Substance abuse and dependence causes many problems in our society. Attachment style may be useful in the etiology of this problem. Using archival data, this study hypothesizes men in a court-ordered facility will be more likely to have an insecure attachment style. The participants were 73 males ages 18-49. The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) was used to measure adult romantic attachment style. Through cluster analysis and conversion of the subscales of the AAS, four attachment styles were measured. Men were more likely to have an insecure attachment style especially a Fearful style. The study concludes with limitations of the results and a discussion about possible interventions based on attachment style.
This study compares American and Turkish male and female university students in terms of moral orientation (justice and care) and Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning to examine the influence of culture and gender on moral development. A total of 324 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 46 are administered the Defining Issues Test (DIT) and the Measure of Moral Orientation (MMO). Statistical analyses indicate Turkish participants reflect more postconventional reasoning, while American participants reflect more conventional reasoning, particularly Stage 4 reasoning. Analyses also reveal Turkish participants reflect significantly more care orientation and more justice orientation compared to American participants. These findings are discussed in terms of cultural and gender influences in moral decision-making.
Parents' perceptions of their child's behavior may differ for mothers and fathers. Differences in parental perception may also be apparent in cases of special needs adoptive families with high demands of their child for time, interventions and attention. This paper examines the differences in mother-child and father-child interactions, child behavior as reported by mothers, and fathers and changes in both after participation in an intervention program. Results suggest notable differences between mothers' and fathers' parent-child interaction scores and reports of child behavior. In addition, interaction scores and behavior reports showed some correlations. Finally, there seemed to be notable differences in the trends for the Child Behavior Checklist compared to the two attachment measures (Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire and Beech Brook Attachment Disorder Checklist). Several possible explanations for mother and father differences are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects frequenting the street had on the social-emotional development of children in Cuenca, Ecuador. While the study sought to discover who these children were, it primarily observed the levels of trust these children felt in the various contexts of their lives, their level of safety, where they saw themselves in the future, what made a place feel like a home, their sense of self-esteem, and how they saw themselves contributing to their future. The research instrument used in this study was a modified youth questionnaire previously developed by Tyler and Tyler (1991) in a study with street children/youth in Bogóta, Colombia. The results are presented in 11 case studies of children who ranged in age between 7 and 12 years.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a breastfeeding education program on breastfeeding initiation rates, breastfeeding knowledge, and attitude towards breastfeeding among teenage mothers at an urban school for pregnant and parenting teens. Breastfeeding initiation rose from 35.7% in the control group to 85.2% in the treatment group. The mean score on the Breastfeeding Knowledge Subscale was significantly higher for the treatment group but not the control group. There was not a significant increase in mean scores on the Breastfeeding Attitude Subscale. Participants who initiated breastfeeding scored also had a significant increase in scores from pretest to posttest on the Breastfeeding Knowledge Subscale, while participants who did not initiate breastfeeding did not.
This study investigated a proposed model hypothesizing that parental divorce would directly effect romantic beliefs and attitudes, romantic attachment and relationship characteristics. A sample of 494 young adults between the ages of 18 and 35 indicated that parental divorce does have a negative impact on romantic beliefs, attitudes toward marriage and divorce, romantic attachments, and relationship characteristics when considered in the context of marriage. Those individuals whose parents divorced reported less positive attitudes toward marriage and more openness toward divorce. Those whose parents divorced reported less idealized romantic beliefs and less of a belief that love will find a way. Those who experienced parental divorce had a more fearful romantic attachment style and reported a lower chance of marriage to their current partner.
The problem addressed is to ascertain how selected factors impacted the adjustment of undergraduate university students. Undergraduate university students (n=382) from the University of North Texas completed measures of basic student information, perceived level of family support and level of parental attachment, and perceived level of college student adjustment. Parental Attachment and Family Support were found to positively correlate to the level of adjustment to college. Analyses of these data reveal a statistically significant difference in student adjustment to college when comparing the participants by age, university classification, and living arrangement. Further analysis reveals that there is a statistically significant difference between gender, race, students' marital status, and parents' marital status when measuring the outcome of perceived family support. Perceived level of parental attachment differs significantly when comparing students by their race, marital status, and their parents' marital status.
Meta-parenting, defined as parents thinking about their parenting, has been identified and is a new field of research. The purposes of this study were to add to the existing knowledge of meta-parenting and to compare the influences of gender, work status, and parenting experience on meta-parenting occurring in parents of infants and toddlers. Sixty parents participated either electronically or by completing a written survey and reported engaging from "sometimes" to "usually" in four domains of meta-parenting: anticipating, assessing, reflecting, and problem-solving. Gender, work status, and parenting experience did not significantly influence participants' meta-parenting scores. Parents were found to have a higher sense of satisfaction and overall sense of competence when they engaged in higher levels of meta-parenting.
This study investigated differences in level of commitment between married and non-married individuals, effects of demographic variables by age, gender, parenting status, and ethnicity, and determines participant's awareness of and participation in the Oklahoma Marriage Initiative (OMI) were investigated. Students from a rural Oklahoma junior college completed the Perceptions of Commitment survey during spring 2004. Responses related to levels of commitment, social exchange theory, expectations, and communication were collected. T-test analysis revealed no differences in level of commitment for any of the variables investigated. Data revealed the majority of participants were unaware of OMI and had never attended a program and do not plan to in the future. Implications of this research may be useful to future investigators who are interested in the Perceptions of Commitment survey and those focusing on marriage education programs to meet the needs of targeted audiences.
This paper describes the development of the Beliefs About Overt and Relational Aggression Scale. The Beliefs About Overt and Relational Aggression Scale was designed to assess preschoolers' normative beliefs about these two types of aggression. Findings about the scale's internal reliability and test-retest reliability are presented. Findings about similarities and differences between beliefs about relational and overt aggression and gender are also discussed. Discussions about correlates of aggression, measuring aggression, and measuring beliefs are included.