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The relationship between collegiate band members' preferences of teacher interpersonal behavior and perceived self-efficacy.

Description: The first purpose of this study was to describe collegiate band members' preferred teacher interpersonal behaviors and perceptions of self-efficacy based on the gender, year in college, instrument, and major. The second purpose of the study was to measure the relationship between preferences of interpersonal teacher behavior and self-efficacy scores. The non-probability purposive sample (N = 1020) was composed of band members representing 12 universities from different regions of the United States. There were 4 large public, 4 small public, and 4 private universities that participated in the study. Participants completed 2 questionnaires, the Teacher Interaction Preference Questionnaire (TIPQ) and the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ). Descriptive statistics were calculated for each of the questionnaires. Results for the TIPQ showed that all sub-groups most preferred the dominant-cooperative behaviors, followed by submissive-cooperative behaviors, and least preferred the dominant-oppositional behaviors. Results for the SEQ showed subtle variations for all subgroups. Three Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to measure the relationship between the three teacher interaction styles (dominant-cooperative, submissive-cooperative, dominant-oppositional) and students' perceived self-efficacy. Due to the possible over-use of the data with multiple correlations, a Bonferroni adjustment was made to avoid a Type I error (.05/3 = .016). A significant positive relationship was found between self-efficacy and dominant-cooperative with 22% shared variance. A significant positive relationship was found between self-efficacy and submissive-cooperative with 7% shared variance. Finally, a significant positive relationship was found between self-efficacy and dominant-oppositional with 5% shared variance. This study's results indicate that it may be beneficial for band directors to measure students' preferences and perceptions of teacher interpersonal teacher behavior in order to find ways to interact better with the students. In addition, due to the relationship between students' preferences of teacher interpersonal behavior and perceived self-efficacy, collegiate band directors may wish to examine their own behaviors to determine ...
Date: May 2009
Creator: Steele, Natalie Anne

Music Career Opportunities and Career Compatibility: Interviews with University Music Faculty Members and Professional Musicians

Description: This study used a semistructured interview schedule to identify the music career opportunities available to students who graduate with an undergraduate music degree, and the skills, interests, work values, and personal characteristics that may determine a person's suitability for these music careers. Six university faculty members from each of the 11 NASM-accredited undergraduate music degree fields participated in the study (n = 66). Fourteen professional musicians who were recommended by these faculty members also participated in the study. Concerning the musical and non-musical skills that may determine a person's suitability for a music career, participants consistently noted the importance of performance skills in their respective fields. Participants also consistently cited people skills, and noted that most musicians interact with people on a daily basis, and use people skills to build social networks that may lead to employment. When asked about the interests that may lead someone to a music career, participants commonly cited the importance of good high school ensemble experiences in students' music career decisions. Concerning the rewarding aspects of music careers, many participants noted that they were more rewarded by the ability to support themselves doing what they loved, than by fame or wealth. Concerning the personal characteristics that may determine music career compatibility, participants noted that tenacity is essential to contend with intense competition, extended periods of unemployment, and other common struggles of professional musicians. When asked about music career opportunities in their respective fields, participants reported numerous music careers, some of which were excluded from previous music career inventories. In addition, participants noted that there may be careers for non-musicians in some music career fields. Participants also noted that some music careers may be listed in more than one music career field, creating potential confusion for music career advisors. Finally, participants noted transitions in many music ...
Date: May 2010
Creator: Branscome, Eric E.

Texas Middle School Choral Directors’ Beliefs About Repertoire Selection

Description: Secondary choral directors often demonstrate a wide variety of organizational, instructional, and musical skills to promote and nurture thriving programs. Among the many tasks executed, choosing repertoire might be viewed as one of the most important duties performed. Material chosen for study is often the vehicle through which curricular concepts are taught. Multiple factors might influence middle school choral directors’ beliefs about repertoire choices. Ironically, repertoire choices might or might not reflect educators’ actual teaching philosophies; nevertheless, these decisions could influence student learning. This study surveyed a stratified random sampling of Texas middle school choral directors who participated in the 2010 University Interscholastic League Concert and Sight-reading competition (n = 209). Seventy middle school choral directors participated in the study. Each director took an online survey and indicated the degree to which they agreed or disagreed with 14 statements concerning repertoire choice. Many of the belief statements showed teachers were overwhelmingly in concordance with their beliefs (92.9%). Results indicated that beliefs were similar, regardless of who chose the curriculum or the amount of discussion perceived in undergraduate training. The only belief statement that continually showed differences between teachers concerned students’ ability to vote on repertoire.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Williams Jr., Scott Michael

Resilience Among High Achievers In An Instrumental Music Program

Description: Positive adaptations experienced in spite of challenges faced is known as resilience. Comparatively little research has focused on in-depth descriptions regarding how resilience is manifested in children. The purpose of this study was to add to previous research in the identification of characteristics of resilience in students, and to determine the extent to which band membership has aided their resilience in other domains. Data was collected from a random sample of band seniors from the class of 2011 (n = 3) who attended a large high school in the South. Specific research questions were: (1) What characteristics of resilience are present in the talk of participants in a high school instrumental music program? (2) To what extent has this population perceived that membership in band aided their resilience in other domains? A descriptive study design was chosen that used qualitative data. Following data analysis that included category matrices, prominent themes emerged from the participants’ responses. These included self-improvement, forward thinking, optimism, inner drive, increased achievement, determination, development of relationships to peers and adult mentors, and development of connectedness to the school. The findings of this study complemented previous research on characteristics of resilient students, and suggested that the participants derived positive benefits from group membership and from positively contributing to the school. Recommendations based on these findings for researchers included the need for resilience to be studied across other subject areas in school, and across different populations of students. Recommendations for teachers and administrators included varied opportunities for extra-curricular and co-curricular student engagement.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Price, Benjamin J.

The Effect of Three Compositional Structures on the Compositional and Instructional Self-efficacy of Pre-service Music Teachers

Description: The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to compare the effects of three different composition tasks with varying degrees of structure on pre-service music teachers’ creative self-efficacy as composers and their instructional self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition; and 2) to describe through pre-service music teachers’ talk perceptions of composition and their experiences completing the three composition tasks. Participants (N = 29) were music education majors from three different sized universities in the northern-central region of the United States. At the beginning of the study, the participants answered a researcher-design self-efficacy questionnaire that measured (a) their self-efficacy as composers and (b) their self-efficacy as teachers of composition. Next, they composed three compositions of various task structures (unstructured, poem, and rhythm). Immediately after completing each task they again completed the self-efficacy questionnaire. Statistically significant mean differences between the pre-task administration of the measuring instrument and all three composition tasks were found for the pre-service teachers’ compositional self-efficacy. Statistically significant mean differences were also found between the unstructured task and the rhythm task, but not between the rhythm and poem tasks or the unstructured and poem tasks. For the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition question, the results were also statistically significant between the pre-task administration of the measuring instrument and all three composition tasks. Statistically significant mean differences were also found between the unstructured task and the rhythm task as well as the poem and rhythm tasks, but not between the unstructured and poem tasks. Additional data were gathered through semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Through their talk the pre-service music teachers commented that they enjoyed the overall composition process. This experience also seemed to challenge the participants’ assumptions about composition and appeared to make creative experiences more tenable and relevant to their future classroom experiences. The results of this study suggest ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Hauser, Christian Vernon

The Preferred Oboe Vibrato: An Analysis of Pitch Modulation and Intensity Level Modulation

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the pitch and intensity level characteristics found in the vibrati of preferred oboe players whose vibrato was ranked by a panel of experts. The investigation also sought to discover factors that distinguish the preferred oboe vibrato from vibrato that is less preferred.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Remley, Jon Stephen

Music Preferences 1980 Versus 1989 and Their Relationship With Selected Environment and Listener Variables

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine differences between the same subjects' music preferences at the elementary and high school levels, and the relationship between these findings and the following variables: peer preferences, musical training, excerpt familiarity, grade, gender, and race.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Novak, Jennifer J. Doud

Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934): African-American Musician, Music Educator and Composer

Description: This study is a biography of the life experiences of Nathaniel Clark Smith (1877-1934), an African-American musician, music educator and composer who lived during the early part of America's music education's history. Smith became one of the first international bandmasters to organize bands, orchestras, and glee clubs in schools and industries in the United States. Smith was raised and attended school on a military post. He later received a B.S.M.A. from the Chicago Musical College and a Masters in Composition from the Sherwood School of Music. He taught music at five educational institutions: Tuskegee Institute, Western University, Lincoln, Wendell Phillips and Sumner High Schools. Some of his students became prominent musicians. They were Lionel Hampton, Nat "King" Cole, Milton Hinton, Bennie Moten and Charlie Parker. Smith also worked with industries. He conducted the newsboys band for the Chicago Defender Newspaper and he became the music supervisor for the porters of the Pullman Railroad Company. Smith was stated to have introduced the saxophone to African-Americans and he was considered as one of the first composers to notate spirituals. Smith published over fifty works in America. One of his compositions received a copyright from England. His Negro Folk Suite, published by the Lyon and Healy Publishing Company, was performed by the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra. It received a John Wanamaker Award. His Negro Choral Symphony received a copyright in 1934. Smith became co-owner of the first Music Publishing Company owned by African-Americans, the Smith Jubilee Music Company.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Lyle-Smith, Eva Diane

"Wiggles and Volcanos": an Investigation of Children's Graphing Responses to Music

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in selected children's Graphing Response Patterns to elemental changes in compositions in theme and variation form. The research problems were (1) to determine points and degrees of elemental change in the compositional structure of the musical examples; (2) to determine number, degree, and nature of changes in subjects' graphing response pattern to aurally presented musical examples; (3) to determine percentages of agreement between changes in graphing response patterns and points of elemental change within the compositional structures; (4) to determine the relationship of changes in subjects' graphing response pattern to the quality and magnitude of elemental change within the compositional structure. Twenty second- and fourth-grade children were individually videotaped as they listened to and graphed a series of aurally-presented musical examples. Each musical example was analysed according to such parameters as timbre, range/interval size, texture, tempo/meter, attack/rhythmic density, key/mode, dynamic level, and melodic presentation. Change in each parameter was scored using an interval scale reflecting change/no change and degree of change. Changes in graphing response pattern were determined by an interval scale which reflected the presence of change/no change and amount of change, using as analytical units speed, size, shape, type, and pause. The following conclusions were made: findings showed an observable, quantifiable relationship between changes in children's graphing response patterns and elemental changes in music parameters. This relationship encompassed not only change/no change judgements but also magnitude of response. Overall, frequency and magnitude/degree of student response was proportionate to the frequency and magnitude of change in the music parameter/s. Results indicated the existence of high-ranking correlations between student response and certain parameters regardless of the degree-of-change/points-of-change ratio. Findings showed that one degree of change in a single music parameter was not sufficient to cause an observable change in the attention ...
Date: May 1993
Creator: Lehmann, Sharon Fincher

Music Performance Program Enrollment and Course Availability for Educationally Disadvantaged versus Non-Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to measure music performance program enrollments and course availability for educationally disadvantaged and non-educationally disadvantaged groups (grades 9-12) in Texas, and to further examine relationships which could help music educators understand the role which music performance programs play in the lives of educationally disadvantaged students. Data analyzed were collected by Texas' Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS). Educationally disadvantaged groups under consideration included economically disadvantaged, at risk (as defined by Texas Education Agency guidelines), limited English proficient, as well as Black and Hispanic students. Separate analyses were conducted for band, choir, and orchestra. Subjects included 907,327 students from 1,048 school districts.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Nabb, David B.

An Investigation into the Stability of Students' Timbre Preferences from the Sixth through the Tenth Grade

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students' timbre preferences in the sixth grade remain stable through the tenth grade. The investigation also examined whether gender, band instruction, or musical home environment makes any difference in influencing the stability of students' timbre preferences from grade six through ten. Students' timbre preferences at the beginning of the study were compared to their preferences four years later. The students' timbre preferences were obtained by employing Gordon's Instrument Timbre Preference Test (ITPT). A questionnaire was also utilized at the conclusion of the study to determine which students had musical home environments and which did not. All sixth grade students enrolled in a single school district took the ITPT. Each student's scores were tallied and ranked in order to determine their timbre preferences; four years later they were retested and their scores were ranked again.
Date: May 1995
Creator: May, Brack M. (Brack Miles)

The Professional Socialization of Arkansas Music Teachers as Musicians and Educators : The Role of Influential Persons from Childhood to Post-college Years

Description: The purpose was to investigate the role of influential persons in the professional socialization process of music educators as musicians and teachers. The problems were to determine: who encouraged subjects toward music and teaching during pre-college, college, and post-college years; and the interrerationships of gender and teaching specialty with influential persons in subjects' lives.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Cox, Patricia Huff

A Nationwide Investigation of High School Band Directors' Reasons for Participating in Music Competitions

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess on a national level, high school band directors' reasons for their bands' participation in six different types of competitive music activities, identify important reasons for participation in competitive music activities, and examine if statistically significant differences existed between the magnitudes of importance reasons for participation when subjects' responses were grouped by type of competitive activity, frequency of participation in a competitive activity, and by groupings of U. S. states similar in terms of general participation in competitive music activities, emphasis upon ratings or rankings as an indication of a high school band directors' success, and emphasis upon participation in competitive music activities.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Hurst, Craig Willmore

Vocal Self-identification, Singing Style, and Singing Range in Relationship to a Measure of Cultural Mistrust in African-American Adolescent Females

Description: The purpose was to determine the relationship between high or low cultural mistrust and vocal characteristics in African-American adolescent females. The vocal characteristics were vocal self-identification, singing style, and singing range.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Johnson, Beverly Yvonne

An Investigation of Selected Muscle Potential Activity in Violin/Viola Vibrato

Description: The purpose was to investigate muscle potential during the vibrato motion for successful, healthy violin/viola performers. Electromyography was used to analyze parameters of muscle potentials during performance of a standardized exercise. These parameters were (a) evidence of potentials, (b) patterns of potentials, and (c) timing relationships (24 muscles). This study also sought to replicate and expand performance data from previous studies. Procedures from three pilot studies were used to standardize collection of EMG data. Synchronized video recordings were used to determine vibrato speed and conduct motion analysis. EMG data processing prior to analysis included power spectrum analysis and rectification, low-pass filtering, and smoothing data. Motion analysis findings (£D) were 1.09 for the elbow joints and 3.25 for the wrist joints. which was an indication of range of motion, suggested much greater activity in muscles controlling wrist movement than those moving the elbow. The degree of muscle potential and control were generally related to distance from the vibrating hand. Forearm muscle groups (8) demonstrated the greatest evidence of potential (76.5%) and were 18.1% non-periodic. Muscles of the upper arm (7) were off 59.4% and 57.0% non-periodic. Upper arm muscles had greater individual differences. Muscles of the chest and back (9) were collectively inactive (89.1%) and non-periodic (73.3%). With timing relationships, the forearm muscles demonstrated consistent firing patterns. Inconsistent firing patterns were evident in the upper arm, and to a greater degree in the chest and back muscles. Based on evaluations of performer motion and muscle potentials, it was strongly implied that there are (a) distinct roles for various muscles during vibrato (control vs. stabilization/support), (b) significant differences in potential between variables of rest, playing position, and performing, (c) significant differences in potential between some fingers, and (d) no significant differences between violinists and violists. The vibrato motion appeared to be controlled ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Weber, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)

An Attitude Assessment of Amateur Musicians in Adult Community Bands

Description: The purpose of this study was to ascertain certain factors which lead adults to participate in community band activity. This study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors of rewards for community band participants based on the responses of a selected sample to validated attitude statements? 2. What are the relationships that might exist between certain demographic characteristics of the sample such as age, gender, education, occupation, musical training, geographic region (independent variables) and factors of participation (dependent variables) determined by principal components analysis? 3. What are the relationships that might exist between the findings of this study using member generated attitude statements and the findings of other attitude studies using researcher generated attitude statements? A 179-item survey was developed from an initital pool of 839 attitude statements after two pilot studies and an expert review. A randomly selected, stratified cluster sample of 74 organizational members of the Association of Concert Bands participated in the study. The average number of band members present during the survey process was 35. The average number of surveys returned per band was 23.66 for a return rate of 65.9% One thousand seven hundred twenty five individuals participated in the study. Frequency distributions of responses revealed the 36-50 age group to be the most represented (33%) followed closely by the 51-65 age group (27.8%). Males outnumbered females (57.5% to 42.3%). Over 80% of respondents were married. Almost 75% of respondents were college graduates. Over 60% had performed in college ensembles. Over half (55.4%) of respondents were either employed in the professional trades or white collar occupations. Almost 10% considered themselves professional musicians. Principal components analysis of the 179 items yielded six main factors of participation which were labeled Intrinsic Motivators, Organizational Motivators, Membership Standards, Repertoire/Conductor, Rehearsals/Performances, and Quality. Further analysis of ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Spencer, William David, 1952-

Student Interpretations of Teacher Verbal Praise in Selected Seventh and Eighth Grade Choral Classes

Description: This study investigated the effect familiarity with a teacher had on student interpretations of teacher verbal praise in seventh and eighth grade choral ensembles. A stimulus tape was constructed of 16, 30-second videotaped clips containing verbal praise of four teachers. Teachers identified their intent in the use of praise in each example. Students (n = 80) from the four choirs responded to the tape by labeling the praise in each clip as deserved or as one of three types of instructional praise (i.e., praise to encourage, to send a message to other students, or to seek student cooperation). Comparisons were made between choirs in labeling the praise. Comparisons were made also between each teacher's stated purpose in praising and the interpretations of choirs familiar and unfamiliar with the teacher. Choirs who were unfamiliar with the teacher differed from the teachers' own students in interpreting the praise: Students who knew a teacher labeled the praise as deserved in five clips, but unfamiliar choirs thought the praise served an instructional purpose. In four clips, choirs differed in their interpretations of the type of instructional praise. Students familiar with a teacher recognized their teacher's intent in praising in 12 of 16 clips. In some situations, familiarity with a teacher and context made a difference in detecting the teacher's purpose for praising. In five clips where teachers identified the praise as deserved, students unfamiliar with the teacher and context thought the praise was intended to encourage students. Students across choirs were particularly sensitive to a teacher's use of praise to send a message to other students. Students are keen observers of teacher praise. Findings suggest students discriminate between praise directed at the performance and praise used for instructional purposes, suggesting that observation instruments that rely on a single label for praise might miss important ...
Date: December 1995
Creator: Taylor, Ouida O. (Ouida Oswalt)

A Study of Intensity Control in Males with Developing Voices: Implications for Pitch Range and Tessitura

Description: Research on voice change in males has generally fallen into two categories: music education studies of changes in the singing voice and speech studies of changes in the speaking voice. These studies rarely consider differences in the dynamic ability of male singers at different stages of vocal development. The concept of tessitura, a portion of the vocal range in which the singer sounds best, is referred to in the literature on vocal music, but the means for identifying its size and location within the range have not been consistently specified. Tessitura appears to be a portion of the range which is most controllable in terms of dynamics and agility and is optimal in tonal quality. This study used the phonetograph to investigate differences in measures of intensity control between pre-pubertal, pubertal (changing) and post-pubertal voices in 48 males aged 9 to 18 years old. These intensity measures were compared to ratings of vocal effort from a panel of 4 music educators in order to determine if tessitura could be identified from acoustic and perceptual evidence of an optimum vocal area. Results of the study were: 1) post-pubertal voices demonstrated greater control of vocal intensity as revealed in lower mean minimum and comfortable intensity measures, higher overall maximum intensity measures and a larger minimum-to-maximum intensity range; 2) intensity measures for pubertal voices were similar to those observed in pre-pubertal voices, contrary to trends suggested in the literature on voice change; 3) the Greatest Dynamic Range (GDR) on the phonetograph, indicating the range in which singers had the most dynamic control, was smaller than the range in which the singers were judged to sound best; 4) tessitura originated in the lower portion of the vocal range, around the location of mean speaking fundamental frequency. Although registers were not specifically investigated, tessitura appeared ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Harris, Lee Davis

An Investigation of the Influence of Evaluator Background on Appraisals of a Music Lesson Using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System

Description: This study's purpose was to investigate the differences in scores and written comments given by two appraisal groups in their evaluation of a music teacher using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System (TTAS). One appraiser group had musical training while the other group specialized in other subjects. Analyses of both group's appraisal scores showed no significant differences. An examination of the written comments revealed that both appraisal groups focused on the same aspects of the lesson and used similar vocabulary. The TTAS instrument was a consistent measure of generic teacher behaviors in the music lesson, but it did not measure specific music teaching behaviors or encourage suggestions for improving musical instruction.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Bohnstengel, Carol

American Indian Music in Elementary School Music Programs of Oklahoma : Repertoire, Authenticity and Instruction

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the instructional methods of Oklahoma's elementary school music educators with respect to the inclusion of an authentic repertoire of American Indian music in the curriculum. The research was conducted through two methods. First, an analysis and review of adopted textbook series and pertinent supplemental resources on American Indian music was made. Second, a survey of K-6 grade elementary music specialists in Oklahoma during the 1997-1998 school year was conducted.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Damm, Robert J., 1964-