An observation form was developed and was a reliable tool to collect information concerning number and type of reflective conversations, conversation length, and the teachers' verbally demonstrated knowledge base. Knowledge base was obtained by using the procedural model of Flanagan's critical incident technique. Reflective conversations existed and were a distinguishing characteristic of the teachers. With the exception of two teachers, a stable use of both number and length of reflective conversations, and knowledge base areas, was found. A discernible difference in the teachers' knowledge base within conversation length existed, and thus established instructional profiles for the teachers. Complete reflective conversations ranged from one-sixth to over half of total lesson time. Within instrument categories, teachers generally revealed a dissimilar knowledge usage. Some teachers exhibited fast-paced problem solving, in one minute or less, and named one or two knowledge areas. Others had longer conversations, up to five minutes, with more deliberate problem solving, and as many as twelve knowledge areas named. Results indicated that a practically significant situation can be examined by establishing teacher instructional profiles based upon reflective conversation. Methods employed in this study could be used to document teacher problem-solving and teacher knowledge in a variety of settings.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Murphy, Vanissa B. (Vanissa Braswell)

Dialogic Interactionism: the Construction of Self in the Secondary Choral Classroom.

Description: Examined in this hermeneutic phenomenological study is a transformation in the researcher's choral music teaching in which students' abilities to construct self emerged organically from interactions, or dialogues, that took place among and between the students, the teacher, and the music being studied. To allow for such interaction to emerge organically and meaningfully, students and teacher both shared in the power needed to construct a classroom environment in which the localized issues of the classroom and the specific contexts of students' lived histories were maintained and encouraged. This process of interaction, based upon dialogue among and between equal agents in the classroom, is described in the study as dialogic interactionism. In order to examine the concept of dialogic interactionism, three constructs upon which dialogic interactionism is based were developed and philosophically analyzed. They include the construction of self through the construction of self-knowledge; the localized reference system of the classroom, and the issue of power. Each construct is considered within the context of extant writings both in general education and music education philosophy. Following the analysis, a theoretical description of the dialogic interactive choral classroom is given as well a description of how such ideas might be realized in practice. The study concludes with issues for further study.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Younse, Stuart

The Effect of Individual Versus Collective Creative Problem Solving Experiences on Fourth- and Fifth-grade Students' Compositional Products.

Description: The purpose of the study was to explore the effects that individual vs. collective structured creative musical problem solving tasks had on students' compositional products. Subjects in a convenience sample of 32 fourth-graders and 32 fifth-graders were randomly assigned to either the individual or collective condition. The 3 treatment sessions were characterized by an open-ended creative problem solving task, which included questions intended to guide subjects through 3 stages of the creative problem solving process: Understanding the Problem, Generating Ideas, and Planning for Action. Subjects participated in the pre- and posttest individually. Three experienced music educators assessed the compositional products in terms of pattern use, cohesiveness, and creativity. The originally intended MANCOVAs could not be carried out because the data did not meet the necessary assumptions. Pretest and posttest scores were explored with individual ANOVAs. The Bonferroni technique was used to adjust the alpha level. The statistical analyses showed that subjects exposed to the individual condition obtained higher scores than subjects exposed to the collective condition on six of the eight explored subtests, but these differences were not significant. The level of interjudge reliability decreased at each of the three measurements of the study: pilot test, pretest, and posttest. The study's results suggest that music educators interested in observing specific characteristics of individual students' compositional products, such as the levels of cohesiveness, creativity, and pattern use, could do so regardless of the condition under which students were exposed to compositional tasks, either individually or collectively. Recommendations for future research include the use of a measurement instrument specifically designed for open-ended tasks, and the exploration of the current study's measurement instrument with closed-ended tasks. The study highlights the need for appropriate measurement instruments designed for the compositional tasks at hand, and the need for research results reported clearly, so that more ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Aguilar, Beatriz E.

The Effect of Ethnicity on the Age-of-onset of the Male Voice Change.

Description: The purposes of this study were to describe the characteristics of the changing male voice in 4th, 5th and 6th grade students using Cooksey's maturation stages and, to compare the age-of-onset of the male voice change in African American, White, and Hispanic male students. Participants included volunteer 4th (n = 61), 5th (n = 73), and 6th grade male students (n = 63) from 2 urban elementary schools, 5 suburban elementary schools, 1 suburban middle school and 1 urban middle school in the North Texas region. The three ethnic groups represented in this study were: African American (n = 62), White (n = 58), and Hispanic (n = 77). Results indicated that approximately 46% of 4th grade participants, 62% of 5th grade participants, and 67% of 6th grade participants were classified as changing voices. A descriptively larger percentage of African American participants were classified as changing voices than Hispanic and White participants. Also, a larger percentage of African American and Hispanic participants were descriptively classified in the more advanced stages of the voice change than White participants. Urban African American, White, and Hispanic participants had a larger percentage of males classified as changing voices than suburban African American, White, and Hispanic participants. Results of a one-way, between subjects ANOVA revealed no significant main effect for ethnicity, F (2, 51) = .42, p = .66, η2 = .02. The overall mean age-of-onset for participants in this study was approximately 11.20 years of age.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Fisher, Ryan Austin

A Study of Intensity Control in Males with Developing Voices: Implications for Pitch Range and Tessitura

Description: Research on voice change in males has generally fallen into two categories: music education studies of changes in the singing voice and speech studies of changes in the speaking voice. These studies rarely consider differences in the dynamic ability of male singers at different stages of vocal development. The concept of tessitura, a portion of the vocal range in which the singer sounds best, is referred to in the literature on vocal music, but the means for identifying its size and location within the range have not been consistently specified. Tessitura appears to be a portion of the range which is most controllable in terms of dynamics and agility and is optimal in tonal quality. This study used the phonetograph to investigate differences in measures of intensity control between pre-pubertal, pubertal (changing) and post-pubertal voices in 48 males aged 9 to 18 years old. These intensity measures were compared to ratings of vocal effort from a panel of 4 music educators in order to determine if tessitura could be identified from acoustic and perceptual evidence of an optimum vocal area. Results of the study were: 1) post-pubertal voices demonstrated greater control of vocal intensity as revealed in lower mean minimum and comfortable intensity measures, higher overall maximum intensity measures and a larger minimum-to-maximum intensity range; 2) intensity measures for pubertal voices were similar to those observed in pre-pubertal voices, contrary to trends suggested in the literature on voice change; 3) the Greatest Dynamic Range (GDR) on the phonetograph, indicating the range in which singers had the most dynamic control, was smaller than the range in which the singers were judged to sound best; 4) tessitura originated in the lower portion of the vocal range, around the location of mean speaking fundamental frequency. Although registers were not specifically investigated, tessitura appeared ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Harris, Lee Davis

The Effects of Amplification and Selected Vocal Exercises on the Perceived Vocal Health of Elementary Music Educators.

Description: The main purpose of this study was to consider the effects of amplification and vocal function exercises on the perceived vocal health of elementary music educators (N = 37) from Oklahoma (n = 11) and Texas (n = 26). Participants were assigned to the use of the ChatterVoxTM amplifier or vocal function exercises based on pretest scores on the Voice Handicap Index with Music Teacher Voice Questionnaire (VHI/MVQ). Following the 4-week study period, participants completed the posttest VHI/MVQ. The results of a one-way ANCOVA that used treatment group as the independent variable, the summed posttest scores as the dependent variable, and the summed pretest scores as the covariate or control variable indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the adjusted means for the posttest scores, favoring the exercises group. The overall group and both treatment groups reported frequent loud voice use in work settings and in public places. The overall group and the amplification group reported hoarseness after prolonged talking. The exercises group did not report as great a problem with hoarseness after prolonged talking. Secondary purposes addressed demographic variables. Women perceived greater overall vocal difficulties than men; men frequently reported specific vocal complaints that were not commonly indicated by women. The vocal problems of women may have been associated with loud voice use. The following common vocal complaints of men may have been related to the use of falsetto while teaching: need for vocal rest, worse voices in the evening, dry throats, loss of voice, obvious pitch breaks in their singing voices, pain after singing for an extended time, and limited use of their high range. VHI/MVQ scores indicated that the study participants with 21 to 39 years of teaching experience had more vocal difficulties than other participants and indicated limited use of the low range of ...
Date: May 2008
Creator: Vincent, Lynette Susanne

The Effects of Practice Procedure and Task Difficulty on Tonal Pattern Accuracy.

Description: The study investigated the relative effectiveness of different proportions of time spent on physical and mental practice, in the context of a music performance of a tonal pattern over harmonic progressions of two difficulty levels. Using a sampling without replacement procedure, sixty undergraduate students were assigned to four practice groups partially blocked for musical instrument. The groups included a physical practice group, a mental practice group and two combined mental and physical practice groups in the proportions of (a) 66% physical and 33% mental, and (b) 33% physical and 66% mental. Each subject performed a pretest, a 3 minute practice session, and a posttest on both harmonic progressions. Presentation of the harmonic progressions were counterbalanced to control for practice effects All pre- and posttests were recorded and scored according to number of note errors. An ANCOVA procedure using pretest scores as covariates revealed that: (a) there were no differences between the different practice groups on the measure of note errors, (b) there was a significant difference between the two harmonic progressions on the measure of note errors, such that performance on the easy progression was significantly better than performance on the hard progression, and (c) there was a significant interaction between harmonic difficulty level and the practice groups. Post hoc comparisons between the adjusted means of the practice groups on the two tasks revealed that for the mental and the 33:66 combined practice groups, groups consisting of a higher percentage of mental practice, performance on the easy harmonic progression was significantly better than on the hard harmonic progression. However for the physical and the 66:33 combined practice groups, groups consisting of a higher percentage of physical practice, performance on both harmonic progressions was not significantly different and was as good as the performance of all practice groups on the easy ...
Date: May 2003
Creator: Cahn, Dan

"Making the Change": Middle School Band Students' Perspectives on the Learning of Musical-Technical Skills in Jazz Performance

Description: Students' perspectives in jazz education have gone largely ignored. A modified analytic inductive design allowed me to look broadly at the students' jazz band experience while specifically investigating their views about playing individualized parts, improvising, and interpreting and articulating swing rhythms. A focus group procedure was altered (Krueger, 1995) and incorporated into my teaching of 19 students. Two 30 minute sessions per week over a 12 week period were video- and audiotaped. Audiotaped exit interviews provided data in a non-social environment. All data were transcribed and coded in order to identify major themes and trends. Conclusions were verified through member checks, several types of triangulation and other qualitative analysis techniques. Trustworthiness was determined through an audit. Cognitively and physically, students had to accommodate musical techniques as these differed from those used in concert band. Some students were confused by the new seating arrangement and the playing of individualized parts. While some students could perform distinctly different swing and straight interpretations of the same song without external cues, others could only perform this task with external cues. Some changes in articulation were well within the students' capabilities while other techniques were more difficult to accommodate. Several students felt 'uptight' while they improvised alone in front of their peers, noting group improvisation and rhythmic embellishment of familiar tunes as being helpful in assuaging these feelings. Students recognized the environmental differences between concert band and jazz band, and reported more freedom of expression in jazz band. Particularly enjoying this freedom, the more willing improvisors banded together as a clique. The students' learning was viewed as being situated in the context of jazz band. 'Musical perturbation' and cognitive apprenticeship described students' physical and cognitive accommodation of the new context. The instructional strategies students found to be most helpful were student-centered and derived from cognitive ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Leavell, Brian K.

The Characteristics of Teacher-Directed Modeling Evidenced in the Practices of Three Experienced High School Choral Directors.

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of teacher directed modeling evidenced in the practices of three experienced high school choral directors. Research questions were: 1. What modeling activities were exhibited in each teacher's rehearsals? 2. When viewing a 45-minute composite tape of each teacher's instructional activities representative of all rehearsals, what instructional behaviors did each choral director recognize and identify as modeling? 3. What instructional episodes on the composite tape not identified by the teachers contained elements of modeling? 4. What other episodes from the remainder of each choral director's rehearsal practice contributed to an understanding of modeling? Videotapes of three high school choral directors were recorded over the course of one semester. Excerpts from rehearsals were combined to form a 45-minute composite tape of each choral director. A text transcription was made of the composite tape. Participant directors viewed their tape and identified instructional episodes that they recognized as examples of modeling. Identifications were analyzed, and descriptive categories of modeling behaviors were established. Modeling was found to be a teacher generated or delegated act of demonstration. Demonstrations were musical or non-musical and belonging to either of three distinct categories: audible, visible, or process modeling. Subdivisions of each category were found further describing modeling in the high school choral rehearsal. In addition, types of modeling were noted in increasing cognitive complexity required on the part of students beginning with simple imitation and concluding with models as tools for musical problem solving. Research is recommended on a larger sample of participants, including junior high/middle school directors to confirm categories and levels and to develop an observation tool based on results for describing, assessing, and modifying instructional techniques of practicing and pre-service music educators.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Grimland, Fredna H.

The Centralized Higher Education System in Turkey and the National Music Teacher Training Program Since 1998: An Analysis.

Description: The purpose was to analyze Turkey's current music teacher training curriculum as situated in the centralized educational system, focusing on the extent to which the written document (1) reflects the core elements of the overall centralized educational system; (2) prescribes the nature of teaching materials and methods, assessment tools and other forms of evaluating and monitoring performance as teachers and musicians; and (3) acknowledges cultural diversity by addressing repertoire, musical activities and concepts according to geographic and cultural regions. Qualitative-descriptive and quantitative content analysis, including the methods of (a) Inverse document frequency and (b) relevance feedback model, were the analytic tools. Of the required 147 credit hours, 138 are the core. The music core consists of 87 (63%) and the non-music core of 51 credit hours (37%). On paper, there is a conceptual overlap in wording between the music core, the general core, and the teacher training core, suggesting curricular cohesion and consistency. Noticeably less cohesion exists between the document and three major policy papers on teacher competencies. By word count, preparing teachers for instruction in Turkish folk music and multicultural issues appears to hold a low priority in the curriculum. However, course descriptions, where they exist, speak to skills and knowledge linked to performing and understanding Turkish folk and art music, not Western art music alone. Missing from those descriptions is any reference to teaching materials and methods, specific assessment tools, and other forms of evaluating and monitoring students. With reference to works by Max Weber, Karl Mannheim, and Robert Merton, the study concludes with a discussion about issues and problems inherent in a centralized teacher program that seeks to prepare music teachers for a culturally diverse society.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Karakelle, Sibel

The Benefits of Adult Piano Study as Self-Reported by Selected Adult Piano Students.

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits that selected adult piano students reported receiving from their study. Adult piano students (N = 711) from 24 states representing all geographic regions of the U.S. each completed a questionnaire containing 31 individual benefit items. These benefits were organized into 3 categories: Personal, Skill, and Social/Cultural. The demographic characteristics of the study population were consistent with the findings of other adult music research. Students indicated the existence (yes or no) of each benefit and rated the importance of existing benefits on a scale of 1-10. The category of Skill Benefits was the most agreed upon and highest rated category in the study, with over 90% agreement for each of the 7 Skill Benefits. The 14 Personal Benefits were also rated highly, particularly benefits related to self-actualization and fun. Self-related Personal Benefits were rated moderately, while more introverted Personal Benefits such as Imagination/Creativity, Spirituality, and Aesthetic Appreciation were lower rated benefits. The 10 Social/Cultural benefits were the lowest rated and least important benefits in the study. The most agreed upon benefits were Skill Improvement, Musical Knowledge, Musicianship, Accomplishment, Skill Refinement, Technique, Play/Fun, Escape from Routine, and Music Listening. The highest rated benefits in terms of importance were Dream Fulfilled, Technique, Accomplishment, Escape from Routine, Skill Improvement, Musicianship, Musical Knowledge, Play/Fun, Skill Refinement, and Personal Growth.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Jutras, Peter J.