This subject has been chosen by the writer for the purpose of discussing these problems of performance, arising with the composition, the St. Matthew Passion, by J. S. Bach. Since Bach was a German and wrote in that language, the edition used is called the American edition. The performances in America are, with few exceptions, based upon translations which must be accurately edited so as not to obscure Bach's intentions.
A study of the critical work of Virgil Thomson, critic for the New York Herald Tribune and of Olin Downes, music critic for the New York Times, will perhaps give a better understanding of how different emphasis on purposes may influence critical work. Each man wrote brief, journalistic reviews. They attended many of the same concerts; yet, their critical judgments differed in many respects.
The traditional music of America in collection is musically representative of pioneer settlements of the country from Mexico to Canada and from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. To insure that each section of this vast country was musically represented naturally would require a systematic and thorough coverage by those persons who have made this work their primary concern for a good many years. A look at the map of these United States gives the observer an acute awareness of the stupendous undertaking for those who were first to begin their trek into the regions of the land where folk song abounds, into communities into which fast-moving civilization has been slow to penetrate. Early in their history these communities were isolated because of the hardships and dangers of travel. With the spread of civilization, however, the country was tamed and became more densely populated so that the growth of folk song and traditions within the social life of these isolated communities was a natural sequence.
The purpose of this survey was to analyze the course of study in instrumental music prescribed by the Texas State Department for the high schools of the state and to determine whether or not a coordinated and well-rounded program of education in instrumental music is being offered in the schools of Texas. It was hoped, furthermore, that, by comparing this program with others elsewhere, this analysis might show whether or not Texas is following any general trend in instrumental music education.
The following study is designed to define the existing differences of opinion regarding the solution of vocal problems. Some twenty-five vocal methods have been examined with reference to the principles set forth on what are generally considered the most important vocal problems, viz., Breathing, Registers, Resonance, Tone and Interpretation.
The purpose of this thesis is to acquaint future band and orchestra directors with a successful, thoroughly "tried and tested" plan of building an instrumental program within the music department. This thesis presents the technique of instrumentating the senior high school band by planning an instrumental program from the first grade to the time the band student reaches the senior high school level.
It has been the purpose of this study to examine representative beginning piano methods, as found available in published form, and to compare and evaluate them according to musical, psychological, physical, and educational standards.
The problem of this study is to set forth some principles of teaching beginning music theory in Texas colleges; to survey and evaluate critically a sampling of standard theory textbooks basing the evaluation on the principles outlined; and to recommend a methodology for teaching beginning college theory.
The object of this paper is to effect a comparison between the early Shakespearean songs and their more recent settings and to discuss in detail differences in style and technique, with emphasis upon textual and melodic characteristics.
For several decades since the rise of extensive instrumental music instruction, various music periodicals have devoted a certain amount of space to printing comments, suggestions, and other pedagogical material to aid the student in playing a particular instrument. The writer, in his belief in the value of this material, has chosen to make a survey of various periodicals and to catalog certain items as a reference guide to the location of significant articles.
The problems arising in the conception, composing and perfecting of a composition may be divided into two types (1) Those connected with the composition itself; and (2) Those pertaining to the interpretation of the moods and thematic variations of the composition by the orchestra.
The purpose of this survey is to evaluate the contribution that the Westminster Choir movement has made to choral music in the United States today. It is hoped after the contributions have been stated by the investigator that the important position Westminster Choir College is occupying will be better understood.
The problem of this study is to present a course in keyboard harmony based on the recitative style and figured bass of great works of music which can be used in the teaching of beginning and advanced college music theory.
Many persons who major in music with the intention of teaching, either at the public school or college level, are poorly equipped to cope with every problem confronting them. With this in mind, the author has attempted to assemble as much valuable and helpful material as possible into a course of study.
Since the music requirement does rest with the teacher training institutions, the elementary education major is required, in most colleges and universities, to take six hours of music education. My problem is to develop an adequate course of study in music education to fit the musical needs of the elementary education major which will prepare her as well as possible in the allotted six hours to teach music in a classroom aided or unaided by supervision
The subsequent study is an outgrowth of observations made during a year spent in secondary voice teaching on the college level. For the purpose of working toward a more effective and efficient secondary voice program, the following material is presented. The first part of the study is a critical analysis and comparison of six methods of voice teaching designed for, or adaptable to, class voice teaching. The second part of the study is a suggested plan for teaching secondary voice in classes, including an outline of material which could be used.
The significance of a complete analysis of Schubert's orchestral larger works is self-evident to musicians and scholars. In the literature today one may find adequate analysis of many of the larger choral and orchestral works of the various masters, but rarely is it possible for one to secure a scholarly and intelligent analysis and interpretation of the smaller forms, especially the vocal works. Perhaps the reason for this state is the lack of interest in many of the aspects and phases of song literature as vocalists and teachers have probably been more concerned with the artistic rendition of the songs rather than an academic approach. But with the turn of the present decade, a decided interest has become apparent in musicological scholarship and the present study is but one evidence of the trend toward critical and academic analysis of smaller forms heretofore omitted in music literature.
Roy Harris is an American composer who has contributed and is still contributing to the field of modern music. This study is concerned with his choral music and the substantiation of the fact that his contributions in this field are outstanding and are expressive of a living Americanism. It is also the purpose of the study to examine and analyze the choral works of this notable Oklahoma composer and teacher in an effort to determine what Harris has to say musically and his method of expressing himself.
The following analysis of Franz Schubert's (1797-1828) song cycle Schwanengesang (1828) was undertaken in the hope that such a treatment of the final contributions of this important master of song literature would prove of interest to students of this field.The materials examined comprise the fourteen songs collectively known as Schwanengesang (Dying Strains), taken from the G. Schirmer's Edition of Schubert's Songs with English translations by Theodore Baker. From a synopsis of the art song concluded with critical remarks on Schubert's style and contributions to the art of writing songs, the author has proceeded to a few general statements on the song cycle itself. This is followed by an analysis of each song from the point of view of the text, the general harmonic scheme, the vocal line, and the function and type of accompaniment.
Leo Sowerby is an American composer who has, in the writer's opinion, made a fine contribution to the field of modern music. This fact will be substantiated in the following study, the purpose of which will be to examine and to analyze to some extent the works of this eminent Chicago composer, teacher, organist, and choir-master. This study will-be of particular interest to students of the organ, for it concerns itself chiefly with the organ works of Sowerby, and to students of composition and modern harmonic trends, for the study high lights the composer's characteristic procedures in these two directions.
The problem which is reported in these pages represents an attempt to bring into one work a critical and analytical survey of the material currently available in the field of music therapy. There is such a wealth of new material, especially since the termination of the war, that the necessity for a new and up-to-date compilation of material is evident. The objective of this thesis is to collect general information as to the theory and practices of music therapy, rather than to secure for purposes of statistical analysis great numbers of detailed items in regard to a technique that has not yet been carried to a point where it can be standardized. However, this compilation does include some actual experiments which have been conducted in hospitals with the object of determining the effect on physical and mental patients of certain musical compositions and certain instruments.
The findings of this study should prove to be a boon to all those who enjoy performing madrigals, for through the cooperation of the leading music publishing houses in this country, a complete authoritative list of fine madrigals has been gathered. Many of these will be new both to the performers and the public.
The instrumental composition of the band is an outgrowth of utilitarian improvisation. The well-developed percussion section, and the voluminous reed and brass sections are a carry-over from the Military, where the emphasis was on functional beating of time for marching. Mobility and volume sufficient for the accompaniment of troop movements were also necessary. Until recent times, the band existed only for functional matters, never as an independent and self-justifying medium with its purpose being a musical organization. Through the growth of military, professional, and school bands, the band of today has developed into a musical organization in its own right, which can perform almost anything in the technical range of composition.
This study is an evaluation of individual music textbooks from eight series for grades four, five, and six, by a definite criterion basis. It seems very worthwhile to have an evaluation of such books: (a) to aid in the wise selection of music books, and (b) to become familiar with the contributions of each series.
Th study of two-piano music was prompted by an active interest in that field and a recognized need for a knowledge of its literature on the part of the writer, who, for the past five years, has devoted most of her time to two-piano work. After careful investigation it becomes apparent that no other study similar to this has yet been made, and it is hoped that it may be helpful to others with interests in common. Much remains to be done and further study would prove profitable. More information might be gained from interviews with prominent duo-pianists, as well as from examination of foreign catalogues and of recital programs given in Carnegie Hall, Town Hall, and similar music centers.
The purpose of this study is to set forth certain principals or rules, Which, if adhered to, will be a beginning in the training of the young musician who would make the playing of dance music his profession. Be it understood that this is only an embryonic work and as such it should not be considered a final and irrevocable treatise on this topic. Actual work and development in this field will probably see many of the practices recommended herein relegated to a less important stage while items not mentioned, or perhaps mentioned and treated without undue stress, may come to the foreground of importance. It is hoped that this work will help in paving the way for a sincere and unprejudiced program of training for the young dance musician. However, before venturing into any discussion concerning dance music, it is necessary to have a clear understanding as to what fields of music are included in the term dance music.
The purpose of the creative approach in music education is to furnish the child with opportunities for originality of expression and for freedom and adventure. This thesis examines the goals and purposes of using creativity in music eduction.
This paper attempts to give a complete musical and dramatic analysis of the character of Isolde, from both the legend and Richard Wagner's opera, Tristan and Isolde, by first comparing the events as related in the two principal sources of the legend and then by an examination of Wagner's version of the story.
The English classical song is peculiarly native to Britain. It roots in the mystic elements of ballads and nature. It was the influence of the early English ballad, first spoken, then sung, then joined in the happy culmination of voice and melody to make a song that is immortal and unique in music.
An important and unending responsibility of the music teacher is the competent evaluation of available basic text-series. It seems obvious that before any text-series, or any single book, is adopted for use in the public school music classes, a process of assessing the available series or single volumes should precede the final decision and purchase. Since a thorough search in music education literature has failed to reveal any set of formal rules of analysis, the writer has thought it possible to use those general principles recommended by two authoritative sources, The Psychology of School Music Teaching by Mursell and Glenn, and Music in the Grade Schools by Gehrkens in collaboration with personal ideas obtained from professional study of music teaching and experience as a music teacher.
There are no figures available, but if a survey were made, possibly more people would be found engaged in the study and teaching of piano than any other musical instrument. It is much to be desired for both teachers and students to have an intimate acquaintance with the principles underlying the structure of modern piano technique. The situation as it generally exists contrasts sharply with the ideal situation. The ignorance of this important phase of piano study causes an enormous annual waste of time and money on the part of students. With an adequate technical knowledge, teachers, instead of allowing their pupils to practice blindly and mechanically, would be able to explain the reason for each movement they ask them to perform. Many failures in both classes occur because of the lack of understanding of what piano playing requires.
The purpose of this thesis is to present an evaluated list of motion picture films which are related to the field of music and the teaching of music in order that both teacher and student of music may become familiar with the films which are available for use in music education and with the relative merit of each film.
Material relating to the viola, its history, technique, use as a solo and orchestral instrument, and its use in chamber music, is practically non-existent. For this reason, this document is being written in an attempt first, to collect and discuss, for the benefit of the author as well as for any who might have some interest in the viola, facts which might eliminate some of the common misunderstandings about the instrument, and second, to show, through examination of viola music, the use to which the viola has been put in solo, orchestral, and chamber music from the Baroque period to the present.
This study is an experimental investigation of two groups of junior high school students in an effort to evaluate the advantages of workbooks in their music classes. The comparison was made with two classes composed of thirty-two students each from the two junior high schools in the Beaumont Independent School District. One class used the workbooks in conjunction with the regular singing and appreciation work, but the other class did not use formal workbooks. They discussed the theory and notation of the music in relation to the work they were doing.
The public school of Vanderbilt, Texas is in the process of building a band. The steady growth of the band will depend upon a long-range planning program. It is the band director's aim to set up such a long-range plan to cover the five years from the 1947 school year and including the 1952 school year. The following chapters will cover most of the phases of the band's work, and that of the director's work, and his relation to the band and the community.
Instrumental music classes in the public schools of Tulsa, Oklahoma, have experienced a phenomenal growth during the past twenty years. Prior to this period, opportunity for instrumental music expression was limited to the high school band and orchestra,which rehearsed outside of school hours. No instruction other than this was provided and the student who wished to play in the school band or orchestra studied first from private instructors. In this study the investigator has examined a great many devices for measuring capacities and aptitudes which are known to the profession. He has attempted to evaluate these procedures in the light of sound educational philosophy. He has set forth a plan which he believes will materially improve the instrumental program through discovering unsuspected musical capacity and through sound guidance in the selection of suitable instruments.
The purpose of this paper is to give a historical and stylistic analysis of the Sonata, Op.31, No.2 in D minor of Beethoven. The historical background of Beethoven, the time period the sonata was written, and the influence that the piano of the time had on the sonata is first discussed. The author then discusses the general aspects of Beethoven's style followed by a detailed analysis of the sonata.
A study of the carol form immediately leads into the field of the hymn; each is a form of praise or worship. The hymn is as instinctive as life itself, and as universal as the air man breathes. Hymns to the sun god, to the many Babylonian deities, to the Great Spirit of the American Indian - these are found, along with others in all ancient literature.
Though perhaps we shall never know the music to which these religious lyrics were written, the poems have never ceased to be the source of inspiration for the spirits of men since they were first sung. Each psalm seems to have an underlying purpose with a personal message for each reader. In the Book one can find a reply to every sort of question, for the Psalms are filled with expressions of emotion brought about by all human experience. The collection of these 150 songs or psalms makes up what is known as the Hebrew hymn-book or the Book of Psalms.
The first of any formal education in music that can be found from the records or from the memories of those who were present at the time was the singing school. One ranch in the Blair community has files in which records were found of all import ant events of the school and community life. These files relate the coming of the singing school regularly every summer. Shaped notes were taught front hymn books. At the end of the course, a certificate was given to those who graduated. The teacher of the school then moved on to the next engagement.
The presence of musically deficient children in the music classes of elementary public schools is a well-known and a widespread situation. The problem of this study was to determine which of two methods of giving special attention to such pupils would be the more successful in assisting them to improve musically.
There is often difficulty in determining the most desirable medium to be used in the composition of music. After careful consideration, the writer chose the medium of piano to present the following musical composition. In the initial investigations, it appeared that the vocal idiom might provide a more suitable choice. However, piano teaching rather than work in the vocal field will probably consume a greater part of the writer's time in the future. The writing of a piano composition, then, appeared to be a justifiable decision.
An inadequate music education program should give rise to some thought and action on the part of any serious-minded progressive teacher in that field, It is not enough to suspect or to discover faults, but a way to improve the situation should be attempted. Best practices should be evaluated and objectives formulated for future procedure through cooperative planning.
Within this document, the writer hopes to present a thorough study of the various methods and materials which are available for the beginning, intermediate, and advanced band classes of the Goose Creek Independent School District, Goose Creek, Texas, taking into consideration the organization of the school system as it exists at the present time.
In this bibliography an attempt has been made to furnish references to teachers that may assist them to develop in the students: (1) an attitude of friendly interest which will help to link the Americas in mutual respect and to promote a better understanding of problems to be met; (2) to gain an understanding and appreciation of the background of South American culture of today; (3) to become familiar with the folk music as well as the concert, both vocal and instrumental.
This study is to determine some means of directing and supervising practice periods of band students; and to examine the available class study materials with a view of determining their use and suitability as an aid to supervised practice.
A. What training are senior colleges giving students in Texas to prepare them for teaching music in the grades? B. What training are junior colleges giving students in Texas to prepare them for teaching music in the grades? C. What observations can be made on training now given? What recommendations can be made for improvement? D. 'What conclusions have supervisors of music in Texas reached concerning the ability of teachers trained in teachers' colleges? E. What is the reaction of teachers who are teaching music and who have had the six hours of music required by the state department?
Five French organ composers, representative of the period from Widor to the present time, are identified in this study, and a comparative analysis of the works of each is made. The introduction includes the source of the data, the scope of the problem, the purpose of the study, the method of procedure, a brief historical background of the new French school of music, general characteristics of modern French music, and specific idioms of contemporary French organ composers, as exemplified in the works of the organists selected: Charles Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, Charles Tournemire, Marcel Dupre, and Joseph Bonnet. The compositions and musical contributions of Widor, Vierne, Tournemire, Dupre, and Bonnet, respectively, are discussed in Chapter II through Chapter VI. Chapter VII states a summary of the study and the conclusions drawn,
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