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Assessing the Psychological Impact of Fertility Treatment

Description: This controlled descriptive study was designed to investigate the psychological status of couples who are engaged in advanced fertility treatments. A battery of psychological test instruments, including the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI), the Health Attribution Test (HAT), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), was used to measure psychological variables that have been shown in the infertility research literature to be associated with the psychological experiences of infertility patients. The scores from the four assessment instruments were compared with those of pregnant couples in childbirth education classes to differentiate the impact of stress associated with fertility treatment from the stress experienced by third trimester pregnant couples. Eighty-five subjects (42 male and 43 female) volunteered for the study and completed packets of questionnaires. The groups were designated Treatment (infertile couples) and Control (pregnant couples). The resulting data were collected and analyzed on the basis of group mean scores on the test instruments.
Date: August 1997
Creator: McKenna, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Allen)

Biopsychosocial Factors Related to Health among Older Women

Description: Older adults are more vulnerable to the ill effects of life stress due to physiological changes associated with aging that result in decreased immunocompetence. Stressors interacting with an aging immune system may produce further declines in health. Variables shown to modulate the effect of stressors on neuroendocrine and immune function and health include social support, personality, coping style, and health locus of control. A comprehensive model is proposed that includes: life stressors, social resources, psychological resources, interaction between stressors and social resources, neuroendocrine and immune function, and symptomatology. This model was evaluated using structured equation modeling. Participants were 97 active, community dwelling, older women, ranging in age from 60 to 93 years.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Carter, Alice Powers

Borrowing or Stealing: The Language and Moral Development of Criminals and Noncriminals

Description: The present study was undertaken (1) to compare the connotative meanings criminals attach to a sampling of concepts with those meanings attached by noncriminals, and (2) to examine the possible relationship between moral development and criminal behavior. One hundred thirty four male subjects completed the Wide Range Achievement Test- Revised (Reading Section); a personal data sheet; the Ammons Quick Test-Form I; the Criminal Semantic Inventory; the Test for Criminal Cognitions; and the Sociomoral Reflection Questionnaire. Subjects were divided into four groups (Noncriminals, Against Person Group, Against Property Group, and Against Statute Group) on the basis of history of criminal conviction. A one-way MANOVA was conducted on each of the 16 concepts under investigation. Significant differences were found for five concepts. In addition, criminals were found to differ significantly from noncriminals on level of moral development.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Haynes, Linda Carol

Breast Cancer Screening Health Behaviors in Older Women

Description: Health beliefs of 221 postmenopausal women were assessed to predict the Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of breast self-examination (BSE) and utilization of mammography. Champion's (1991) revised Health Belief Model (HBM) instrument for BSE, which assesses the HBM constructs of Seriousness, Susceptibility, Benefits, Barriers, Confidence and Health Motivation, was utilized along with her Barriers and Benefits instrument for mammography usage. Ronis' and Harel's (1989) constructs of Severity-Late and Severity-Early were evaluated along with Cuing and demographic variables. These exogenous latent constructs were utilized in a LISREL path model to predict Breast Cancer Screening Behavior.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Hammond, Marsha V.

Brief Imagery Training : Effects on Psychological, Physiological and Neuroendocrinological Measures of Stress and Pain

Description: The present study investigated the influence of a brief, intensive biofeedback-assisted imagery training regimen on psychological, physiological and neuroendocrinological measures of pain and stress in injury related chronic pain patients. The subjects were 36 patients (myelography examcandidates) who were assigned to the imagery or wait-list control group by order of referral presentation and to formulate equivalent groups.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Osborne, Connie M. Brajkovich (Connie Marie Brajkovich)

Cognitive Decline in Chronic Pain Patients: A Neuropsychological Evaluation

Description: The purpose of the present study was to investigate cognitive functioning in a group of 30 chronic pain patients (CPG) as compared to a group of 39 acute pain patients (APG). In order to assess cognitive performance, certain subtests were selected from the McCarron-Dial System (MDS) of Neuropsychological Evaluation. Specifically, a measure of haptic discrimination was used along with the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. As such, completion of these subtests required a cortically mediated, central nervous system processing of sensory information. This particular method of assessment was chosen because it provided a nonverbal measure of higher-order cognitive performance. Additionally, the haptic measure provided separate scores for right and left hemispheric functioning. Data analysis revealed significantly poorer Bender performance among CPG members (t(69) = -5.09, E - •0004, two tailed). Further data analysis revealed that the CPG performed significantly poorer on certain of the haptic discrimination subtests. Specifically, both texture and configuration scores for the right hemisphere were significantly lower among CPG members (texture, p = -042 and configuration, p = .002). Subsequent analyses were conducted to determine predictive relationships between important variables. These data are discussed in terms of their clinical significance and importance for future research.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Nite, Leesa C. (Leesa Celeste)

Cognitive Dysfunction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine the point prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to investigate its association with corticosteroids and depression. The severity of dysfunction and the pattern of cognitive changes were examined. This study hypothesized that cognitive dysfunction is common in SLE and many previous studies have underestimated its prevalence, partially due to using limited neuropsychological batteries and insensitive test instruments. It was further hypothesized that the pattern of cognitive changes in SLE patients will resemble that observed in subcortical dementias.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Niemela-Waller, Kirsi (Kirsi M.)

Coping with Severe, Acute Psychological Trauma: the Killeen Shooting Incident

Description: The present study examined the relationship between coping and psychological and psychosomatic distress of 25 individuals who experienced the same severe, acute traumatic event: the violent shooting that killed 23 people and severely injured 20 more in Luby's Cafeteria in Killeen, Texas, on October 16, 1991. Distress was assessed by one-month pre-event and post-event scores on the SCL-90R, Psychosomatic Questionnaire, and by a Life Event Questionnaire score for the year before the incident. Coping was measured by a modified version of the Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman et al., 1986) and Response Style Questionnaire (Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991). All post-event distress scores, except the Psychosomatic score, significantly increased over their corresponding pre-event scores regardless of gender. Although female distress scores were consistently higher than male scores, gender was predictive of post-event distress only for the SCL-90R Anxiety, Somatization, and Global Severity Index scales. The only pre-event score found to be predictive of post-event distress was the Psychosomatic scale. Regression analysis, with demographic and pre-event variables controlled, found a significant positive relationship between Escape/Avoidance coping and one-month post-event levels of Anxiety and Psychosomatic distress. Findings were discussed in the context of the process-oriented stress-illness model and were compared to current disaster and crime victimization literature. Implications for helping professionals, methodological issues, and implications for future research were explored.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Forté, Beverly K.

Correlational Study of the UNT Neuropsych-Screen, the MMPI and Time among Chronic Pain Patients

Description: Although many theorists have speculated that chronic pain may be linked to some sort of central neuropsychological integration deficit, a review of the current literature reveals no empirical support for this theory. This study attempts to assess the severity, if any, of neuropsychological deficits in chronic pain subjects by using a neuropsychological screen developed at the University of North Texas. Also, presented are studies of correlations between the UNT Neuropsych-screen and the MMPI. the Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ), the Dallas Pain Drawing CDPD), and time since injury in order to assess any possible relationships. The subjects in this study consist of 100 volunteers. Of these subjects, 74 were patients of the Spinal and Chronic Pain Center at Medical Arts Hospital in Dallas, Texas and represented the clinical population. The remaining 26 subjects were staff volunteers from the hospital . The results of the study indicate significant differences between chronic pain subjects and non-pain subjects across many areas of neuropsychological functioning, as well as other significant correlations among many of the variables. The implications of this study are elaborated upon, in the discussion section, in detail along with limitations and future research directions.
Date: June 1989
Creator: Smith, Russell Joseph

Differential Effects of Biofeedback Input on Lowering Frontalis Electromyographic Levels in Right and Left Handers

Description: This investigation was an attempt to replicate and expand previous research which suggested that laterality of electromyographic biofeedback input had a significant effect in lowering frontalis muscle activity. In 1984 Ginn and Harrell conducted a study in which they reported that subjects receiving left ear only audio biofeedback had significantly greater reductions in frontalis muscle activity than those receiving right ear only or both ear feedback. This study was limited to one biofeedback session and subjects were selected based on demonstration of right hand/ear dominance. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the left ear effect reported by Ginn and Harrell could be replicated. Furthermore, the current investigation sought to extend the previous finding to left handed subjects and explore the stability of the effect, if found, by adding a second biofeedback session. Subjects were 96 students recruited from undergraduate psychology classes. They were screened for handedness by the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory which resulted in identification of 48 right handers and 48 left handers. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups consisting of left ear feedback, right ear feedback, both ears feedback, and controls. This resulted in eight conditions. Analysis of variance of microvolt changes from baseline found no statistically significant differences between groups. An examination of the rank order of the data reveal a left ear group performance in the same direction as those reported by Ginn and Harrell (1984).
Date: August 1990
Creator: Walker, Kenneth N. (Kenneth Neal)

Effect of Cell-Specific, Music-Mediated Mental Imagery on Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA)

Description: This study was an investigation of the effects of physiologically-oriented mental imagery on immune functioning. College students with normal medical histories were randomly selected to one of three groups. Subjects in Group 1 participated in short educational training on the production of secretory immunoglobulin A. They were then tested on salivary IgA, skin temperature and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) before and after listening to a 17-minute tape of imagery instructions with specially-composed background "entrainment" music, designed to enhance imagery. Subjects in Group 2 (placebo controls) listened to the same music but received no formal training on the immune system. Group 3 acted as a control and subjects were tested before and after 17 minutes of no activity. Treatment groups listened to their tapes at home on a bi-daily basis for six weeks. All groups were again tested at Weeks 3 and 6. Secretory IgA was analyzed using standard radial immuno-diffusion techniques. Repeated measures analyses of variance with planned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate the data. Significant overall increases (p < .05) were found between pre- and posttests for all three trials. Groups 1 and 2 combined (treatment groups) yielded significantly greater increases in slgA over Group 3 (control) for all three trials. Group 1 (imagery) was significantly higher than Group 2 (music) in antibody production for Trials 2 and 3. No group differences were noted in saliva volume or skin temperature, indicating that autonomic physiological mechanisms were not responsible for differences in antibody production. POMS changes more often favored Group 1. Symptomatology, recorded by subjects at weeks three and six, was significantly lower for three symptoms (rapid heartbeat, breathing difficulty, and jaw clenching), again favoring both treatment groups over the control group. Conclusions were that CNS-mediated immunoenhancement through mental imagery is possible.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Rider, Mark Sterling

Effects of Acute and Chronic Glycemic Control on Memory Performance in Persons with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Description: Memory performance was measured in 48 persons between the ages of 40 - 65 with Type II diabetes. Correlations between performance on the California Verbal Learning Test, tests of Working Memory, Priming Memory, and Prospective Memory and several predictor variables were examined. These variables included the Slosson Intelligence Test Scores, demographic variables, presence of diabetic complications, finger-stick and HbA1c measures. Subjects performed worse than the normative sample on the California Verbal Learning Test. Higher chronic and acute blood glucose tended to be associated with worse performance on the CVLT, Priming, and Working Memory. However, after the effects of intelligence, education, and sex were statistically controlled, glycemic status predicted performance on just a few memory measures. These were short-delay recall compared with recall on List A trial 5, and List B on the CVLT, and recall accuracy on digit forward of the Working Memory Test. Glucose status was unrelated to performance on a prospective memory test. Several other demographic and diabetic complication factors predicted performance beyond the contribution of intelligence. These results contrast with previous studies which found strong effects of glycemic control, but did not statistically control for the contribution of intelligence. Differential effects of diabetic status on different aspects of memory were discussed.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Hall-Johnson, Richard Earl

The Effects of Music Training on Electroencephalographic Coherence of Preschool Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music training on electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence of preschool children. EEG coherence is a measurement of brain wave activity that reflects anatomical and neurophysiological parameters and functional connectivity between areas of the brain. Participants were 4- to 6-year-old children divided into two groups: one received music training for 20 minutes twice a week for 10 weeks while the other group served as controls. Nineteen channels of EEG data were collected from each child pre- and post-training. Data were collected from three conditions: eyes-open resting, listening to music, and performing the Object Assembly subtest of the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (1989). The hypothesis was that the music training group would show increased EEG coherence as compared to controls. The EEG data was reduced into seven bandwidths and analyzed separately for each condition. Multiple ANCOVAs were used to factor out pre-test variability and to maximize connectivity changes between the two groups. The dependent measures were the post-QEEG electrode pairs and the covariates were the pre-QEEG electrode pairs. Results indicated the eyes-open and listening to music conditions showed more significant changes between the groups than the Object Assembly condition. Overall, each condition showed increased connectivity for the music training group versus controls. The eyes-open condition differentiated children with and without music training during a resting condition, and showed similar patterns as those identified by other researchers comparing musicians versus nonmusicians. The listening to music condition identified connections including a topographical pattern of auditory analysis, increased working memory activation, increased activity between musically sensitive areas, and increased interhemispheric activity. Findings with the Object Assembly condition were not as robust as expected. However, patterns of increased connectivity associated with visuospatial processing were found with the music training group.
Date: August 1999
Creator: DeBeus, Roger J. (Roger John)

Factors of the Geriatric Depression Scale that may Distinguish between Four Cognitive Diagnostic Groups: Normal, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, and Vascular Dementia

Description: The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between cognitive status and depression in a sample of geriatric patients. Participants included 282 geriatric patients ranging in age from 65 to 96 years who were classified according to diagnosis as: DAT, VaD, MCI, and Norm. All were referred for neurocognitive testing from the Geriatric Assessment Program (GAP) at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) in Fort Worth, Texas. This study sought to identify factor structures for two versions of the GDS using a geriatric sample of cognitively impaired and intact patients. It then compared these factors to each other to determine whether the GDS-15 is truly a shorter version of the GDS-30. These were then compared to a previously determined factor structure. This study explored whether the four-factors of the GDS-30 are able to differentiate cognitive diagnostic groups. Further, this study sought to identify whether the severity of cognitive decline impacted GDS factor score for each of the cognitively impaired groups. Results revealed a two-factor model of the GDS - 15 and a four-factor model with the GDS - 30. The GDS-15 factors did not differ from the first two factors of the GDS-30. Comparison between the GDS-30 factor structure and that reported by Hall and Davis (in press) revealed no significant differences despite the inclusion of a normal, non-demented group in the current study. Comparisons of subscale scores revealed that DAT patients tended to score lower than the other groups on all but the cognitive impairment subscale. Severity level analyses indicated that as severity of deficits increases, awareness of deficits decreases. This study found that although the GDS-30 is a good screening tool for depression in geriatric patients, it is not particularly useful in differentiating cognitive status group. Also, the GDS-15 was not found ...
Date: December 2009
Creator: Cornett, Patricia F.

Frontal Lobe Functions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder from Children to Young Adults

Description: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without a learning disorder (LD) and a control group of clinically referred individuals with behavioral problems were compared on four neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe functioning. Test results were collected to examine if ADHD individuals with and without LD have deficits in frontal lobe functioning. Two age groups were used to examine developmental differences. In the six to ten age group there were 27 ADHD, 17 ADHD/LD and seven other clinically referred individuals. In the 11 -20 age group there were 12 ADHD, 23 ADHD/LD and 24 other clinically referred individuals. The ADHD and ADHD/LD groups performed at a lower level than the other diagnostic group on the freedom from distractibility factor of the WISC-R and the omission and commission errors of the Gordon Diagnostic system. Differences for the ADHD and ADHD/LD groups were also found on the number of correct responses for the Gordon Diagnostic system, the Speech Sounds test and the Seashore Rhythm test. The developmental differences that were found were not influenced by diagnosis. The deficits that the ADHD individuals with and without LD demonstrated were not affected by age.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Kramer-Stutts, Traci A.

High-Risk Sexual Behaviors of Young Adults: AIDS Prevention

Description: The Health Belief Model was used to study HIV/AIDS beliefs of 419, 18 to 24 year old, never married, sexually active, heterosexual college students and predict their AIDS preventive behaviors from a larger sample of 662 college students. The structural properties of the scales used were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Recent preventive behaviors were predicted in a LISREL Structural Equation Modeling analysis.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Bloodgood, Martha Madden

Imagery Technology: Effects on a Chronic Pain Population

Description: The effects of a computer program (Health Imagery Technology Systems, HITS) designed to promote attitude and cognitive changes through elicitation of evoked response potentials were evaluated with chronic pain patients. A treatment and control group were used for comparison (52 patients, 22 females, 32 males, mean ages 47). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised subtests, a Semantic Differential scale, the Health Attribution Test, an imagery protocol, the McCoy-Lawlis Pain Drawing, and the Zung Depression scale were used at admission and discharge to measure change. A pre- post-mood thermometer was used with the treatment group. The hypotheses that the treatment group would show significant changes on these measures were tested with a two group repeated measures analysis of variance design. No significant changes were noted for either group on the intellectual measures, on health attitudes, or reports of pain. The similarities subscale showed significant within group variance (F = 5.46, p < .023). One bipolar adjective pair indicated significant differences (F = 4.79, p < .035), possibly a result of chance. One of seven imagery measures suggested a significant improvement in strength of imagery for the treatment group (F = 18.2, p < .00008). Both groups showed significantly improved imagery of body defenses (F = 4.58, £ < .037) and significantly reduced depression scores (F = 15.93, p < .000021). A mood thermometer was measured for the treatment group alone and five situational mood changes were significant in predicted directions. Post hoc discriminant analysis showed significant differences only on one adjective pair (F = 9.75, p < .0029). No combination of variables added to the prediction of group membership. Overall, the effects of the HITS program did not seem strong enough to indicate its value as a treatment modality in chronic pain populations beyond current treatment. It did indicate some significant situational mood ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Wright, Sharon G.

Memory Patterns: Differentiated between Environmental Sensitive Patients and Psychiatric Patients

Description: The purpose of the present study was to ascertain if environmentally sensitive patients would demonstrate different memory deficit patterns than psychiatric patients on objectively measurable memory tasks. One-hundred sixteen patients were surveyed; 56 environmentally sensitive patients were compared to 60 psychiatric patients. All subjects were administered a Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised screen, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and the Harrell-Butler Comprehensive Neurocognitive Screen after history of head injury was ruled out. Results indicate a significantly different pattern of memory dysfunction between the environmental patients and the psychiatric patients, indicating two different etiologies. A screening device derived from the coefficients from a Canonical Analysis is proposed to distinguish between the two populations in the absence of blood serum levels of environmental toxins or poisons. The detrimental effects of misdiagnosis and the beneficial effects of accurate diagnosis of environmental illness are discussed.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Lockart, Esther

Neuropsychological Functioning of Adult Subjects with Diabetic Retinopathy Compared to a Normal Blind Population

Description: To investigate the possibility that chronic diabetes mellitus was related to specific neuropsychological deficits, cognitive functioning was measured in subjects with diabetic retinopathy (without secondary disabilities), and in subjects classified as normal blind adults (also without secondary disabilities). The scores for the two groups were then compared.
Date: August 1994
Creator: McGee-Hall, Joanne M. (Joanne Moore)

Neuropsychological Sequelae of Adult Subjects with Retinopathy of Prematurity Compared to Other Blind Populations

Description: The blind have generally been considered to be a homogeneous population whose deficits arise from an interaction of loss of vision, age of onset and socialization. Sequelae are posited to exist merely due to the limiting effects of blindness on experience. This is believed to affect all blind persons equally regardless of cause of blindness provided that independent secondary disabilities do not exist. This study investigated the possibility that different causes of blindness are related to specific neuropsychological deficits which cannot be explained by the mere presence of blindness. It was found that neuropsychological differences existed among specific sub-populations of blind persons. These results suggested that the cause of blindness may be a marker for specific Central Nervous System involvement.
Date: August 1992
Creator: O'Brien, Eugene Patrick

Parkinsonian Personality: Psychometric Description of Intellectual-Motor Functioning

Description: In an attempt to determine the normative levels in health attribution and emotional, intellectual, and neuromuscular functioning in the parkinsonian population, 31 diagnosed parkinsonian volunteers recruited from exercise classes and/or organizations were tested. Health attribution was measured by the Health Attribution Test (HAT), personality factors by the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), general intellectual level by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- Revised (PPVT-R) and the Intellectual Processes subscale of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (Luria- Intelligence), and neuromuscular functioning by the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) and Bender- Gestalt (BVMGT). Controls for comparisons were obtained from the clinical ecology population and normals for personality traits and the nonspecific neurologically impaired, healthy aging populations, and normals for intellectual and neuromuscular functionings. Chi-square and t-tests were computed on the data. Results indicated that the parkinsonians manifest less lower body strength (£ < .01), poorer balance with eyes closed (JD < .01), and slower fine motor speed (p < .05) than normals. The parkinsonians function significantly better in areas involving upper body coordination (p < .01, £ < .05) , slow-controlled movements (g.< .001), BVMGT (p < .05), and PPVT-R (p < .01) than the nonspecific neurologically impaired. On the Luria-Intelligence, 21 percent of the parkinsonians compared to eight percent of the healthy aging were within the limits for brain damage (JD < .01) . Although the parkinsonians are internals for health attribution, their internal orientation is lower and external locus of control higher than the clinical ecology population (j> < .01). The parkinsonians' CAQ profile was significantly different in comparison to the clinical ecology patients on the following CAQ factors: F (impulsivity), H (boldness), N (shrewdness), 0 (insecurity), Q2 (self-sufficiency), D4 (anxious depression), Pp (psychotic deviation), As (psychasthenia), IN (independence), and So (socialization). The parkinsonians' CAQ profile was negative for depression. Their CAQ ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Laverty, Vivian D.

Personality and Behavioral Correlates of Autonomic Imbalance

Description: Individual differences in autonomic nervous system responsiveness have been linked to a variety of physical disorders and personality and behavioral tendencies. The present study attempted to correlate specific personality characteristics hypothesized to be associated with either sympathetic or parasympathetic dominance based on the work of M. A. Wenger. The Clinical Analysis Questionnaire Personality Inventory, a physical disorders questionnaire, a self-report stress measure, and seven psychophysiologic tests were administered to 60 undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class at North Texas State University. The results provided limited support for the hypotheses. A skewed population with 50 of the 60 subjects achieving scores indicative of sympathetic dominance occurred. Statistical comparison (t-tests) of the CAQ personality traits, and clinical factor scores of these 50 subjects labeled sympathetic dominant with CAQ norms for college students revealed means on five personality traits and three clinical factors were significantly different for the sympathetic dominant group at the .05 or greater level of significance. These findings were interpreted as limited support for Wenger's work and for the positions of Acker and Kagan that individuals with more reactive sympathetic nervous systems tend to have difficulty binding anxiety, poor emotional controls and outlets, ambivalence about interpersonal relationships, and a need for group acceptance.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Sawyer, Judy

Primary Care Screening for Psychological Factors

Description: The Behavioral Medicine Questionnare (BMQ) is a 44- item instrument administered via a computer CRT display or pencil and paper. The BMQ was designed to help primary care physicians treating spinal disorders to screen for emotional factors which warrant further psychological evaluation. The test is composed of three scales: Anxiety, Depression, and Somatization. Concurrent validity for each scale was determined through comparisons with subject (n = 133) scores on clinician judgement ratings, pain drawings, and the MMPI. The psychometric properties of the test were supported through statistical analysis. Significant correlations were found between the BMQ, MMPI, and clinician ratings, with the latter showing relationships of lesser strength. The only significant correlation to subject generated pain drawings was to the BMQ depression scale. Analysis indicated the need for seperate norms for males and females. Further research is needed to facilitate measurement and interpretation of the BMQ.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Marerro, Magaly V. (Magaly Victoria)