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Functional Theory for Applied Music Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to prepare music theory textbook-workbooks for students of elementary school grades four through eight who are taking private music lessons in voice, piano, or other instruments. The study was prompted by the action taken first by Texas Music Teachers Association and later by Music Teachers National Association which made the passing of comprehensive music theory examinations a prerequisite for entering all student performance and contest events sponsored by these associations.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Flinn, Lois Clark

A status and vision investigation of US university piano pedagogy programs.

Description: The two major research questions were: “What is the current status of 20 prominent piano pedagogy programs?” and “what is the vision of an ideal future piano pedagogy program from the perspective of 20 piano pedagogy leaders?” Subjects were the leaders of the top 20 US university piano pedagogy programs. A survey study with interview questions was used as the instrument for the study. The results showed that faculty, curriculum, and teacher training were three top factors that contributed to the quality of the programs. Most interviewed subjects held a doctoral degree in music. The curricular content and degree options were diverse across the selected programs. The content of teacher training included private and group teaching. The perceived best qualifications of a piano pedagogy instructor were to have a balanced education. Most programs had small or little to no budget, however, the preparatory program was perceived to be an enhancement to teacher training program finances. The greatest challenges were faculty acquisition and financial limitations. Gaining more money was the most common improvement priority for programs. To envision an ideal future piano pedagogy program, most leaders stated that an ideal program should contain encourage: (1) collaborating with other divisions' faculty members for developing a diverse curriculum, (2) providing multiple types of teacher training, (3) offering knowledge that is highly pertinent to students' future careers, (4) continually adjusting topics in the curriculum, and (5) utilizing all the possible resources to establish up-to-date facilities. The chief obstacle was a lack of money. However, finding a major donor, and developing a preparatory program to generate money may help to overcome the obstacles. Having administrators with positive attitudes toward pedagogy could help programs to gain more resources. Encouraging students to participate in workshops and conferences could enrich the training. Several recommendations may help emerging pedagogy ...
Date: May 2007
Creator: Fu, Hui-Ju Camille

The Texas Music Educators Association: A Historical Study of Selected Landmark Events Between 1938 and 1980 and the Decisions Which Influenced Their Outcomes

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate selected landmark events in the historical development of the Texas Music Educators Association, 1938-1980, and the decisions which influenced their outcomes. A polling of twenty former presidents of TMEA selected the following landmark events that helped to shape the history of TMEA: (1) the change from a band organization to a music educators organization in 1938, (2) the University Interscholastic League takeover of contests in 1947, and (3) TMEA's separation from the Music Educators National Conference in 1976. In addition to developing a historical chronology from documentary sources, in-depth interviews were conducted with actual participants in these landmark events. The interviews utilized comparable questions, in order to identify decision-making patterns, while also capturing the atmosphere and visceral context of TMEA history. Literature from the social science disciplines on organizational decision—making was explored for help in understanding what happened, how, and why. In all three events the final decision was strongly influenced by factors external to the TMEA. The strong power position held by school administrators was evident in both the first and second events, while reinforcement from actively lobbying choral directors was also a factor in the first event only. The strong ultimatum from MENC, backed by their unchallenged charter authority, was a key factor in the third event. Still, TMEA continued to grow, and avoided debilitating organizational trauma. TMEA leaders often demonstrated a capacity to react quickly to sudden changes in the organizational environment, turning potential liabilities into assets. The TMEA was found to be an organization greatly dependent on the decisions of others, but strongly independent and self-sufficient in spirit. This independence has both negative and positive potential. It can become an unnatural barrier between Texas music educators and the MENC, or it can fuel the drive for professional excellence ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Grant, Daniel Ross, 1955-

The Characteristics of Teacher-Directed Modeling Evidenced in the Practices of Three Experienced High School Choral Directors.

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of teacher directed modeling evidenced in the practices of three experienced high school choral directors. Research questions were: 1. What modeling activities were exhibited in each teacher's rehearsals? 2. When viewing a 45-minute composite tape of each teacher's instructional activities representative of all rehearsals, what instructional behaviors did each choral director recognize and identify as modeling? 3. What instructional episodes on the composite tape not identified by the teachers contained elements of modeling? 4. What other episodes from the remainder of each choral director's rehearsal practice contributed to an understanding of modeling? Videotapes of three high school choral directors were recorded over the course of one semester. Excerpts from rehearsals were combined to form a 45-minute composite tape of each choral director. A text transcription was made of the composite tape. Participant directors viewed their tape and identified instructional episodes that they recognized as examples of modeling. Identifications were analyzed, and descriptive categories of modeling behaviors were established. Modeling was found to be a teacher generated or delegated act of demonstration. Demonstrations were musical or non-musical and belonging to either of three distinct categories: audible, visible, or process modeling. Subdivisions of each category were found further describing modeling in the high school choral rehearsal. In addition, types of modeling were noted in increasing cognitive complexity required on the part of students beginning with simple imitation and concluding with models as tools for musical problem solving. Research is recommended on a larger sample of participants, including junior high/middle school directors to confirm categories and levels and to develop an observation tool based on results for describing, assessing, and modifying instructional techniques of practicing and pre-service music educators.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Grimland, Fredna H.

A Recommended Curriculum for Teaching Score Study in the Undergraduate Instrumental Conducting Class

Description: The purpose of this study was to create and gain consensus of an essential curriculum for teaching score study in the undergraduate instrumental conducting class. Questions to be answered by this study were what methods, materials, and evaluations should be used to teach score study to undergraduate instrumental conducting students? Resolving the questions required the collection of information on the methods, materials, and evaluations used in teaching score preparation in the undergraduate instrumental conducting class and the opinions of conductors and teachers of conducting about those methods, materials, and evaluations.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Hamilton, Craig V.

A Study of Intensity Control in Males with Developing Voices: Implications for Pitch Range and Tessitura

Description: Research on voice change in males has generally fallen into two categories: music education studies of changes in the singing voice and speech studies of changes in the speaking voice. These studies rarely consider differences in the dynamic ability of male singers at different stages of vocal development. The concept of tessitura, a portion of the vocal range in which the singer sounds best, is referred to in the literature on vocal music, but the means for identifying its size and location within the range have not been consistently specified. Tessitura appears to be a portion of the range which is most controllable in terms of dynamics and agility and is optimal in tonal quality. This study used the phonetograph to investigate differences in measures of intensity control between pre-pubertal, pubertal (changing) and post-pubertal voices in 48 males aged 9 to 18 years old. These intensity measures were compared to ratings of vocal effort from a panel of 4 music educators in order to determine if tessitura could be identified from acoustic and perceptual evidence of an optimum vocal area. Results of the study were: 1) post-pubertal voices demonstrated greater control of vocal intensity as revealed in lower mean minimum and comfortable intensity measures, higher overall maximum intensity measures and a larger minimum-to-maximum intensity range; 2) intensity measures for pubertal voices were similar to those observed in pre-pubertal voices, contrary to trends suggested in the literature on voice change; 3) the Greatest Dynamic Range (GDR) on the phonetograph, indicating the range in which singers had the most dynamic control, was smaller than the range in which the singers were judged to sound best; 4) tessitura originated in the lower portion of the vocal range, around the location of mean speaking fundamental frequency. Although registers were not specifically investigated, tessitura appeared ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Harris, Lee Davis

The Effect of Three Compositional Structures on the Compositional and Instructional Self-efficacy of Pre-service Music Teachers

Description: The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to compare the effects of three different composition tasks with varying degrees of structure on pre-service music teachers’ creative self-efficacy as composers and their instructional self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition; and 2) to describe through pre-service music teachers’ talk perceptions of composition and their experiences completing the three composition tasks. Participants (N = 29) were music education majors from three different sized universities in the northern-central region of the United States. At the beginning of the study, the participants answered a researcher-design self-efficacy questionnaire that measured (a) their self-efficacy as composers and (b) their self-efficacy as teachers of composition. Next, they composed three compositions of various task structures (unstructured, poem, and rhythm). Immediately after completing each task they again completed the self-efficacy questionnaire. Statistically significant mean differences between the pre-task administration of the measuring instrument and all three composition tasks were found for the pre-service teachers’ compositional self-efficacy. Statistically significant mean differences were also found between the unstructured task and the rhythm task, but not between the rhythm and poem tasks or the unstructured and poem tasks. For the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition question, the results were also statistically significant between the pre-task administration of the measuring instrument and all three composition tasks. Statistically significant mean differences were also found between the unstructured task and the rhythm task as well as the poem and rhythm tasks, but not between the unstructured and poem tasks. Additional data were gathered through semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Through their talk the pre-service music teachers commented that they enjoyed the overall composition process. This experience also seemed to challenge the participants’ assumptions about composition and appeared to make creative experiences more tenable and relevant to their future classroom experiences. The results of this study suggest ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Hauser, Christian Vernon

An Investigation of Personal Investment Levels Among Nonmusic Major Piano Students Using Portfolio Assessment

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare personal investment levels among nonmusic major piano students in the contexts of portfolio and teacher-directed assessment. Three problems were addressed: 1) identifying students' perceptions of direction, persistence, continuing motivation, intensity, and performance in the context of teacher-directed goal setting, choice of instructional activities, and evaluation of performance; 2) identifying students' perceptions of the five personal investment behaviors in the context of portfolio assessment; and 3) comparing student perceptions as identified in problems one and two.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Heisler, Paul K.

Judgment of Intonation in the Context of Three-Part Woodwind Ensemble Performances

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine judgments of trained musicians regarding the intonation of complex tones in the context of synthesized woodwind ensemble performances. Problems included in the study were (1) estimation of the point in pitch deviation which would result in out-of-tune judgments, (2) investigation of timbral effects on judged intonation, and (3) investigation of effects of mistuning within differential voices.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Henry, Robert E.

Middle School Choir Directors’ Perceptions and Applications of Multicultural Music Education

Description: The purpose of this descriptive study was to discover Texas middle school choir directors’ perceptions and applications of multicultural education in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this investigation: (1) What were middle school choir director’s perceptions about multicultural music education?; (2) How did middle school choir directors apply multicultural music pedagogy in their classrooms?; and (3) How did middle school choir directors perceive professional development opportunities in multicultural music education? Texas middle school choir directors perceived that the purpose of multicultural music was to expose students to different cultures and diverse worldviews through music. Teachers listed several social and musical benefits of studying multicultural music including broadening musical horizons, cultural appreciation, and expansion of student worldviews. Teachers consciously programmed multicultural music for most of their concerts, and some chose literature based on their students’ cultural backgrounds. Although most teachers tried to make multicultural music experiences genuine for students, authenticity was the foremost pedagogical concern regarding multicultural music pedagogy. Teachers tended to utilize a combination of music concept and sociocultural approaches when teaching multicultural music by comparing multicultural music to Western music and using classroom discussions to discuss social issues that lend context to the music. Professional development opportunities in multicultural music education were available through the state music organization (TMEA), but rarely at the district or the campus level. Teachers also reported opportunities at the national level for professional development.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Herring, Michelle Limor

Relationships Between Selected Musical Aural Discrimination Skills and a Multivariate Measure of Intellectual Skills

Description: This study attempted to explore the strength and nature of relationships between specific intellectual information processing skills included in a multi-dimensional model conceived by Guilford, and measured by Meeker's Structure of Intellect - Learning Abilities Test, and specific musical aural discrimination skills as measured by Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile. Three research questions were posed, which involved determining the strength and the nature of the relationship between MAP melodic, rhythmic, and aesthetic discrimination abilities and the intellectual information processing skills comprising the SOI - LA. Both instruments were administered to 387 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders from schools in the Dallas area. After a pilot study established the feasibility of the study and reliability estimates of the test instruments, multiple regression analysis determined that 10% to 15% of the variance between intellectual information-processing skills and the individual musical aural discrimination abilities was in common (r = +.32 to r = +.39). It was further determined that only six specific SOI intellectual dimensions, all involving the skills of "Cognition" and "Evaluation", were significantly related to the musical aural discrimination abilities. Through the use of the Coefficient of Partial Correlation, the strength of each individual information-processing skill's unique contribution to that covariance was determined. The study indicated that "Semantic" mental information processing skills, involving the ability to recall an abstract meaning or procedure given an external stimulus, play an extremely important part within this relationship. Skills of a "Figural" nature, which involve comprehending either a physical object or an non-physical idea and separating it from other impinging stimuli also enter into the relationship, although not to so high an extent. Finally, it was observed that the dimensions involving an understanding of "Systems", those mental skills which deal with groupings of figures, symbols, or semantic relationships, also was important to the relationship.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Hornstein, Daniel L. (Daniel Lather)

An Investigation of the Needs for Music-Related Content in the Bible College Pastoral Curriculum as Perceived by a Selected Group of Pastors

Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate the needs for music-related content in the Bible college pastoral curriculum as perceived by a selected group of pastors. The research problems were (1) to assess the extent of musical preparation of recent pastoral graduates from selected accredited Bible colleges in the United States, (2) to assess the music-related duties of those graduates in paid pastoral positions, (3) to assess the pastors' perceived needs for instructional preparation for the fulfillment of their musical duties, and (4) to determine the effect of selected factors on the perceived needs of those pastors.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Hui, Andrew

Music preferences, music and non-music media use, and leisure involvement of Hong Kong adolescents.

Description: The study sought to determine the relationships of preference responses to grade, gender, familiarity, musical training, peers'/parents' listening habits, music media use, and listening contexts. Grade six through nine Hong Kong students (N = 310) completed the audio preference test followed by verbal responses to training, peers'/parents' preferences, leisure/music media involvement, and listening context. Results indicated: The preferred genres, in descending order, were Western pop/rock, Cantopop/rock, Western classical; the disliked genres were jazz, Chinese, and non- Western/non-Chinese. Preference correlated strongly with genre familiarity. Pop genres were the most familiar to all adolescents. The students' preference toward Western pop/rock and Cantopop/rock associated with several listening contexts: solitary listening, having great freedom to choose one's desired music for listening, listening to music in one's room, and listening to music as background activity. The adolescents expressed that their leisure activities were spent with their family and friends. However, they made it clear that music listening was a personal activity that very likely was listened to alone. On all listening occasions, the girls exhibited a more positive response than the boys did. With four to five hours daily leisure time, the adolescents watched TV for three to four hours while spending less than two hours on listening to recorded music, and less than an hour on listening to radio music, MTV/karaoke, and music websites. Cantopop/rock was the most pursued music style in terms of the records bought, concerts attended outside of school, their peers', and parents' most-listened-to music. Some weak correlations of preference with grade and gender were identified: the grade six students showed more tolerance to Chinese and non-Western/non-Chinese music. Boys preferred jazz more than the girls did. Private music study and extracurricular musical experiences related to Western classical and non-Western/non-Chinese music preferences whereas school music training failed to show any association with ...
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Date: December 2001
Creator: Hui, Viny Wan-Fong

A Nationwide Investigation of High School Band Directors' Reasons for Participating in Music Competitions

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess on a national level, high school band directors' reasons for their bands' participation in six different types of competitive music activities, identify important reasons for participation in competitive music activities, and examine if statistically significant differences existed between the magnitudes of importance reasons for participation when subjects' responses were grouped by type of competitive activity, frequency of participation in a competitive activity, and by groupings of U. S. states similar in terms of general participation in competitive music activities, emphasis upon ratings or rankings as an indication of a high school band directors' success, and emphasis upon participation in competitive music activities.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Hurst, Craig Willmore

Experiencing the interdependent nature of musicianship and educatorship as defined by David J. Elliott in the context of the collegiate level vocal jazz ensemble.

Description: Examination of the relationship of musicianship and educatorship of teacher and students as interacting partners in a specific musical context proceeded with investigation of how formal, informal, impressionistic, and supervisory musical and educational knowledge were evidenced in rehearsal. Attention was also given to how the teaching strategies of modeling, coaching, scaffolding, fading, articulating, reflecting comparatively, and exploring were used to develop student musicianship. The research methodology may best be described as an inductive analytical case study approach. Multiple data sources included: videotaped observations of 19 bi-weekly rehearsals, audio taped interviews of the 12 participants, supplemental materials, (a published interview, journal articles, rehearsal schedules), and member checking with the teacher and David Elliott. Rehearsal data were initially organized into categories identified in David J. Elliott's (1995) model. The relationship of teacher and student musicianship, and teacher educatorship emerged during analysis. Musical details of problem finding, reducing and solving were also identified. Three themes emerged from the student interviews: their perceptions of the teacher's musicianship, general rehearsal strategies, and the teacher's use of specific teaching strategies. Interviews with the teacher illuminated his perception of musicianship and teaching strategies employed in the context. The findings confirmed that as music making transpired in the rehearsals, the kinds of knowing present in the musicianship of teacher and students and the teacher's educatorship were not only intertwined but were utilized at the same time. The level of student musicianship was allied to the relationship of the teacher's musicianship and educatorship. The intricate relationship between the kinds of procedural knowledge that Elliott identifies as integral to music making and music teaching are illustrated in a set of diagrams. Additionally, they show the wide range of technical and musical problems the teacher and students solved together in order for the multifarious nature of the vocal jazz repertoire to ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Jensen-Hole, Catherine

Vocal Self-identification, Singing Style, and Singing Range in Relationship to a Measure of Cultural Mistrust in African-American Adolescent Females

Description: The purpose was to determine the relationship between high or low cultural mistrust and vocal characteristics in African-American adolescent females. The vocal characteristics were vocal self-identification, singing style, and singing range.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Johnson, Beverly Yvonne

Improvisation in the Beginning Piano Class

Description: The problem was to survey and collect ideas on the use of improvisation as a teaching and learning tool in elementary piano instruction and to prescribe activities and exercises for second through fourth grade piano classes. These areas were examined: philosophies and theories influencing traditional instruction, effects of creative keyboard activities on children's musical development, specific teaching strategies using improvisation, evaluative procedures, and suitability of materials for young children. Data collected from published and unpublished materials were classified, and presented concerning the feasibility of using keyboard improvisation with early elementary children. It was found that suitable improvisational exercises allow the child to organize his perceptions into the basic concepts of music. Recommendations for teachers and researchers were made.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Jones, Nancy Ragsdale

The Benefits of Adult Piano Study as Self-Reported by Selected Adult Piano Students.

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits that selected adult piano students reported receiving from their study. Adult piano students (N = 711) from 24 states representing all geographic regions of the U.S. each completed a questionnaire containing 31 individual benefit items. These benefits were organized into 3 categories: Personal, Skill, and Social/Cultural. The demographic characteristics of the study population were consistent with the findings of other adult music research. Students indicated the existence (yes or no) of each benefit and rated the importance of existing benefits on a scale of 1-10. The category of Skill Benefits was the most agreed upon and highest rated category in the study, with over 90% agreement for each of the 7 Skill Benefits. The 14 Personal Benefits were also rated highly, particularly benefits related to self-actualization and fun. Self-related Personal Benefits were rated moderately, while more introverted Personal Benefits such as Imagination/Creativity, Spirituality, and Aesthetic Appreciation were lower rated benefits. The 10 Social/Cultural benefits were the lowest rated and least important benefits in the study. The most agreed upon benefits were Skill Improvement, Musical Knowledge, Musicianship, Accomplishment, Skill Refinement, Technique, Play/Fun, Escape from Routine, and Music Listening. The highest rated benefits in terms of importance were Dream Fulfilled, Technique, Accomplishment, Escape from Routine, Skill Improvement, Musicianship, Musical Knowledge, Play/Fun, Skill Refinement, and Personal Growth.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Jutras, Peter J.

The Centralized Higher Education System in Turkey and the National Music Teacher Training Program Since 1998: An Analysis.

Description: The purpose was to analyze Turkey's current music teacher training curriculum as situated in the centralized educational system, focusing on the extent to which the written document (1) reflects the core elements of the overall centralized educational system; (2) prescribes the nature of teaching materials and methods, assessment tools and other forms of evaluating and monitoring performance as teachers and musicians; and (3) acknowledges cultural diversity by addressing repertoire, musical activities and concepts according to geographic and cultural regions. Qualitative-descriptive and quantitative content analysis, including the methods of (a) Inverse document frequency and (b) relevance feedback model, were the analytic tools. Of the required 147 credit hours, 138 are the core. The music core consists of 87 (63%) and the non-music core of 51 credit hours (37%). On paper, there is a conceptual overlap in wording between the music core, the general core, and the teacher training core, suggesting curricular cohesion and consistency. Noticeably less cohesion exists between the document and three major policy papers on teacher competencies. By word count, preparing teachers for instruction in Turkish folk music and multicultural issues appears to hold a low priority in the curriculum. However, course descriptions, where they exist, speak to skills and knowledge linked to performing and understanding Turkish folk and art music, not Western art music alone. Missing from those descriptions is any reference to teaching materials and methods, specific assessment tools, and other forms of evaluating and monitoring students. With reference to works by Max Weber, Karl Mannheim, and Robert Merton, the study concludes with a discussion about issues and problems inherent in a centralized teacher program that seeks to prepare music teachers for a culturally diverse society.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Karakelle, Sibel

Caro Carapetyan: His Choral Beliefs and Practices

Description: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the convictions about choral conducting is held and applied by Caro Carapetyan which may have contributed to his superior choral work. The primary source of information was a series of personal interviews with Carapetyan. The report was organized into five sections. The first part supplied background material. Subjects covered in the report include philosophy, the relationship between conductor and singers the conductor's knowledge of music history and literature, rehearsal planning, conducting technique the selection of singers, choral tone, blend and balance, diction, intonation, rhythm, and dynamics. Each of the chapters in Parts II, III and IV includes a summary and some comparisons with other choral music sources. The fifth part is a summary of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Recommendations for choral conductors and future researchers are included.
Date: August 1981
Creator: King, Debbie Simpkin

Taiwan music teacher attitudes toward the arts and humanities curriculum.

Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate teacher attitudes toward following the Taiwanese arts and humanities curriculum and the relationship of teacher attitudes to four selected curriculum integration factors. These include (1) The quantity of content areas taught in music class, (2) Teachers' satisfaction of their students' learning outcomes, (3) Teachers' confidence in planning lessons, and (4) The number of years spent in curriculum integration. Questionnaires were distributed to 85 stratified random selected junior high schools throughout Taiwan. The school responses rate was 74%. Content validity was checked. The internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.74 to 0.92. Recorder playing, group singing, and music appreciation were found to be the most frequently taught musical skills, the most satisfied students' learning outcomes, the most confident lesson planning areas, and the most important to be included in the music instruction. Writing-by-ear and playing-by-ear were found to be the least frequently taught musical skills, the least satisfied students' learning outcome, the least confident lesson planning area, and the least importance. The two most frequently encountered barriers were insufficient administrative leadership and shallow student learning. The results of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient showed a low positive significant relationship between teachers' overall attitudes and the quantity of musical content areas taught (n = 83, r = 0.29, p = 0.007*, r2 = 0.09). Based on prior research, if attitudes that are formed from personal histories are difficult to change, and in order to change attitudes, multiple strategies must be used. The majority of teachers did not strongly support or reject this new curriculum, and strong support would be needed for the curriculum to be successfully implemented. One of the most important things that the Taiwan MOE could do is to provide music teachers with on-going in-service teacher development programs and monitoring mentor systems, in ...
Date: August 2007
Creator: Lai, Lingchun

The use of notated and aural exercises as pedagogical procedures intended to develop harmonic accuracy among beginning jazz improvisers

Description: This study compared the effects from the use of aural and notated exercises as pedagogical procedures for teaching harmonic accuracy to beginning jazz improvisation students. The methods of pedagogy were identified from published pedagogic and historical sources, the results of oral and written traditions of jazz pedagogy. The performance objective was produced from a review of the related literature as a recognized and measurable characteristic of jazz improvisation. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of harmonic accuracy, following the use of notated and aural exercises as experimental procedures of jazz improvisation pedagogy. A lesson plan, materials, curriculum and outline were developed followed by student recruitment and participation. A total of 20 student volunteers participated in the methods of pedagogy (aural or notation). Data collection consisted of a musical background questionnaire and pre and posttest performance recordings. Student recordings were evaluated by six judges using the “experimental performance evaluation measure.” Statistical analyses were conducted, including comparisons of pre to posttest effects between, and among the methods of pedagogy. Although all student participants performed mostly from notated music prior to this study, students who received the aural method of pedagogy produced greater improvement for all measurement items. While the aural method produced no differences between grade level, the notation method produced significantly lower scores for 9th graders compared to 12th graders; no other significant grade level differences were noted. Conclusions were that although many sources of pedagogy do not include aural exercises as the predominate activity, beginning improvisers who have more experience reading music than playing by ear, learn better from aural, than notated exercises.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Laughlin, James Edwin

The General Music Course in the Secondary School: A Content Analysis of Selected Curricular Sources

Description: The study described through content analysis the general music course in the secondary school as perceived in selected curricular sources from the 1960's and 1970's. As various writers of curricular sources developed their own content and methodologies, a vast amount of data became available which seemed unmanageable because of the particular philosophical goals chosen for the course. The study organized in a systematic manner the content and methodologies of the.course by means of eighteen categories. Categories of high frequency inclusion in the general music sources were shown to be the elements of music, music vocabulary as a specific area for learning, the predominant choice of classical Western/art music, the use of listening and creative activities and the discussion of psychological learning principles.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Lawrence, David Lee