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Lean on Me: Social Support Compensation and Risk of Death in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Description: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has an estimated incidence of nearly 11 million US adults aged 65 years and older. Evidence suggests that the quality of the marital relationship is an important factor for diabetes related health outcomes affecting self-management and adherence (Kiecolt-Glaser & Newton, 2001). However, an individual in need may compensate for primary support that is unavailable or not optimal by looking for other sources of support, which may be important for health outcomes (Rini, et al., 2008). The present study examined compensation for poor spousal support through other social relationships. A total of 12,640 participants reported they had diabetes and were married (Male = 6,317 and Female = 6,323), and of this group 1,084 men and 583 women had died over the course of the study period. Women reported lower spousal support, but significantly more aggregated social support across relationships than men. Few persons reported low spousal support and low support compensation, rendering the cell sizes highly unequal and the associated data uninterpretable. Ancillary analyses were conducted with the idea that some variance in total compensation support may moderate mortality risk finding that higher aggregated social support across non-spousal relationships was associated with lower risk of death accounting for ~3% of the variance in the final model. The current findings demonstrate how an individual can compensate for a poor primary support relationship through a broader support network. These findings should guide future research to focus on how individuals build, maintain, and seek support from social relationships.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Smith, Lauren Marie

Religiosity As a Coping Resource for Depression and Disease Management Among Older Diabetic Patients

Description: Compared to the general population, diabetic patients experience a higher prevalence of depression, which can often exacerbate diabetic symptoms and complicate treatment. Studies show that religion is associated with both better physical health and better psychological functioning; however, studies incorporating religion and depression among diabetic individuals are scarce. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by examining archival data from the 2008 and 2010 data waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Cross-sectional findings confirmed that stronger religiosity was positively correlated with perceived diabetes control and positive diabetes change, and negatively correlated with total number of depressive symptoms and total number of weeks depressed. Longitudinal findings confirmed that stronger religiosity in 2008 was positively correlated with perceived diabetes change in 2010 and negatively correlated with total number of depressive symptoms in 2010. Logistic regression and multiple regression analyses were performed to test four moderation models. Results showed that religiosity significantly moderated the relationship between perceived diabetes control and total number of weeks depressed. More specifically, for diabetics with low levels of religiosity, whether they believed their diabetes was under control or not did not make a significant difference in the total number of weeks depressed. However, high levels of religiosity served as a buffer against the duration of depressive symptoms but only for diabetics who perceived to have their diabetes under control. Understanding how these constructs jointly influence diabetes management and psychological functioning is critical in that medical professionals may utilize such knowledge to enhance treatment outcomes.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Dzivakwe, Vanessa G.

Identifying AD/HD subtypes using the cognitive assessment system and the NEPSY

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) and the NEPSY, A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, to differentiate between the subtypes of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). The CAS and NEPSY are neuropsychological instruments which provide norms for AD/HD children in general. This study examined the performance of the two subtypes of AD/HD on the CAS and NEPSY. In addition, this study examined the performance of the two AD/HD groups on the Screening Test for Auditory Processing Disorders (SCAN). Since AD/HD children tend to have difficulty with language, the SCAN was used to determine if any of the AD/HD subjects had auditory processing difficulties that might impact their performance on the CAS and/or NEPSY subtests. The sample consisted of 118 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years of age. Using the DSM-IV criteria, the children were diagnosed as having three types of AD/HD: A Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (AD/HD-HI), a Predominantly Inattentive Type (AD/HD-I) and a Combined Type The subtypes were also identified by the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale-Home Version (ADDES-H). Only two subtypes, AD/HD-I and AD/HD-C, were identified by the ADDES-H. There were not enough AD/HD-HI subjects to include in the study. Therefore, this study focused on the AD/HD-I and AD/HD-C subtypes. A binomial logistic regression analysis was conducted on the AD/HD-I and AD/HD-C subtypes with selected subtests of the NEPSY and the four PASS Scales of the CAS. Results indicated a significant difference between the AD/HD-I and AD/HD-C groups on the Tower subtest of the NEPSY and the Planning Scale of the CAS. The Tower and the Planning Scale are both purported measures of executive functioning; however, results of the Planning Scale were in an unexpected direction. No significant difference was found between the two AD/HD groups on the ...
Date: August 2001
Creator: Pottinger, Lindy Sylvan

The Effects of Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, Flourishing, and Languishing on Cardiovascular Risk

Description: Positive psychology has led a movement that concentrates on positive characteristics. The current study examined the relationship between positive emotions, negative emotions, flourishing, languishing, and cardiovascular functioning. The study uses guided imagery to help participants recall a negative emotional event and positive emotional event in a counterbalanced order. The reverse order allowed us to examine the differential contributions of stress buffering versus facilitated recovery effects to higher levels of heart rate variability (HRV). The study also examined the relationship between mental health categories and known cardiovascular disease risk. Univariate analysis of variance revealed that positive emotions can serve as a stress buffer and dampen cardiovascular responses to a negative event. Also, analysis revealed a trend for the prediction that positive emotions can facilitate cardiovascular recovery following a negative event. Exploratory analysis did not reveal differences between a facilitated recovery group and a buffering group for cardiovascular measures. Future studies should include tighter control to help compare the differential influences of stress facilitation and stress buffering on cardiovascular functioning. The results from the study indicate that it is still too early to tell whether mental health buffers those individuals from developing CVD, and to answer whether languishing increases the risk of CVD. Longitudinal studies of young individuals without a prior history of any risk of CVD and who are flourishing or languishing might help provide answers to these questions.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Purdum, Michael B.

Natural Course of Adolescent Insomnia: Patterns and Consequences

Description: Approximately 2-11% of adolescents report chronic insomnia. The study used an archival data set from ADDHealth that assessed adolescent health and health-related behaviors. Adolescents (N = 4102) provided data at baseline (Time 1) and at 1-year follow-up (Time 2). Participants were excluded if no ethnicity, gender, or insomnia data were given at Time 1 or 2. Females were more likely to report insomnia than males at Times 1 and 2. In addition, adolescents with remitted insomnia were significantly younger than adolescents without insomnia at Times 1 and 2. Analyses found a prevalence of 9.6%, a remittance of 6.2%, an incidence of 4.4%, and a chronicity of 2.9%. At Time 1 and 2, AWI were significantly more likely to have depression, suicidal behaviors, and behavioral problems in school than AWOI. At Time 2, incidence and chronic insomnia increased the risk of depression, suicidal behaviors and behavioral problems in school. Risk and protective factors analyses indicated psychological counseling was associated with both remitted and chronic insomnia and depression was associated with incidence insomnia.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Roane, Brandy Michelle

QEEG and LORETA findings in children with histories of relational trauma.

Description: Abuse and neglect occurring in childhood have been associated with a number of functional and physiological effects on the brain. This study extends previous research that investigated the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) patterns in children with histories of relational trauma through the inclusion of additional participants and measures. As in previous studies, the relative power, absolute power, and coherence values in children with histories of abuse were compared to the Neuroguide database. Results did not show any significant differences in relative or absolute power in the theta range. Similarly, there were no significant coherence differences. Database comparisons were also made using low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) in order to determine which sub-cortical brain structures may be affected by abuse or trauma, though there were no significant differences in any frequency (0-30Hz). A review of the literature suggests that the prevalence of mu in normal adults and children ranges from 0 to 19%. The present study found a mu prevalence rate of 60.6% in the children who experienced abuse or neglect. Finally, comparisons were made between participants who demonstrate a mu pattern and those who do not to determine if this pattern is associated with certain behavioral and/or attention problems as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Tests of Variables of Attention (TOVA), respectively. There were no significant differences between children with a mu pattern versus children who did not exhibit a mu pattern on the Social Problems, Thought Problems, or Attention subscale scores on the CBCL or on the Commission subscale score on the TOVA.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Bigby, Janice A.

Glucose As an Energy Source to Increase Self-control in Restrained Eaters

Description: Research evidence is suggestive of a strength model of self-control, also known as ego depletion, in social psychological literature. Engaging in an initial task of self-control depletes a limited resource, resulting in less self-control on a subsequent, unrelated task. The strength model of self-control has been applied to many practical, everyday situations, such as eating behaviors among dieters. Newer studies suggest that blood glucose is the resource consumed during acts of self-control. Consuming glucose seems to "replete" individuals who have been depleted, improving performance and self-control. The current study aimed to examine the effects of ego-depletion on restrained eaters. The hypothesis was that restrained eaters who were depleted by a task of self-control would exhibit more disinhibition on a taste-test task than would restrained eaters who were not depleted. However, if the participants were given glucose following the depletion task, then their self-control would be "repleted" and they would exhibit similar control to that of the non-depleted participants. Contrary to expectations there were no differences between the groups in terms of total amount of cookies consumed. These results are inconsistent with a glucose model of self-control. Suggestions for future research and implications of the findings are discussed.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Valentine, Lisa. M.

The Effect of a Brief Acceptance-Based Protocol on Health Related Relational Framing

Description: Behavior analysts who study verbal behavior theorize that people derive relationships between stimuli - forming stimulus classes such that psychological functions transfer among stimuli and therefore affect behavior. Verbal processes are thought to play a role in cancer patients' behavioral flexibility. The current study examined if an analogue intervention produced changes in relations between health-relevant stimuli from pre- to post-test in patient and student samples. A matching-to-sample (MTS) task required participants to form three 4-member classes that included health, treatment, or neutral terms. Participants next listened to either an acceptance-based or a control-based rationale and therapy exercise, or a distracter task. Then, they were re-exposed to the MTS task. Latencies and accuracies for learning each class as well as between condition differences were examined. Finally, changes in ratings of stimuli from pre to post analogues were measured. Differences in stimuli ratings were seen in the student sample, reflecting transfer of function and some reduction in responsiveness to stimuli following intervention, but overall no learning performances are found. Discussion explores the consistency of the findings with acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) theory in light of the seemingly lack of findings.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Madrigal-Bauguss, Jessica A.

The Relationship Between Sleep Variables and Headache

Description: Headache pain impacts most of the population at some point in life, at an enormous cost to day-to-day functioning. Determination of the variables that are associated with prevalence and severity of headaches has been inconsistent. One area that deserves more attention is the relationship between headaches and sleep. For instance, several sleep parameters may precipitate or exacerbate headaches, but previous research often used inconsistent and limited assessments of both headaches and sleep, making results difficult to interpret and compare. The current study seeks to extend previous research by using more comprehensive and empirically validated assessment techniques to study the relationship between sleep and headaches in a healthy sample. Greater self-reported sleep quality is related to lower headache frequency and severity, and lower self-reported sleep quality is characteristic of individuals having migraine-type headaches. Greater sleep efficiency is related to lower headache severity and shorter headache duration. Greater sleep onset latency is related to longer headache duration and greater headache severity. Greater number of nighttime awakenings is related to greater headache severity and is characteristic of individuals having a diagnosable headache disorder (either tension-type or migraine-type). Stress appeared to be a partial mediator between self-reported sleep quality and headache severity. Further experimental studies may clarify causality between sleep and headache.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Grieser, Emily Ann

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of WRAML Scores in a Group of Academically Talented Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to confirm the original factor structure of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) utilizing a non-clinical adolescent population. Additional analysis examined the relationship between SAT-M scores and spatial relations ability. Exploratory analyses were conducted to determine ethnic and gender differences on the WRAML and subtests from the DAT. Sixty-four academically talented adolescents completed the WRAML and the mechanical reasoning and spatial relations subtests from the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). The confirmatory factor analysis found the data obtained to not be a good fit for the factor structure of the WRAML (Sheslow & Adams, 1990). Additional confirmatory analyses were conducted which examined data fit of a three factor model found by reanalyzing the standardization data (Burton et al., 1996; Wasserman & Cambias, 1991) as well as two null models. The data failed to fit any of these three models. No support was found for the second hypothesis that predicted a positive relationship between SAT-M scores and spatial relations ability. Ethnic and gender differences on the WRAML and two DAT subtests were examined and discussed. Limitations of this study were reviewed which may have accounted for the overall lack of results.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Johnson, Patricia R.

Predictors of Use and Outcomes of Youth and Family Centers

Description: This study analyzed data from Dallas Public Schools and Dallas Youth and Family Centers (YFCs) to explore variables associated with referrals to and utilization of Youth and Family Centers. Data from students enrolled in third, eighth or tenth grade during the 1996-1997, 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 school years were analyzed to determine the reasons for YFC referral and utilization, and to compare standardized test scores and attendance. Of the 6956 students in third, eighth and tenth grades initially referred to YFCs during those three school years, 5173 (74.3%) made at least one YFC visit. The 5173 students made an average of 2.69 visits and accessed an average of 1.18 services per year. Medical visits accounted for 42.5% of YFC visits, and mental health visits accounted for 46% of YFC visits. Results of logistic regression analyses indicate a significant difference for utilization upon referral and continued use of the YFC when the constant is compared to a set of predictor variables. For both analyses, the predictor variables were Chapter I status, LEP status, reason for referral, gender, special education status, ethnicity, distance from home school to referral YFC, food stamp eligibility and referral source. While outcome data regarding attendance and scores on standardized tests was limited to records available, results suggest that mean reading scores for eighth graders were significantly higher during Year 1 for the group that accessed YFC services. School attendance was better for eighth graders who made continued use of a YFC. Use of medical services by third graders was associated with a gain in attendance rather than a slight loss for the third graders who did not access medical services upon referral. Results of this study were limited by missing data for several records. The competitive atmosphere of health care service delivery and the practical need to know ...
Date: May 2001
Creator: Scharff, Karen

Does Unemployment Become a Major Stressor in the Evolution of Chronic Pain?

Description: Pain has been described as the most complex human experience and most frequent reason patients seek medical treatment. Few people fail to experience the pain associated with disease, injury, or medical/surgical procedures. However, the impact of unemployment that results from chronic pain suffering has not been widely researched. To present a comprehensive view of the effect unemployment has upon the chronic pain experience, this study focused upon stress philosophy, chronic pain, employment, and coping effectiveness. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a Personal Data Questionnaire (PDQ) were administered to 96 persons (four groups of 24 subjects) representing either unemployed or employed and either chronic or non-chronic (acute) pain populations.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Rumzek, Harold A.

Cognitive Differences Between Congenitally and Adventitiously Blind Individuals.

Description: It is apparent from the historical perspective regarding the theories of cognitive development and the cognitive functioning of individuals with visual impairments, that sight plays a major role in the development of certain cognitive processes. However, the affects of visual impairment on cognitive development remain to be at issue. Since sight seems to be highly integral in cognitive development beginning in the early stages of physical development, about the sixth month of life, and then begins to diminish in importance as verbal communication develops around eighteen months, then it should stand to reason that significant visual impairment or blindness occurring prior to this time would adversely impact an individual's cognitive development. Conversely, the occurrence of visual impairment or blindness after this critical period of development would have less of an impact. Cognitive theorists have proposed that visually impaired or blind persons may have developed different cognitive pathways to acquire, process, and accommodate sensory information. As a result, visually impaired or blind (VI/B) persons may "think differently" than sighted individuals. The present study was designed to address these issues as they relate to cognitive and neuropsychological development at various stages of growth and to examine possible differences in neuropsychological functioning dependent on the level of visual functioning a person retains; e.g. both the issues of age at onset and degree of impairment. It was also designed to study the possible interaction effects of degree of impairment with the age of onset. Findings indicated that the only differences in cognitive functioning appear to be related to age of onset and not the level of visual impairment. The findings further suggested that congenitally blind individuals have indeed developed alternate methods of cognitively processing nonverbal, abstract, or complex information, especially information involving a high degree of spatial orientation. Implications of this study may influence ...
Date: August 2003
Creator: Hupp, Gregory S.

QEEG and MMPI-2 patterns of adults reporting childhood sexual abuse: Determining differences and predictor models.

Description: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been linked to a number of adult psychological maladies. The MMPI-2 has shown specific patterns such as an inverted V in the validity scales, a floating profile, and a 4-5-6 configuration to be present more often in adults who have experienced childhood trauma. Both children and adults who have experienced trauma have shown a number of neurophysiological differences when compared to non-traumatized individuals. However, little research has looked at differences in quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) patterns in these individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine differences seen in the MMPI-2 and the QEEG when comparing adults who report CSA to adults who deny any history of childhood abuse. Differences between the two groups in MMPI-2 basic scales and supplementary scales PK and PS were determined. This study also examined the ability to correctly classify individuals into the two groups using three patterns seen in the MMPI-2 basic scale profiles (inverted V, floating profile, and 4-5-6 configuration). In addition, this research included exploratory analyses to develop predictor models for CSA group membership. Predictors in the models were derived from MMPI-2 scales, alpha relative power at each of the 19 sites in the International 10/20 electrode placement system, as well as alpha/delta, alpha/theta, and alpha/beta ratios at each of the 19 sites. A total of 46 participants were included in this study, 24 from archived files and 22 newly recruited individuals. Each participant received a MMPI-2 and a QEEG. Significant differences were found between the MMPI-2 scores of the two groups, but MMPI-2 patterns were unable to correctly classify individuals. Models were found which were clinically relevant and statistically significant. The models were based on depression and social maladjustment. The depression models included scales F and 2 of the MMPI-2 and alpha relative power at left ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Townsend, Alicia

Autonomic Balance and Control of Stress for Participants Identified as High or Low Hostile and as Having a Positive or No Family History of Cardiovascular Disease

Description: The influence of autonomic activation in response to controllable versus noncontrollable stress, anger imagery induction, and relaxation imagery was studied among 80 participants between the ages of 18 and 34. Participants differed in level of trait hostility as assessed by the Irritability Subscale of The Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (Buss & Durkee,1957) and the Ho scale of the Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory (Cook & Medley, 1954). Groups were further subdivided with regards to either having a positive family history of cardiovascular disease or having no significant history. Results were obtained through analyses of electrocardiograph R-R intervals which produced an index of autonomic nervous system activation. Findings supported hypotheses involving the relations between autonomic balance and stress and hostility for the female and male populations. Among both populations, parasympathetic regulation was diminished during anger induction for individuals with high levels of trait hostility and having a family history of cardiovascular disease. Similar results were obtained for men during relaxation imagery induction.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Nelson, Charles

Clustering of Behavioral Data for Identification of Presumptive Subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

Description: The objective of the present study was to investigate Amen's formulations of subtypes of AD/HD initially identified by brain imaging techniques, through the use of behavioral checklist data. And in testing Amen's theory of six separate subtypes of AD/HD, to identify and differentiate the subtypes based on symptom presentation. Data was obtained through retrospective chart reviews (N=161) of children between the ages of 5 and 12 who met the criteria for the major symptoms observed in AD/HD and were referred for a previous comprehensive AD/HD evaluation. Data from behavioral checklist (CBCL and DBRS-IV) were matched to Amen's Subtype Symptom Checklist and each subject was given a percentage score for six subtype symptoms. Cluster analysis reliably found six clusters and each subject was labeled according to their symptom presentation. The clusters found were labeled as AD/HD - Combined Type, AD/HD - Predominately Inattentive Type, AD/HD - Predominately Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, Ad/HD - Combined Type with Obsessive-Compulsive features, AD/HD - Combined Type with Obsessive/Compulsive and Conduct Disorder features and Undifferentiated AD/HD. However, the present study did not find evidence of subtypes that corresponded to Amen's Temporal Lobe ADD or Limbic ADD. Discriminant function analysis of the six clusters found that the variables in the model (symptom percentage scores) significantly discriminated the subtype classification. Also, 76% of all cases were correctly classified according to their symptom presentation. Potential limitations of the sample and the data used for interpretation were discussed. Limitations of the study warrant further investigation making use of multi-modal assessment tools which relate well with brain imaging techniques, such as neuropsychological measures of attention and concentration, laboratory based measures of activity, continuous performance tests measuring inattention and impulsivity, and QEEG data measuring brain wave information. A multi-modal approach to investigating symptom subtypes of AD/HD would likely provide increased reliability and validity of ...
Date: August 2003
Creator: Taylor, Shannon E.

Acculturative Processes and Their Impact on Self-Reports of Psychological Distress in Mexican-American Adolescents

Description: The current study examined the effects of acculturative processes on the self-report of behavioral problems in Hispanic children ages 11-14. Acculturation was measured by the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II) (ã Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, www.sagepub.com) (Cuellar, Arnold, and Maldonado, 1995) and the self-report of behavioral symptoms was assessed using the Youth Self-Report (ã T.M. Achenbach, Burlington, VT, www.aseba.com) (Achenbach, 1991). It was hypothesized that while both the linear and orthogonal categories of acculturation would account for a significant proportion of the variance in behavior problems in this age group, the orthogonal model would account for a larger proportion of variance due to its multidimensional nature. As well, it was hypothesized that the experimental Marginalization scales of the ARSMA-II would be predictive of behavioral problems. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test these hypotheses and results were non-significant for the linear, orthogonal, and marginalization categories. The effects of the ethnic/cultural homogeneity of the region from which the sample was drawn, the buffering of social support, and the developmental aspects of ethnic identity are discussed as factors which may have influenced the potential impact of acculturative stress on psychological and behavioral functioning.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Garrison, Lance A.

The Effectiveness of an Electronic-Mail Campaign to Modify Stress Levels, Mood States, and Coping Techniques Among Employed Adults

Description: The present study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a worksite stress management program delivered via electronic mail (e-mail). One hundred and thirty-seven employed adults (36 males, 102 females; mean age = 29.46) from several diverse businesses consented to participate. The volunteers completed Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, the Daily Hassles Scale, the Daily Work Hassles Scale, the TCU Self-Ratings Scales, and a demographic and opinion questionnaire. Individuals in the treatment group received e-mail messages twice weekly and had access to a website for three months about a variety of cognitive-behavioral techniques for managing worksite stress. A MANCOVA of post-intervention stress levels indicated that individuals who received the stress management messages perceived the same amount of stressors and hassles as individuals who did not receive the messages [F (5, 86) = 0.95, p = .45]. However, a MANCOVA of post-intervention perceived mood states revealed a tendency for individuals in the treatment group to be less depressed, anxious, and angry than individuals in the control group [F (3, 92) = 2.44, p = .07]. Demographic variables did not influence the outcome variables and pre- and post-test absenteeism and illness rates were similar for treatment and control groups. Coping skill usage was similar in amount and frequency, but differed in quality between the groups. The findings of the present study indicate that health promotion programs can be feasibly and effectively delivered via e-mail in the worksite.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Hoke, Cassandra N.

Acculturation Level, Generational Status and Gender: Their Role in Acculturative Stress in Young Adolescent Mexican Americans

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between acculturation level, generational status, and gender with acculturative stress. Acculturation level was determined by the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II) and acculturative stress was determined by the Societal, Attitudinal, Familial and Environmental Acculturative Stress Scale-Children's Version (SAFE-C). Subjects included 1268 Hispanic children ages 11-15. In order to validate the usefulness of the ARSMA-II with this sample, analyses were conducted between acculturation level and generational status. The Pearson product moment correlation (r=.44) and the ANOVA between the mean acculturation score and generational status were significant. However, the mean acculturation score from this study was considerably lower than the ARSMA-II score; therefore, new acculturation levels were developed to establish local adolescent norms for the ARSMA-II. All analyses involving acculturation levels were conducted using both the ARSMA-II and new acculturation levels because 300 subjects were reclassified with the new norms. Significant results were similar using both acculturation levels; however, there were more between group differences using the new acculturation levels. It was hypothesized that as acculturation level increased toward the Anglo culture, acculturative stress would decrease. The one-way ANOVA confirmed this relationship. It was also hypothesized that as generational status increased, acculturative stress would decrease. A one-way ANOVA also supported this hypothesis. In order to replicate previous findings on gender, a one-way ANOVA was conducted with acculturative stress and acculturation level. Results for both were non-significant. Overall findings indicate that generational status and acculturation level have a significant impact on acculturative stress in Hispanic children; however, gender does not seem to be a factor. Findings emphasize the importance of addressing cultural issues in the assessment, intervention, and treatment of acculturating Hispanic children. Furthermore, the ARSMA-II appears to be a useful instrument in assessing acculturation level in young adolescent Hispanics though new ...
Date: August 2004
Creator: Manning, Suzanne C.

The utility of the McCarron-Dial System in determining location of brain lesion.

Description: Among the goals of neuropsychological assessment are to detect the presence of brain damage, localize which areas of the brain may be dysfunctional, and describe subsequent functional impairments. The sensitivity of neuropsychological instruments in carrying out these functions has long been a question of debate. The purpose of the present study was to determine the utility of various performance level indictors and lateralizing indicators from the McCarron-Dial System Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (MDS) in ascertaining the presence or absence of brain damage as well as location of lesion. Models used in the present study appear to provide increased classification accuracy compared to other studies utilizing the MDS. The MDS was also shown to be comparable to other well-known neuropsychological batteries, including the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRB) and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) with regard to distinguishing between those with brain damage and normal controls, and also localizing brain lesion. The results of this study offer clinicians parsimonious models to evaluate for presence of lesion and its location so this information may be used to make accurate, thorough diagnoses and appropriate treatment and rehabilitation recommendations.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Taylor, Erin Kathleen

Development and Psychometric Validation of the State-Trait Spirituality Inventory

Description: The present study contributes to the widening body of spirituality research by conceptualizing it as a state-trait construct. A new measure of spirituality, the State-Trait Spirituality Inventory (STSI), was created and validated according to psychometric methods of test construction. In its current form, the STSI contains seven state spirituality items and six trait spirituality items. A thorough review of the literature identified common themes in spirituality definitions and assisted in developing definitions of trait and state spirituality. Internal consistency for the trait scale was .88 and for the state scale, .68. Good test-retest reliability was found with coefficients of .84 for trait spirituality and .81 for state spirituality. Results from a preliminary undergraduate sample as well as from the validation sample yielded a two-factor solution. In general, items determined by expert panels as trait items loaded on one factor and items deemed to be state items loaded on the second factor. Multitrait multimethod analysis yielded mixed findings for convergent, divergent, and concurrent validity for the spirituality and religiosity traits. Methods consisted of paper-and-pencil cognitive and behavioral measures. Cognitive measures were more likely to support convergent/divergent validity than were behavioral measures. A major emphasis in the study was to determine whether state and/or trait spirituality were able to predict current health status and provide evidence for predictive validity. Positive relationships were identified between trait spirituality and the mental health measures of the Short Form-36® (SF-36). In contrast, it was negatively related to the Role-Physical scale. State spirituality was inversely related to the Physical Component scale. These findings are discussed within the context of minimal research using the SF-36 and spirituality measures. The MTMM analysis was limited by available spirituality and religiosity measures that contain only cognitive or behavioral items. Suggestions for future research are offered.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Harvey, Michelle B.

The Role of Acculturation in the Health Belief Model for Mexican-Americans with Type II Diabetes

Description: Diabetes has alarming prevalence rates not only in the U.S., but also worldwide. Ethnicity plays a large role with Hispanic-Americans having one of the highest prevalence rates. Diabetes is a complicated disease that requires significant lifestyle modifications. The health belief model (HBM) has been investigated as a theory to explain behavior change. However, little research has been done to determine its utility to Mexican-Americans. In the current study, participants were Mexican-American adults (N = 66) with type II diabetes who were recruited from family medicine clinics. Self-report questionnaires included the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ). Participants had the option to complete them in either Spanish or English. Laboratory values were collected from medical charts. A MANCOVA indicated that two variables were significant, perceived severity (PS) and misguided support behaviors (MSB), p < .05. With respect to the HBM, PS was identified as a component of an individual's perception, acculturation was a modifying factor, and MSB was a component of the likelihood to change factors. These three affected glycemic control. Odds ratios determined that individuals with better glycemic control had less perceived severity and less misguided supportive behavior. Individuals with the least acculturation were more likely to have best glycemic control. Significant results were found for each of the three main columns of the model suggesting that the HBM has utility for the Hispanic-American population with type II diabetes. Results suggest that health care personnel should be aware of the ramifications of patients' perceived severity of their illness as well as the amount the "nagging" type support they receive from friends and family on glycemic control. This awareness can lead to the development of interventions aimed at improving glycemic control and the quality of life in Mexican-Americans with diabetes. Specifically, programs focused on incorporating the family ...
Date: August 2007
Creator: Bereolos, Nicole Margaret

Total Stress Load Inventory: A Validation Study

Description: The purpose of this study was to validate a stress inventory which would differentiate between a normative group and a patient population suffering from environmental illness. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) the Total Stress Load Inventory would be predictive in discriminating between clinical ecology patients and a normative group; (2) each section or subscale of the Total Stress Load Inventory would be predictive of psychological, cognitive, nutritional, and/or medical factors.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Sherck-O'Connor, Robin

Cognitive Coping Strategies with Chronic Back Pain Patients

Description: Low back pain has long been estimated to be the most prevalent and debilitating source of chronic pain. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the various theories of pain, the physiological and psychological variables important in pain research, and the psychotherapeutic approaches that have been used to date to reduce pain. Thirty-seven hospitalized chronic back pain patients were administered the cold-pressor test and a medical pain stimulus procedure which was medically relevant to their back pathology. A card-sort method was utilized in order to assess the coping strategies employed by the patients during these two pain stimulus tasks. These procedures were repeated following treatment. Coping strategies used by patients during the two pain tasks were compared. Results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the manner in which patients coped with the two types of pain. Cold-pressor measures of pain threshold and tolerance were not significantly different between pretreatment and post-treatment. These measures were also not positively correlated with treatment outcome. A multiple regression approach demonstrated that particular coping strategies were significantly predictive of treatment outcome. The medical pain stimulus procedure was found to provide more significant pedictor variables than the cold-pressor test. At pre-treatment assessment, patients who relied on dramatized coping strategies were less likely to be successful in treatment. Breathing activity and pain acknowledgement were positive coping techniques highly predictive of successful outcome in this study. The use of computers for assessment and other recommendations for future research were discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinnant, Donald Wayne