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Adjustment of Kindergarten Children through Play Sessions Facilitated by Fifth Grade Students Trained in Child-Centered Play Therapy Procedures and Skills

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of the application of child-centered play therapy procedures and skills by trained fifth grade students in play sessions with kindergarten children who had adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this research determined if play sessions with trained fifth grade students facilitated change in kindergarten children's self concept, internalizing behavior, and externalizing behavior and their parents' stress level.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Baggerly, Jennifer N. (Jennifer Nalini)

Adlerian Counseling and the Early Recollections of Children

Description: This investigation used a descriptive approach to explore and evaluate early recollection changes of children in Adlerian counseling. The study addressed seven research questions regarding early recollection change for children in Adlerian counseling as compared with children not in Adlerian counseling. The treatment group was engaged in Adlerian counseling for 10 weeks. The investigator conducted pre-counseling and post-counseling interviews to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The comparison group was not engaged in treatment for counseling. The investigator conducted interviews at an interval of 10 weeks to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The Manaster-Perryraan Manifest Content Early Recollection Scoring Manual was used for analysis of early recollection content. Following training sesions, raters scored absence or presence of content variables in early recollections. Tables were employed to reveal findings of early recollection content change as addressed by the seven research questions of this study. A descriptive evaluation of' the data indicated that the treatment group manifested greater change in early recollection content as compared to the comparison group in six of seven research questions. On the basis of these findings, this study concluded that early recollections of children are a valid source of potential in measuring therapeutic progress and are a reliable measure of the thematic apperception of children. The data from this study provide a foundation from which to build the clinical utility of the early recollections of children. In view of these results, this study recommended the routine use of early recollections of children in Adlerian counseling.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Statton, Jane Ellis Porter

Adlerian Life Style and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Description: The possibility of a relationship between Adlerian life style, as measured by the Life Style Personality Inventory (LSPI), and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was examined by this research. The goal of this study was to clarify the relationship between these instruments to broaden the applicability of both instruments for both research and clinical endeavors. Life style is a concept which is vital to therapeutic intervention from an Adlerian frame of reference. Assessment of life style typically involves lengthy therapist interviews. Both the LSPI and the MBTI are questionnaires designed to measure personality variables. The 117 subjects for this study were solicited from individuals seeking counseling from an urban community counseling center. The individuals served by this agency are primarily those diagnosed with Adjustment Disorders. The LSPI and the MBTI were administered individually to each subject. Means and standard deviations were computed for the seven LSPI themes and the MBTI total. Due to a lack of research support for Theme 4 by the LSPI author, the data for this theme were disregarded. The same research indicated a strong bipolar relationship for Themes 7 and 8 (Displaying Inadequacy and Social Interest), which prompted the inclusion of Theme 8 in subsequent data analysis. A correlation analysis was developed. Using the correlation matrix, a factor analysis program was run using the SPSS-X statistical package. The principal components analysis extracted three factors which were refined by a factor rotation using the varimax rotation option. To clarify Factor 3, further analysis was performed with the MBTI data divided by continuum and a second factor analysis was run. Four factors emerged from the data with Factors 1 and 2 remaining unchanged. Factor 1 (Emotional Focusing) and Factor 2 (Confrontation) were loaded with the LSPI themes. Factor 3 (Temperament) and Factor 4 (External-Internal) were loaded with the ...
Date: May 1993
Creator: Doss, Carol Rose

Adult Discouragement: Parents of Children with Craniofacial Anomaly

Description: The Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA) was developed to assess for the Adlerian construct of discouragement in adults age 18 years and over. Data were collected from three samples: norm (n=586), presumed discouraged (n=47), and parents of children with craniofacial anomaly (n=105). Five subscales corresponding to life tasks identified in Adlerian literature as work, love, society, self-significance, and spirituality underlie the 60 item DSA. Item selection was based on ratings by five notable Adlerians and item correlations with scale scores. Gender, age, and ethnicity norms were established for the norm, presumed discouraged, and craniofacial samples. Across three samples, no significant ethnic differences were found. Normative findings indicated females are less discouraged than males on the Total DSA, the society and spirituality subscales. Age findings indicated the 18-34 year old sample is more discouraged than other ages on the Total DSA, the work, society, and spirituality subscales. Presumed discouraged findings indicated females are less discouraged than males on the society subscale. Craniofacial findings indicated females are less discouraged on the society subscale, but more discouraged on the self-significance subscale than males. Age findings indicated the 18-34 year old sample is more discouraged than other ages on the self subscale. Research on CPA parents' relationship status, CPA child's birth order, parental role of adult to CFA child, length of time the parent has cared for CFA child, the CFA child's age, CFA parent's education level, and CFA child's craniofacial anomaly diagnosis was conducted. Findings indicated birthmothers are less discouraged than birthfathers on the society subscale, but more discouraged on the self-significance subscale. Internal consistency ratings of the DSA were .9392, .9496, and .9365 for three samples. Correlations to measures of social interest were negative and significant, reflecting an inverse relationship between discouragement and social interest. Factor analysis and interscale correlations are presented. ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Jones, Melissa Taylor Watson

Adult Discouragement: Traditonal College Students

Description: This study resulted in the development of the Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA), an assessment instrument for the Adlerian construct of discouragement in adults more than 18 years of age. The DSA is a 60-item instrument that contains five sub-scales corresponding to five life tasks identified in Adlerian literature as work, love, society, self, and spirituality. Age, gender, and ethnicity norms were established for the DSA using a diverse sample (N=586). Additional normative data was developed with a presumed discouraged sample (N=47), and a special sample of traditional college students aged 18-27 years (N=531). Findings on the norm sample indicated that females are less discouraged than males on the Total DSA and on society and spirituality sub-scales. The 18-34 year old group was more discouraged than other age groups on the Total DSA and on work, society, and spirituality sub-scales. Presumed discouraged sample findings indicated that females were less discouraged than males on the society sub-scale. College student findings indicated that females were less discouraged than males on the Total DSA and sub-scales of love, society, spirituality, and work. A significant difference was found among ethnic groups in self sub-scales. Students with no absences per week were less discouraged than students with two absences per week. Students with lower grade point averages (GPA) were more discouraged on the Total DSA and work sub-scales. DSA internal consistency coefficients were .9392, .9496, and .9327 for norm, presumed discouraged, and college student samples respectively. Correlations between DSA and two social interest surveys reflect an inverse relationship between discouragement and social interest. Results indicate that the DSA is a useful assessment instrument for research and counseling purposes with college students. Further research should include greater geographical and ethnic diversity as well as validation among diverse college samples and non-traditional students. Additionally, a standard range ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Haggan, Paul S. (Paul Stephen)

Ann Richards : An Adlerian Psychobiography

Description: This psychobiography used the framework of Individual Psychology to examine the life style development of the Honorable Ann Richards in order to provide insight into the creation of a life style by a successful, contemporary female leader. This single case study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine from Ms. Richards' point of view the manner in which a highly visible and well-known individual created her particular style of life.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Pearson, Mary

The Beginnings of Pedophilia: Lifestyles of Juvenile Perpetrators

Description: This study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to study the development of child molestation. Five volunteer male juvenile perpetrators of child molestation and their consenting family members participated in three one-on-one in-depth interviews. The juveniles were referred by juvenile justice departments in Texas. The investigation was pursued along three paths: (1) what factors in the perpetrators' life experiences may have influenced the formation of molesting thought and behavior patterns? (2) how did the perpetrators construe social relationships? (3) in developing sexual preference, what process did the perpetrators utilize to achieve the degree of sexual arousal needed to motivate the act of molestation? During analysis, 16 categories and 9 subcategories were developed from the data; these were evaluated in order to address the lines of inquiry listed above. Factors contributing toward deviancy were identified: these included general environmental factors and relationship issues with both parents and peers. The data also elucidated the perpetrators' characteristic ways of viewing themselves and other people, as well as the strategies that they relied upon to cope with their lives. These same strategies were subsequently used in their molesting. The results revealed that the answers to the investigational questions posed above were synthesized by the individual across the lifespan, with origins in childhood when the concepts of self, others, social convention and interpersonal relationships were forming. It is likely that the typical interest in sexual expression that occurs at the onset of puberty was a catalyst that facilitated molesting behavior. The lack of ability to interact successfully with age mates appeared to influence the perpetrators' selection of children as targets. Recommendations were presented for consideration by the mental health and criminal justice communities based on the findings. Also, preventative measures for the public sector were offered.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Edmonds, Marilyn S. (Marilyn Sue)

The Characteristics of Psychological Safety in Group Counseling

Description: Psychological safety is a concept mentioned throughout the literature as a necessary component in the process of change in group counseling. Despite its frequent mention, no study has examined the characteristics of psychological safety. The purpose of this study was to lay the groundwork for a definition of the concept of psychological safety using self reports of group leaders and group members on a constructed Likert format psychological safety questionnaire of three attributional categories: self, other members, and leader. The study utilized group members (n = 44) and group leaders (n = 4) participating in laboratory groups as a part of a counseling related masters curriculum. The questionnaires were filled out on the first, eighth (middle), and fourteenth (last) sessions. Hierarchies for characteristics and attribution were constructed by using a summing procedure of the Likert responses. Results on the attribution of psychological safety by group members showed a consistent pattern over the three time measures. Group members reported leaders as the most attributed to facilitating psychological safety, other members as second, and self as least attributed to facilitate psychological safety. Group leaders showed no apparent agreement between groups, but each group leader attributed psychological safety consistently over time within one's own group. Results on the characteristics of psychological safety yielded a comprehensive list of characteristics, arranged in hierarchical format, as reported by both group members and leaders. Results indicated that psychological safety has some core concepts in each of the attributional categories. For group members, the characteristics of "warmth and support" and "active listening" were stable across every attributional category and time measure. For group leaders, "self disclosing feelings", "warmth and support", and "responding in an emotional, feeling manner" were reported in every time measure and attributional category. Characteristics that had a negative effect on psychological safety and recommendations for ...
Date: May 1997
Creator: Fall, Kevin A.

A Comparative Analysis of Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of intensive sibling group play therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intensive sibling group play therapy and intensive individual play therapy on the above identified dimensions.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Tyndall-Lind, Ashley

Counselor Effectiveness and Correlations With Select Demographic Variables for Masters Level Counseling Students

Description: Counselor education programs are charged with the responsibility to train students to be effective counselors. Despite relative consistency in academic and clinical experiences, some students are less effective than others. It was the intent of this research to investigate possible relationships which may exist between students' background and experiences and their levels of demonstrated counselor effectiveness as measured by the Counselor Rating Form - Short Version (CRF-S) and the Supervisor Rated-Counselor Interaction Analysis (SR-CIA). It was hypothesized that counselor effectiveness would be negatively correlated with prior teaching experience and level of religious participation. Data was collected using a demographic survey from masters level counseling students participating in their practicum semester. Counseling tapes from each of the participants were collected towards the end of the semester. These tapes were then rated by doctoral students using the CRF-S and the SR-CIA. The total sample size was 28. Regression analysis was used to investigate the hypotheses. Three models were constructed. The dependent variables used were scores from the CRF-S, the SR-CIA and a third comprised of a normalized composite of CRF-S and SR-CIA termed COMPOSITE. Each model used, as the independent variables, years of teaching experience, and hours of religious participation. Results from regression analysis suggested that a negative correlation existed between counseling effectiveness and years of teaching experience and a positive correlation between counselor effectiveness and hours of religious participation. Statistically significant results were not achieved for any of the models tested. Further investigation was conducted using effect size analysis. Small to medium effect sizes were achieved, however, suggesting that the models were detecting a negative correlation between counselor effectiveness and years of teaching experience, and a positive correlation between hours of religious participation and counselor effectiveness.
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Date: December 1999
Creator: Calhoun, Kenneth

Development of a Discouragement Scale for Adults with Normative Data for Gay Males

Description: According to Alfred Adler, founder of Individual Psychology, a feeling of inferiority is in some degree common to all people. People who are unable to overcome these inferiority feelings by striving for cooperation may become discouraged. Although there are three scales to measure social interest, no scales measuring discouragement for adults was found. Additionally, Adler held basic assumptions regarding homosexuality, and the findings suggest that the assumptions should be reexamined. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, three University of North Texas candidates developed a discouragement scale for adults 18 years of age and older, known as the Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA). Discouragement was examined relative to the five life tasks. Second, this candidate normed the instrument for the scores of gay male subjects and compared it to the scores of the other subject groups. Since the emphasis was on developing the instrument and norming it for various subject groups, no hypothesis was developed. Data was collected on three subject groups, known as the general norm subjects, the discouraged subjects, and the gay male subjects. Analyses were performed on the scores. Among the analyses, it was found that gay male subjects were slightly more discouraged than the general norm subjects, and the discouraged subjects were far greater discouraged than the other two subject groups. Initial reliability and validity was found to be high, offering support that the DSA is a reliable and valid instrument. The recommendations for further research include cultural and gender studies, predicting behavior, counseling intervention, and exploring the relationship between discouragement and stressors, such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
Date: December 1996
Creator: Chernin, Jeffrey N.

The Effects of Brief Exposure to Non Traditional Media Messages on Female Body Image

Description: Body image may be defined as the perception or attitude one has regarding the appearance of his or her body. Body image concerns are not only central to the diagnostic criteria of eating disorders, but also create distress for nonclinical populations. Females (n = 167) from three universities participated in a study by completing the Eating Disorder Inventory - 2 (Garner, 1991) and the Figure Rating Scale (Stunkard, Sorenson, & Schulsinger, 1983); watching a video; and then completing the instruments again. Subjects in the treatment group (n = 89) viewed a video designed to increase awareness of unrealistic body sizes and shapes seen in the media (Kilbourne, 1995). Subjects in the comparison group (n = 77) viewed a video unrelated to female body image.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Garber, Carla F.

The Effects of Child-Centered Play Therapy Training on Trainees

Description: This study was designed to determine the effects of child-centered play therapy as a play therapy training model for beginning play therapy students. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of child-centered play therapy training on play therapy trainees in (a) improving positive attitudes and beliefs toward children; (b) improving knowledge of child-centered play therapy; (c) improving confidence in applying child-centered play therapy skills; (d) reducing dominance tendencies in trainees' personality as measured by the California Psychological Inventory; and (e) increasing tolerance levels in trainees' personality as measured by the CPI. The experimental group, consisting of 37 counseling graduate students with a specialty in child counseling, received 45 clock hours of introduction to play therapy graduate course training at the University of North Texas, Denton. The control group, consisting of 29 counseling graduate students with a specialty in child counseling, received other counseling graduate courses training but no play therapy training at the time of their participation in this study at the University of North Texas. Both experimental and control group students completed the pretest and the posttest on the Play Therapy Attitude Knowledge Skills Survey and the California Psychological Inventory at the beginning and the end of the semester terms of Fall 1995, Spring 1996, and Summer 1996. Analyses of covariance revealed that students in the experimental group demonstrated (a) a significant improvement in their positive attitudes and beliefs toward children; (b) a significant improvement in their child-centered play therapy knowledge; (c) a significant improvement in their confidence in applying child-centered play therapy skills; and (d) a significant reduction in their dominance tendency. An insignificant result was found in their tolerance level. This study suggests that child-centered play therapy training is a viable training model for prospective and beginning play therapists.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Kao, Shu-Chen

Effects of Experiential Focusing-Oriented Dream Interpretation

Description: This study was designed to examine the effects of Experiential Focusing-oriented dream interpretation. The process was twofold. The first part of this study involved a preliminary step of developing an instrument, the Dream Interpretation Effects Questionnaire (DIEQ). The DIEQ assessed specific effects of Experiential Focusing-oriented dream interpretation, e.g., a sense of easing, fresh air, or movement, increased positive energy or self-understanding, development of a new step, enhanced valuation of dreams, or enhanced understanding of the meaning of the dream. Fifty-two adult volunteers participated in the first part of this study. All participants completed Part One of the DIEQ after reporting a dream and freely associating its meaning to another participant. The results were computed to establish the reliability of the DIEQ. The researcher then used the DIEQ along with a structured interview in a pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effects of Experiential Focusing-oriented dream interpretation. Twenty adult volunteers experienced in Experiential Focusing participated in the second part of this study. They were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a waiting-list control group. The experimental participants completed the DIEQ before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 45-minute Experiential Focusing-oriented dream interpretation intervention. By contrast, the control participants completed the DIEQ before (pretest) and after (first posttest) a 45-minute no-intervention waiting period. Then, the control group participants received the same intervention as the experimental group and completed the DIEQ (second posttest). All participants participated in a structured interview to conclude the study.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Kan, Kuei-an

Ethical Knowledge of Counselors: A Survey of the Membership of the Texas Association for Counseling and Development

Description: This study was designed to measure ten demographic membership variables of the Texas Association for Counseling and Development (TACD) and the respective relationships of those variables to ethical knowledge. It was also an effort to conduct a global study of the most recent revision (1988) of the AACD Ethical Standards and to find the relative knowledge of these standards by a random sample of 357 counselors in one state counseling organization.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Zibert, Jack (Jack Charles)

Filial Therapy with Chinese Parents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in: (a) increasing Chinese parents' empathic behavior with their children; (b) increasing Chinese parents' attitude of acceptance toward their children; and (c) reducing Chinese parents' stress related to parenting. The experimental group, consisting of 18 Chinese parents, received 10 weekly 2-hour filial therapy training sessions and conducted a weekly 3 0-minute play session with one of their children. The control group, consisting of 16 Chinese parents, received no treatment during the ten weeks. All the parents were videotaped playing with their child before and after the training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. The two written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes were the Porter Parental Acceptance Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Analyses of Covariance revealed that the Chinese parents in the experimental group had significant changes in all 12 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children; (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children; and (c) a significant reduction in their level of stress related to parenting. This study supports filial therapy as an effective intervention for Chinese parents and their children. Filial therapy equips Chinese parents with healthy parenting skills and knowledge and indirectly empowers Chinese children who experience an increase in parental empathy and acceptance. Thus, filial therapy offers significant possibilities for promoting the parent-child relationship and well-being of Chinese families.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Chau, Iris Yuen-Fan

Filial Therapy with Immigrant Chinese Parents in Canada

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy training in: (a) increasing immigrant Chinese parents' empathic behavior with their children; (b) increasing immigrant Chinese parents' acceptance level toward their children; (c) reducing immigrant Chinese parents' stress related to parenting; (d) reducing immigrant Chinese parents' perceived number of problem behaviors in their children; and (e) enhancing the self concept of the Chinese children of immigrant Chinese parents.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Yuen, Tommy Chi-man

Filial Therapy with Incarcerated Mothers

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy with incarcerated mothers as a method of increasing empathic behaviors with their children, increasing attitudes of acceptance toward their children, and reducing stress related to parenting. Filial therapy, a method of training parents to respond and interact therapeutically with their children, focuses on enhancing the parent-child relationship. The sample population of 22 volunteer subjects was drawn from a pool of incarcerated mothers in the Denton County Jail who had children between three and ten years of age. The experimental group parents, consisting of 12 incarcerated mothers, received 2-hour filial therapy training sessions biweekly for five weeks and participated in biweekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group parents, consisting of 10 incarcerated mothers, received no treatment during the five weeks. The three written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes by both groups were The Porter Parental Acceptance Scale, The Parenting Stress Index, and The Filial Problem Checklist. The parents were also videotaped in play sessions with their child before and after training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. Analysis of Covariance revealed that incarcerated mothers in the experimental group had significant change in 9 of 13 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children, (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children, and (c) a significant reduction in the number of reported problems with their children's behavior. This study supports filial therapy as an effective intervention for enhancing the parent-child relationship with incarcerated mothers and their children. Utilizing instruction and practical application of positive therapeutic methods, filial therapy training empowers parents by increasing their parenting knowledge and skills, and indirectly empowers children who experience the parent-child relationship with an ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Harris, Zella Lois

Filial Therapy with Native Americans on the Flathead Reservation

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the 10-week filial therapy model as an intervention for Native American parents and their children residing on the Flathead Reservation in Montana. Filial therapy is an approach used by play therapists to train parents to be therapeutic agents with their own children. Parents are taught basic child-centered play therapy skills and practice those skills during weekly play sessions with their children. The purpose of this study was to determine if filial therapy is effective in: 1) increasing parental acceptance of Native Americans residing on the Flathead Reservation of their children; 2) reducing the stress level of those parents; 3) improving empathic behaviors of those parents toward their children; 4) changing the play behaviors of children with their parents who participated in the training; and, 5) enhancing the self-concept of those children. The experimental group parents (N=11) received 10 weekly 2-hour filial therapy training sessions and participated in weekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group (N=10) received no treatment during the 10 weeks. All adult participants completed the Porter Parental Acceptance Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Child participants completed the Joseph Pre-school and Primary Self Concept Screening Test. Parent and child participants were videotaped playing together in 20-minute videotaped play sessions before and after the training to measure empathic behavior in parent-child interactions and desirable play behaviors in children. Analyses of Covariance revealed that the Native American parents in the experimental group significantly increased their level of empathy in their interactions with their children. Experimental group children significantly increased their level of desirable play behaviors with their parents. Although parental acceptance, parental stress, and children's self concept did not improve significantly, all measures indicated positive trends. In addition, this study gives rise to questions regarding the ...
Date: May 1996
Creator: Glover, Geraldine J.

Filial Therapy with Non-Offending Parents of Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy as a method of intervention for non-offending parents and their children who have experienced sexual abuse. Filial therapy is a didactic/dynamic approach used by play therapists to train parents to be therapeutic agents with their children. Parents are taught basic child-centered play therapy skills and the utilization of these skills in weekly play sessions with their children. Parents learn to create a special environment which enhances and strengthens the parent-child relationship, thus assisting in personal growth and change for both the parent and child. The purpose of this study was to determine if filial therapy is effective in: (a) increasing the acceptance of non-offending parents of their sexually abused children; (b) reducing the stress level of non-offending parents; (c) improving empathic behaviors of non-offending parents toward their sexually abused child; (d) decreasing the anxiety of sexually abused children; (e) enhancing the self-concept of sexually abused children; (f) decreasing behavior problems of sexually abused children as reported by their non-offending parents; and (g) enhancing the emotional adjustment of sexually abused children.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Costas, Mary Bassett

Filial Therapy with Parents of Children Experiencing Learning Difficulties

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the Landreth 10-week filial therapy model as an intervention for the parents of children experiencing learning difficulties.The purpose of this study was to determine if filial therapy is effective in: 1) increasing parental acceptance of children with a learning difficulty; 2) reducing the stress level of parents of children with learning difficulties; 3) decreasing social problems and total behavior problems of children with learning difficulties as reported by parents and teachers.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Kale, Amy L. (Amy Louise)

Generational and Transgenerational Issues of the Japanese American Internment : A Phenomenological Study

Description: This study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine the generational and transgenerational issues of five identified Japanese American families. To be included in this study, families were identified to contain at least one member who was interned during World War II or who had parents, grandparents, or great-grandparents who were interned. Semistructured interviews, including Adlerian lifestyle assessments, were conducted with the 28 research informants who represented the second, third, and fourth generations of their families.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Mayeda, Karen A.