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Applications in Fixed Point Theory

Description: Banach's contraction principle is probably one of the most important theorems in fixed point theory. It has been used to develop much of the rest of fixed point theory. Another key result in the field is a theorem due to Browder, Göhde, and Kirk involving Hilbert spaces and nonexpansive mappings. Several applications of Banach's contraction principle are made. Some of these applications involve obtaining new metrics on a space, forcing a continuous map to have a fixed point, and using conditions on the boundary of a closed ball in a Banach space to obtain a fixed point. Finally, a development of the theorem due to Browder et al. is given with Hilbert spaces replaced by uniformly convex Banach spaces.
Date: December 2005
Creator: Farmer, Matthew Ray

Borel Determinacy and Metamathematics

Description: Borel determinacy states that if G(T;X) is a game and X is Borel, then G(T;X) is determined. Proved by Martin in 1975, Borel determinacy is a theorem of ZFC set theory, and is, in fact, the best determinacy result in ZFC. However, the proof uses sets of high set theoretic type (N1 many power sets of ω). Friedman proved in 1971 that these sets are necessary by showing that the Axiom of Replacement is necessary for any proof of Borel Determinacy. To prove this, Friedman produces a model of ZC and a Borel set of Turing degrees that neither contains nor omits a cone; so by another theorem of Martin, Borel Determinacy is not a theorem of ZC. This paper contains three main sections: Martin's proof of Borel Determinacy; a simpler example of Friedman's result, namely, (in ZFC) a coanalytic set of Turing degrees that neither contains nor omits a cone; and finally, the Friedman result.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Bryant, Ross

Characterizations of Continua of Finite Degree

Description: In this thesis, some characterizations of continua of finite degree are given. It turns out that being of finite degree (by formal definition) can be described by saying there exists an equivalent metric in which Hausdorff linear measure of the continuum is finite. I discuss this result in detail.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Irwin, Shana

Compact Operators and the Schrödinger Equation

Description: In this thesis I look at the theory of compact operators in a general Hilbert space, as well as the inverse of the Hamiltonian operator in the specific case of L2[a,b]. I show that this inverse is a compact, positive, and bounded linear operator. Also the eigenfunctions of this operator form a basis for the space of continuous functions as a subspace of L2[a,b]. A numerical method is proposed to solve for these eigenfunctions when the Hamiltonian is considered as an operator on Rn. The paper finishes with a discussion of examples of Schrödinger equations and the solutions.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Kazemi, Parimah

A Detailed Proof of the Prime Number Theorem for Arithmetic Progressions

Description: We follow a research paper that J. Elstrodt published in 1998 to prove the Prime Number Theorem for arithmetic progressions. We will review basic results from Dirichlet characters and L-functions. Furthermore, we establish a weak version of the Wiener-Ikehara Tauberian Theorem, which is an essential tool for the proof of our main result.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Vlasic, Andrew

Determining Properties of Synaptic Structure in a Neural Network through Spike Train Analysis

Description: A "complex" system typically has a relatively large number of dynamically interacting components and tends to exhibit emergent behavior that cannot be explained by analyzing each component separately. A biological neural network is one example of such a system. A multi-agent model of such a network is developed to study the relationships between a network's structure and its spike train output. Using this model, inferences are made about the synaptic structure of networks through cluster analysis of spike train summary statistics A complexity measure for the network structure is also presented which has a one-to-one correspondence with the standard time series complexity measure sample entropy.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Brooks, Evan

Hyperspace Topologies

Description: In this paper we study properties of metric spaces. We consider the collection of all nonempty closed subsets, Cl(X), of a metric space (X,d) and topologies on C.(X) induced by d. In particular, we investigate the Hausdorff topology and the Wijsman topology. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for when a particular pseudo-metric is a metric in the Wijsman topology. The metric properties of the two topologies are compared and contrasted to show which also hold in the respective topologies. We then look at the metric space R-n, and build two residual sets. One residual set is the collection of uncountable, closed subsets of R-n and the other residual set is the collection of closed subsets of R-n having n-dimensional Lebesgue measure zero. We conclude with the intersection of these two sets being a residual set representing the collection of uncountable, closed subsets of R-n having n-dimensional Lebesgue measure zero.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Freeman, Jeannette Broad

Lyapunov Exponents, Entropy and Dimension

Description: We consider diffeomorphisms of a compact Riemann Surface. A development of Oseledec's Multiplicative Ergodic Theorem is given, along with a development of measure theoretic entropy and dimension. The main result, due to L.S. Young, is that for certain diffeomorphisms of a surface, there is a beautiful relationship between these three concepts; namely that the entropy equals dimension times expansion.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Williams, Jeremy M.

Mathematical Modeling of Charged Liquid Droplets: Numerical Simulation and Stability Analysis

Description: The goal of this thesis is to study of the evolution of 3D electrically charged liquid droplets of fluid evolving under the influence of surface tension and electrostatic forces. In the first part of the thesis, an appropriate mathematical model of the problem is introduced and the linear stability analysis is developed by perturbing a sphere with spherical harmonics. In the second part, the numerical solution of the problem is described with the use of the boundary elements method (BEM) on an adaptive mesh of triangular elements. The numerical method is validated by comparison with exact solutions. Finally, various numerical results are presented. These include neck formation in droplets, the evolution of surfaces with holes, singularity formation on droplets with various symmetries and numerical evidence that oblate spheroids are unstable.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Vantzos, Orestis

On the density of minimal free subflows of general symbolic flows.

Description: This paper studies symbolic dynamical systems {0, 1}G, where G is a countably infinite group, {0, 1}G has the product topology, and G acts on {0, 1}G by shifts. It is proven that for every countably infinite group G the union of the minimal free subflows of {0, 1}G is dense. In fact, a stronger result is obtained which states that if G is a countably infinite group and U is an open subset of {0, 1}G, then there is a collection of size continuum consisting of pairwise disjoint minimal free subflows intersecting U.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Seward, Brandon Michael

Thermodynamical Formalism

Description: Thermodynamical formalism is a relatively recent area of pure mathematics owing a lot to some classical notions of thermodynamics. On this thesis we state and prove some of the main results in the area of thermodynamical formalism. The first chapter is an introduction to ergodic theory. Some of the main theorems are proved and there is also a quite thorough study of the topology that arises in Borel probability measure spaces. In the second chapter we introduce the notions of topological pressure and measure theoretic entropy and we state and prove two very important theorems, Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem and the Variational Principle. Distance expanding maps and their connection with the calculation of topological pressure cover the third chapter. The fourth chapter introduces Gibbs states and the very important Perron-Frobenius Operator. The fifth chapter establishes the connection between pressure and geometry. Topological pressure is used in the calculation of Hausdorff dimensions. Finally the sixth chapter introduces the notion of conformal measures.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Chousionis, Vasileios

Understanding Ancient Math Through Kepler: A Few Geometric Ideas from The Harmony of the World

Description: Euclid's geometry is well-known for its theorems concerning triangles and circles. Less popular are the contents of the tenth book, in which geometry is a means to study quantity in general. Commensurability and rational quantities are first principles, and from them are derived at least eight species of irrationals. A recently republished work by Johannes Kepler contains examples using polygons to illustrate these species. In addition, figures having these quantities in their construction form solid shapes (polyhedra) having origins though Platonic philosophy and Archimedean works. Kepler gives two additional polyhedra, and a simple means for constructing the “divine” proportion is given.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Arthur, Christopher