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Selected Vocal Exercises and Their Relationship to Specific Laryngeal Conditions: a Description of Seven Case Studies

Description: Good vocal health is a vital concern for those people who use the voice in a professional capacity, such as teachers, singers, actors, clergymen, and lawyers. Research in the area of vocal health reveals the need to determine if specific exercises are beneficial to the voice and if exercises used to train the singing voice might be beneficial to alleviate pathological and/or dysfunctional voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to describe the response of a variety of pathological voices to a selected set of singing exercises. Subjects were selected from the private practice of cooperating physicians who felt that the vocal instruction and exercise program might be helpful to the teachers, students, professional "pop" singers, and housewife-singers who were diagnosed to have muscle tension dysphonia, nodules, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, or iatrogenic dysphonia. Instrumentation for assessing conditions before, during, and after exercise included a brief case history, subject interviews, attending physicians' medical charts, flexible fiberoptic video nasolaryngoscopy, video cassette recorder and video tape segments, three physician/observers, and a specific diagnostic procedure which provided a method of assessing organic, functional, and perceptual variables. For the exercise program the researcher chose seven vocalises from the routine designed by Allan R. Lindquest, whose techniques combined those of the Italian school with those of Swedish studios which produced such singers as Flagstad and Bjoerling. The seven vocalises included a warm up "massage" and exercises for separation and blending of the registers, vowel clarity and modification, tone focus, vocal attack, and flexibility. Since all the subjects showed improvement after exercise in the vocal conditions observed in this study, these vocalises and technique may be helpful to alleviate pathological conditions and/or dysfunctional behavior in other subjects. The researcher further suggests that the voice profession investigate the efficiency of other techniques, exercises, and musical vocalises ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Mathis, Barbara

A Spectral Analysis of Selected Vowels Sung by Bass and Baritone Student Singers

Description: While a limited body of research pertaining to vocal sound quality exists, technological advances in sound analyses have facilitated a reexamination of vocal timbre. The sound quality of sung vowels ([ a], [e ], C i ]) produced by ten baritone/bass singers at the University of North Texas was analyzed by the use of Fourier analysis and electronic digital equipment. This procedure and equipment produced results over a wider frequency range with greater accuracy than prior studies on vocal timbre. The study sought to answer the following questions: (1) Using formant regions between 0-20 kHz for comparison, what similarities and differences can be observed among spectra produced from [a], [e], and [ i ] vowels sung by baritone/bass singers? (2) Using formant regions between 0-20 kHz for comparison, what similarities and differences can be observed among spectra produced from [a], [ e ], and [ i ] vowels sung by baritone/bass singers with regard to individual singers? (3) Approximately what vocal-tract tube lengths were used by baritone/bass singers when performing [a], [e ], and [ i ] vowels? (4) What similarities in vocal-tract tube lengths can be generalized as to [ a], L e ], and [ i ] vowels sung by individual baritone/bass singers? The results of the study suggested that: (1) Below approximately 4 kHz formant frequency location can be generalized by a specific vowel between subjects. (2) Above 4 kHz the generalization of formant frequency location is difficult between subjects singing the same vowels, but general frequency location for formants can be identified between samples produced by the same singer performing different vowels. (3) Subjects did alter their vocal-tract lengths as different vowel sounds were performed, but no overall pattern of tube length with reference to specific vowels was indicated. (4) Each singer did use a unique ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Tolin, Craig Edmond

An Investigation of Conflicts in the Perceptions of Band Directors, School Administrators, and Selected Members of the Community About Their Respective Band Programs

Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate conflicts in the perceptions of band directors, band parents, band students, and selected school personnel regarding the role and scope of their respective band programs. The problems were to examine the relationships among these four groups in terms of selective perception, perceptual constancy, and polarization. Questionnaires were developed in order to survey the senior public high schools in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. In addition to demographic data, the questionnaires included perceptions about public performances, marching, concert, and jazz bands; contests and festivals; and other band related activities which might be desirable in a band program. The questionnaires concluded with opportunities for open-ended comments and suggestions about the survey instrument and the band program. Statistical computations included one-way analysis of variance, chi-square test, frequency counts, and cross-tabulations. Qualitative analyses and reports of interviews helped to clarify and interpret all statistical findings.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Whitelegg, Clifford Paul

Judgment of Intonation in the Context of Three-Part Woodwind Ensemble Performances

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine judgments of trained musicians regarding the intonation of complex tones in the context of synthesized woodwind ensemble performances. Problems included in the study were (1) estimation of the point in pitch deviation which would result in out-of-tune judgments, (2) investigation of timbral effects on judged intonation, and (3) investigation of effects of mistuning within differential voices.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Henry, Robert E.

Relationships Between Selected Musical Aural Discrimination Skills and a Multivariate Measure of Intellectual Skills

Description: This study attempted to explore the strength and nature of relationships between specific intellectual information processing skills included in a multi-dimensional model conceived by Guilford, and measured by Meeker's Structure of Intellect - Learning Abilities Test, and specific musical aural discrimination skills as measured by Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile. Three research questions were posed, which involved determining the strength and the nature of the relationship between MAP melodic, rhythmic, and aesthetic discrimination abilities and the intellectual information processing skills comprising the SOI - LA. Both instruments were administered to 387 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders from schools in the Dallas area. After a pilot study established the feasibility of the study and reliability estimates of the test instruments, multiple regression analysis determined that 10% to 15% of the variance between intellectual information-processing skills and the individual musical aural discrimination abilities was in common (r = +.32 to r = +.39). It was further determined that only six specific SOI intellectual dimensions, all involving the skills of "Cognition" and "Evaluation", were significantly related to the musical aural discrimination abilities. Through the use of the Coefficient of Partial Correlation, the strength of each individual information-processing skill's unique contribution to that covariance was determined. The study indicated that "Semantic" mental information processing skills, involving the ability to recall an abstract meaning or procedure given an external stimulus, play an extremely important part within this relationship. Skills of a "Figural" nature, which involve comprehending either a physical object or an non-physical idea and separating it from other impinging stimuli also enter into the relationship, although not to so high an extent. Finally, it was observed that the dimensions involving an understanding of "Systems", those mental skills which deal with groupings of figures, symbols, or semantic relationships, also was important to the relationship.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Hornstein, Daniel L. (Daniel Lather)

The Curricular Content of Elementary Music in China Between 1912 and 1982

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the curricular content of elementary music in China between 1912 and 1982. The questions addressed were: (1) What changes in elementary music resulted from China's becoming a republic in 1912? (2) What changes in elementary music resulted from China's becoming a socialist country in 1949? (3) What changes in elementary music in the People's Republic of China resulted from the Anti—Rightist Struggle Movement in 1957? (4) What changes in elementary music in the People's Republic of China resulted from the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)? (5) Have changes occurred in elementary music in the People's Republic of China since the beginning of the reform movement in 1978? (6) Did any of the changes affect curricular goals, contents, methods, required materials, and instruction time allotted in a like manner, or did some of these components remain the same while others changed? (7) Were the changes important enough to attribute them to a changed political ideology? After translating all pertinent documents, the goals, contents, methods, materials, and time allotted for the elementary music curricula between 1912 and 1982 were listed and identified. Subsequently, the areas of focus within those categories as well as changes in focus were identified and their importance determined. The findings were: (1) all important curricular changes occurred after 1950; and (2) changed goals resulted in changed teaching techniques; however, changed teaching techniques did not result in the changing of goals.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Ma, Shuhui

An Investigation of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments As Applied to Undergraduate Music Majors

Description: Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environments incorporates four theoretical constructs (congruence, consistency, differentiation and identity) which attempt to explain sources in variability of achievement and satisfaction among employed adults and college students. This study sought to: (1) investigate the relationship of Holland's constructs to academic achievement and educational satisfaction of undergraduate music majors; (2) investigate differences in all variables according to gender and degree major. Data were collected from undergraduate music majors (N = 100) enrolled at the University of North Texas using the Vocational Preference Inventory. Mv Vocational Situation. and the Music Major Satisfaction Questionnaire. Reliability for the Music Major Satisfaction Questionnaire was estimated at .92 using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients indicated that: (1) congruence was significantly related to academic achievement and educational satisfaction; (2) identity was significantly related to academic achievement and educational satisfaction; (3) consistency was significantly related to academic achievement, but not to educational satisfaction; (4) differentiation was significantly related to academic achievement, but not to educational satisfaction. Multiple regression using a stepwise entry method indicated that: (1) the identity construct was the best predictor of educational satisfaction scores; (2) identity was the best predictor of academic achievement scores. The results of the study suggested: (1) it is unlikely that any single theory accounts for all dimensions of variability in achievement among college music majors. To arrive at a comprehensive model of achievement, it will be necessary to utilize constructs of several theories. Such a model should include Holland's constructs of identity, congruence, and possibly differentiation. (2) similarly, a comprehensive model of satisfaction should include Holland's constructs of identity and congruence. (3) Holland's classification system may distinguish among two traditionally held divisions of college music majors, performance majors and education majors. (4) music education majors and music performance majors differ on ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Allen, Michael, 1954-

Aesthetic Justifications for Music Education: a Theoretical Examination of Their Usefulness

Description: Justifications for music education have been studied only by examining historical trends in statements of aesthetic versus utilitarian values, and not from the perspective of evaluating the justifications' usefulness. A number of prominent writers in the music education field, while supporting aesthetic values as important for music education, have expressed doubts about the effectiveness of aesthetic justifications when used for convincing outsiders of the importance of music in the public school curriculum. These doubts, along with a preponderance of aesthetic justifications in the recent music education literature, led to the present study, which conducted a theoretical examination of the usefulness of aesthetic justifications for music education. The study addressed three research problems, namely: (1) the attitudes of the clientele groups of the public schools in terms of their values toward music as a subject in the schools; (2) the attitudes of the groups within the music education profession in terms of their values for music in the public schools and for the profession itself; and 3) the likelihood that justifications based upon "aesthetics" as a system of values would be accepted by the groups both inside arid outside the music education profession. A philosophical-sociological perspective was chosen for the theoretical analysis because the problems of the study concern the manner in which values are accepted or rejected by groups of people. The particular sociological theory chosen combined the symbolic interaction theory of George Herbert Mead and the sociology of knowledge as described by Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann. Conclusions: Problems arise in justifying music education using aesthetic theory because (1) the symbolic universe of aesthetic theory is complex and is not well-understood by music educators or the clientele of the public schools; and (2) aesthetic theory represents gestures of a reference group with norms and values not usually found in ...
Date: December 1988
Creator: Paul, Stephen John

An Investigation of the Laryngeal Activity of Trumpet Players During the Performance of Selected Exercises

Description: The study's purpose was to describe selected laryngeal activity of brass-wind players during the performance of selected musical exercises. Research problems included the observation and description of three internal areas of activity of ten trumpeters as they performed each exercise. Specific areas of observation were 1) movement of the epiglottis during the performance of each exercise, 2) movement of the vocal folds/arytenoid cartilage which includes changes in the size of the glottis during the performance of each prescribed exercise, and 3) movement of the thyroid cartilage during the performance of each prescribed exercise. Musical exercises performed by each of the subjects included a sound volume change, use of vibrato, single-tonguing, step-wise descending and ascending slurs, descending and ascending lip slurs, register change, and a descending chromatic scale. In addition, each subject performed an excerpt from the second movement of the Haydn Trumpet Concerto. Data were collected through direct observation of subject performances and then described using three different means. Data analyses revealed a prominent amount of highly individual, non-patterned laryngeal activity which played an integral role in the performance of each subject. Individuals including Law (1960), Cramer (1955), Jacobs (Stewart, 1987), and Noble (1964) have advocated an unrestricted airway during brass performance. Contrary to this advice, findings in the present study indicate that a great deal of varying, involuntary restriction is present in the laryngeal area during performance. Further, such activity appears necessary to brass performance. Others, including Farkas (1962), Schuller (1962), and Wick (1971) , have endorsed conscious use of the glottis during brass performance. While findings in the present study imply that there is a presence of voluntary or reflexive glottal activity during brass performance, evidence does not support any theory which suggests conscious use of the laryngeal mechanism.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Bailey, Robert E. (Robert Elwood), 1946-

The Beginnings of Music in the Boston Public Schools: Decisions of the Boston School Committee in 1837 and 1845 in Light of Religious and Moral Concerns of the Time

Description: The research problems of this dissertation were: 1) A description of the perceived value of music in light of political undercurrents in Boston prior to and during the years under investigation, and 2) the profile of the constituency of the Boston School Committee and Committee on Music in 1837 and 1845. Questions addressed the effect of religious and moral concerns of the day on the decision by the School Committee in 1837 to try music in the curriculum, and the possible effect of religious politics on Lowell Mason's dismissal from the schools in 1845. In the minds of mid-nineteenth century Bostonians, religious and moral values were intrinsic to the very nature of music. Key members on the School Committee portrayed music as being spiritual yet nonsectarian in its influence. Therefore, the findings suggest that music was believed to provide common ground between opposing and diverse religious sects. Reasons given for Mason's dismissal by John Sargent, a member of the Committee on Music, showed parallels to H. W. Day's accusations in the press a year earlier that Mason had managed his position in a sectarian manner. Sargent's background supports the theory that religious politics were at work in Mason's dismissal. Although members of the School Committee of 1845 were religious, only isolated cases support the proposition that any of them would have opposed Mason strictly on the basis of religious issues. Evidence suggests that their passivity to the action by the Committee on Music was probably due to concurrent public criticism of attempts at school reform within the Committee. While under such scrutiny, Committee members' inaction regarding Mason's dismissal may have reflected a desire not to jeopardize their own positions as a political body.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Miller, David Michael, 1951-

The Texas Music Educators Association: A Historical Study of Selected Landmark Events Between 1938 and 1980 and the Decisions Which Influenced Their Outcomes

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate selected landmark events in the historical development of the Texas Music Educators Association, 1938-1980, and the decisions which influenced their outcomes. A polling of twenty former presidents of TMEA selected the following landmark events that helped to shape the history of TMEA: (1) the change from a band organization to a music educators organization in 1938, (2) the University Interscholastic League takeover of contests in 1947, and (3) TMEA's separation from the Music Educators National Conference in 1976. In addition to developing a historical chronology from documentary sources, in-depth interviews were conducted with actual participants in these landmark events. The interviews utilized comparable questions, in order to identify decision-making patterns, while also capturing the atmosphere and visceral context of TMEA history. Literature from the social science disciplines on organizational decision—making was explored for help in understanding what happened, how, and why. In all three events the final decision was strongly influenced by factors external to the TMEA. The strong power position held by school administrators was evident in both the first and second events, while reinforcement from actively lobbying choral directors was also a factor in the first event only. The strong ultimatum from MENC, backed by their unchallenged charter authority, was a key factor in the third event. Still, TMEA continued to grow, and avoided debilitating organizational trauma. TMEA leaders often demonstrated a capacity to react quickly to sudden changes in the organizational environment, turning potential liabilities into assets. The TMEA was found to be an organization greatly dependent on the decisions of others, but strongly independent and self-sufficient in spirit. This independence has both negative and positive potential. It can become an unnatural barrier between Texas music educators and the MENC, or it can fuel the drive for professional excellence ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Grant, Daniel Ross, 1955-

An Investigation of the Whistle Register in the Female Voice

Description: The purpose of the study was concerned with specific elements of the portion of the female voice commonly referred to as whistle or flute register. Three elements of vocal production were chosen for which past research has demonstrated relationships to source function. These elements included spectral characteristics, airflow rates, and perceptual identification. The research compared what the singer-subjects perceived as being whistle register phonations with that which they perceived as being head register phonations. A comparative technique was utilized where pitch, intensity and phonemic category were held relatively constant, register, therefore, being the only variable. Spectral characteristics and airflow rates of the two subject-determined registers were compared. In addition, an attempt was made to determine if the whistle register could be perceptually differentiated on the basis of voice quality,
Date: May 1986
Creator: Walker, Steven

An Investigation of Selected Female Singing- and Speaking-Voice Characteristics Through Comparison of a Group of Pre-Menarcheal Girls to a Group of Post-Menarcheal Girls

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, singing voice quality, and self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice between two groups of girls ages 11 through 15 years, who were pre-menarcheal by 6 months and post-menarcheal by 10 months or more. Subjects were volunteers who attended a North Texas public school system. Each subject was examined by an otolaryngologist. Age, height, weight, a hearing screening, and information on music classes and/or private music lessons were obtained. The speaking fundamental frequency measure was obtained by having each subject speak for 30 seconds on a subject of choice and read a passage of approximately 100 syllables. The vocal range measure was obtained by having each subject begin at an arbitrary pitch and sing mah and moo up the scale as high as possible and mah and moo down the scale as low as possible. These four measures were repeated with the researcher giving visual gestures. For singing-voice quality, each subject sang "America" in the key of her choice and again in the key of F major. Each subjects singing voice was rated according to breathiness. Data regarding self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice were obtained through a rating assessment of 10 questions and a conversation with each subject. There were no significant differences between the means of the pre-meanarcheal and post-menarcheal girls on speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, and singing-voice quality. But, more of the post-menarcheal girls exhibited lower speaking pitches, lower singing ranges, and increased breathiness in their singing voices than did the pre-menarcheal girls. Two questions of the perceptions rating assessment were significant, with the post-menarcheal girls citing higher incidences of vocal inconsistencies than the pre-menarcheal girls. The findings of the qualitative data analysis indicated that more post-menarcheal girls had ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Williams, Bonnie Blu

The Effect of Rhythm on Melodic Expectancy

Description: The present study sought to confirm melodic expectancy patterns discovered in a previous investigation and to determine whether data would be affected by altering the rhythmic condition of the stimuli. The three problems of this investigation were to study expectancies generated by two-note stimulus intervals of equal duration; the expectancies generated by stimulus intervals presented with a long-short rhythm; and the expectancies generated by stimulus intervals presented with a short-long rhythm. Fifty subjects were asked to sing what they believed would be the natural continuation of the melody begun by a two-note stimulus interval. The stimulus intervals were grouped in rhythmic sets, one set of neutral-rhythm stimuli, one set of long-short stimuli, and one set of short-long stimuli. The interval from the second note of the stimulus interval to the first sung note was transcribed as the generated expectancy response interval. The data were examined in two basic ways, using response data as a whole and examining data for each stimulus interval separately. A third method of data evaluation concerned harmonic triads occurring in the response data. Both when considering response frequency as a whole, and when considering response data separately for each melodic beginning, no significant difference associated with rhythmic condition could be found. Smaller response intervals were generated much more often than large intervals. Some stimulus intervals, notably the major second ascending, were observed to be much more powerful generators than others. It was concluded from these results that in response to two-note stimulus intervals melodic expectancy can clearly be shown to operate, confirming the results of an earlier study, but that no effect of rhythm on melodic expectancy can be shown to operate.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Rose, Bernard N. (Bernard Norman)

An Investigation of the Career Realities and Occupational Concerns of Selected Professional Performing Musicians

Description: The purpose was to investigate the career realities and occupational concerns of successful full-time performing instrumentalists. Four research problems were formulated; (1) the establishment of a demographic profile of musicians who perceived themselves successful; (2) the determination of the musicians' career realities; (3) the determination of the musicians' occupational concerns; and (4) a comparison of the relationship of the demographic profile to the career realities and occupational concerns. A pilot study was used to develop a questionnaire and an interview schedule. The sample for the main study was chosen by the questionnaire and consisted of twenty musicians, five each in the musical categories of jazz, classical, commercial and pop. To resolve research problem one, the questionnaire also collected general demographic data. Research problems two and three were fulfilled by an interview schedule based upon career realities and occupational concerns cited in previous sociological studies. The realities and concerns were either confirmed or refuted by each interviewee. The career realities were role conflict, career contingencies, musical labels, life style, hierarchies, audience relationships and environment. The occupational concerns were mobility, status, entrapment, personal contacts, dependency, security, competition, economic issues, working conditions, travel requirements, appearance, management control, auditions, maintenance of skills and training relevancy. The interviews were taped and transcribed by a court reporter and included in the text. An analysis of the interviews in relation to the demographic data fulfilled research problem four. Results showed that career contingencies, mobility and life style were positive influences for the sampled musicians. Also, a "hierarchy of expertise" appeared as the ultimate occupational hierarchy for the sampled musicians. Furthermore, a "hierarchy of dependency," based upon instrument played, affected the sampled musicians' attitudes toward their careers. It was concluded that performers who were devoting their full time to performance were more tolerant of imperfect career conditions than ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Hill, Dennis R. (Dennis Roy)

A Recommended Curriculum for Teaching Score Study in the Undergraduate Instrumental Conducting Class

Description: The purpose of this study was to create and gain consensus of an essential curriculum for teaching score study in the undergraduate instrumental conducting class. Questions to be answered by this study were what methods, materials, and evaluations should be used to teach score study to undergraduate instrumental conducting students? Resolving the questions required the collection of information on the methods, materials, and evaluations used in teaching score preparation in the undergraduate instrumental conducting class and the opinions of conductors and teachers of conducting about those methods, materials, and evaluations.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Hamilton, Craig V.

Theoretical Constructs of Jazz Improvisation Performance

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop and test systematically a theoretical model that delineated the constructs and subsumed variables of jazz improvisation performance. The specific research questions were; what specific performance variables are related to single line jazz solo improvisation performance? and; what is the most cogent groupings of variables into underlying constructs which characterize single line jazz solo improvisation performances for all performers, student performers, and professional performers?
Date: December 1991
Creator: Tumlinson, Charles D. (Charles David)

The Kinetic Structures of Metric Temporal Patterns in Selected Beginning Piano Method Series

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic structures or reinforcement schedules of metric temporal patterns (metric combination of note values within a measure) in five best-selling beginning piano method series. Based upon a survey mailed to 98 music dealers, the five best-selling beginning piano method series in 1992 and 1993 were identified as: the Alfred Basic Piano Library, Bastien Piano Basics, David Carr Glover Piano Library, John. W. Schaum Piano Course, and John Thompson Modern Course for Piano. A coding system was developed for identifying the numerical appearances and occurrences of various metric temporal patterns per learning piece within each method series. Several computer programs were written to compute the kinetic structures, scope, and pacing of metric temporal patterns for each method series. The derived data were then compared to delineate relationships between the three analytical variables.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Chan, Alton

An Examination of the Presence of Schön's Concept of "Reflective Conversation" as a Defining Component in the Applied Studio Music Lesson

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of Schön's concept of reflective conversation as a defining component in the applied studio music lesson. The research problems were (1) to determine the presence of complete and incomplete reflective conversations; (2) to determine the verbally exhibited knowledge base within complete conversations in relationship to conversation length; and (3) to establish an instructional profile of stable behaviors based on reflective conversation as a distinguishing characteristic among selected teachers. Videotapes of twenty-six applied studio music lessons of thirteen university teachers were analyzed according to problem solving, on-the-spot experimentation, and evaluation. An observation form was developed and was a reliable tool to collect information concerning number and type of reflective conversations, conversation length, and the teachers' verbally demonstrated knowledge base. Knowledge base was obtained by using the procedural model of Flanagan's critical incident technique. Reflective conversations existed and were a distinguishing characteristic of the teachers. With the exception of two teachers, a stable use of both number and length of reflective conversations, and knowledge base areas, was found. A discernible difference in the teachers' knowledge base within conversation length existed, and thus established instructional profiles for the teachers. Complete reflective conversations ranged from one-sixth to over half of total lesson time. Within instrument categories, teachers generally revealed a dissimilar knowledge usage. Some teachers exhibited fast-paced problem solving, in one minute or less, and named one or two knowledge areas. Others had longer conversations, up to five minutes, with more deliberate problem solving, and as many as twelve knowledge areas named. Results indicated that a practically significant situation can be examined by establishing teacher instructional profiles based upon reflective conversation. Methods employed in this study could be used to document teacher problem-solving and teacher knowledge in a variety of settings.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Murphy, Vanissa B. (Vanissa Braswell)

A Case Study of Interpersonal Influences in a Band Music Setting: Bohumil Makovsky (1878-1950) and His Association with Selected Individuals Involved in Instrumental Music in the State of Oklahoma

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interpersonal influences which Bohumil Makovsky, Director of Bands and Chairman of the Music Department at Oklahoma A&M College from 1915 to 1943, had on his students and peers, as confirmed through the perceptions of selected individuals, and to determine what personal characteristics and means he drew upon to induce changes in his students and peers.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Dugger, Richard Charles

The Preferred Oboe Vibrato: An Analysis of Pitch Modulation and Intensity Level Modulation

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the pitch and intensity level characteristics found in the vibrati of preferred oboe players whose vibrato was ranked by a panel of experts. The investigation also sought to discover factors that distinguish the preferred oboe vibrato from vibrato that is less preferred.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Remley, Jon Stephen

Music Preferences 1980 Versus 1989 and Their Relationship With Selected Environment and Listener Variables

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine differences between the same subjects' music preferences at the elementary and high school levels, and the relationship between these findings and the following variables: peer preferences, musical training, excerpt familiarity, grade, gender, and race.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Novak, Jennifer J. Doud

Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934): African-American Musician, Music Educator and Composer

Description: This study is a biography of the life experiences of Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934), an African-American musician, music educator and composer who lived during the early part of America's music education's history. Smith became one of the first international bandmasters to organize bands, orchestras, and glee clubs in schools and industries in the United States. Smith was raised and attended school on a military post. He later received a B.S.M.A. from the Chicago Musical College and a Masters in Composition from the Sherwood School of Music. He taught music at five educational institutions: Tuskegee Institute, Western University, Lincoln, Wendell Phillips and Sumner High Schools. Some of his students became prominent musicians. They were Lionel Hampton, Nat "King" Cole, Milton Hinton, Bennie Moten and Charlie Parker. Smith also worked with industries. He conducted the newsboys band for the Chicago Defender Newspaper and he became the music supervisor for the porters of the Pullman Railroad Company. Smith was stated to have introduced the saxophone to African-Americans and he was considered as one of the first composers to notate spirituals. Smith published over fifty works in America. One of his compositions received a copyright from England. His Negro Folk Suite, published by the Lyon and Healy Publishing Company, was performed by the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra. It received a John Wanamaker Award. His Negro Choral Symphony received a copyright in 1934. Smith became co-owner of the first Music Publishing Company owned by African-Americans, the Smith Jubilee Music Company.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Lyle-Smith, Eva Diane