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Metallization and Modification of Low-k Dielectric Materials

Description: Aluminum was deposited onto both Teflon AF and Parylene AF surfaces by chemical vapor deposition of trimethylaluminum. This work shows that similar thin film (100 Angstroms) aluminum oxide adlayers form on both polymers at the low temperature dosing conditions used in the studies. Upon anneal to room temperature and above, defluorination of the polymer surfaces increased and resulted in fluorinated aluminum oxide adlayers; the adlayers were thermally stable to the highest temperatures tested (600 K). Angle-resolved spectra showed higher levels of fluorination toward the polymer/adlayer interface region. Copper films were also deposited at low temperature onto Teflon AF using a copper hexafluoroacetylacetonate-cyclooctadiene precursor. Annealing up to 600 K resulted in the loss of precursor ligands and a shift to metallic copper. As with aluminum adlayers, some polymer defluorination and resulting metal (copper) fluoride was detected. Parylene AF and polystyrene films surfaces were modified by directly dosing with water vapor passed across a hot tungsten filament. Oxygen incorporation into polystyrene occurred exclusively at aromatic carbon sites, whereas oxygen incorporation into parylene occurred in both aromatic and aliphatic sites. Oxygen x-ray photoelectron spectra of the modified polymers were comparable, indicating that similar reactions occurred. The surface oxygenation of parylene allowed enhanced reactivity toward aluminum chemical vapor deposition. Silicon-carbon (Si-Cx) films were formed by electron beam bombardment of trimethylvinylsilane films which were adsorbed onto metal substrates at low temperatures in ultra-high vacuum. Oxygen was also added to the films by coadsorbing water before electron beam bombardment; the films were stable to more than 700 K, with increasing silicon-oxygen bond formation at elevated temperatures. Copper metal was sputter deposited in small increments onto non-oxygenated films. X-ray photoelectric spectra show three-dimensional copper growth (rather than layer-by-layer growth), indicating only weak interaction between the copper and underlying films. Annealing at elevated temperatures caused coalescence or growth ...
Date: December 2008
Creator: Martini, David M.

Preparation of flat dendrimers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons connected via 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene core.

Description: Flat dendrimers, consisting of a hexavalent aromatic core and rigid ethynyl units locked in place by ether connections were developed based upon the divergent synthetic method. Alternating functional groups were adopted on each site of the hexa-substituted benzene, in order to avoid undesired cyclization pathways. The flat structures of conjugated dendrimers would allow investigation on the discotic liquid crystal properties. In addition, these ethylnyl dendrimers are expected to show directed energy and electron transfer with a highly conjugated system, and thus are effective in the preparation of photoreactive materials such as electronic sensors or light harvesting materials. Conjugated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, consisting of naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, and phenanthrene groups connected via 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene cores, were synthesized. These molecules exhibited luminescence properties and the π-complexation with a mercury trifunctional lewis acid are expected to enhance the phosphorescence in the presence of the heavy metal due to the spin-orbit coupling. Besides, owing to the presence of heavy metal atom in the Au (I) complexes linked by s-bonded triethynyltriphenylene luminophore, the phosphorescence occurs from a metal-centered emission. The conjugated organic luminophores have been developed to produce excellent quantum efficiencies, brightness, and long lifetimes.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Jung, Jiyoung

Reducing the Computational Cost of Ab Initio Methods

Description: In recent years, advances in computer technology combined with new ab initio computational methods have allowed for dramatic improvement in the prediction of energetic properties. Unfortunately, even with these advances, the extensive computational cost, in terms of computer time, memory, and disk space of the sophisticated methods required to achieve chemical accuracy - defined as 1 kcal/mol from reliable experimental data effectively - limits the size of molecules [i.e. less than 10-15 non-hydrogen atoms] that can be studied. Several schemes were explored to help reduce the computational cost while still maintaining chemical accuracy. Specifically, a study was performed to assess the accuracy of ccCA to compute atomization energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, proton affinities, and enthalpies of formation for third-row (Ga-Kr) containing molecules. Next, truncation of the correlation consistent basis sets for the hydrogen atom was examined as a possible means to reduce the computational cost of ab initio methods. It was determined that energetic properties could be extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit utilizing a series of truncated hydrogen basis sets that was within 1 kcal/mol of the extrapolation of the full correlation consistent basis sets. Basis set truncation for the hydrogen atom was then applied to ccCA in the development of two reduced basis set composite methods, ccCA(aug) and ccCA(TB). The effects that the ccCA(aug) and ccCA(TB) methods had upon enthalpies of formation and the overall percent disk space saved as compared to ccCA was examined for the hydrogen containing molecules of the G2/97 test suite. Additionally, the Weizmann-n (Wn) methods were utilized to compute the several properties for the alkali metal hydroxides as well as the ground and excited states of the alkali monoxides anion and radicals. Finally, a multi-reference variation to the correlation consistent Composite Approach [MR-ccCA] was presented and utilized in the computation ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Mintz, Benjamin

Synthesis, characterization, and kinetics of isomerization, C-H and P-C bond activation for unsaturated diphosphine-coordinated triosmium carbonyl clusters.

Description: Substitution of MeCN ligands in the activated cluster Os3(CO)10(MeCN)2 by the unsaturated diphosphine ligands (Z)-Ph2PCH=CHPPh2 (cDPPEn) or 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione (bpcd) proceeds rapidly at room temperature to furnish the ligand-bridged cluster 1,2-Os3(CO)10(P-P) (P-P represents cDPPEn or bpcd). Heating 1,2-Os3(CO)10(P-P) leads to the formation of the thermodynamically more stable chelating isomer 1,1-Os3(CO)10(P-P). Each compound of Os3(CO)10(P-P) has been characterized by x-ray diffraction, IR, 31P NMR and 1H NMR. Ligand isomerization kinetics have been investigated by UV-VIS and 31P NMR (for cDPPEn) or 1H NMR (for bpcd) spectroscopies. The isomerization mechanism is discussed based on the activation parameters and CO inhibition (for cDPPEn) or ligand trapping experiments (for bpcd). Thermolysis of 1,1-Os3(CO)10(bpcd) in refluxing toluene gives the hydrido cluster HOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] and the benzyne cluster HOs3(CO)8(μ3-C6H4)[μ2,η1-PPhC=C(PPh2)C(O)CH2C(O)]. Photolysis of 1,1-Os3(CO)10(bpcd) using near UV light affords HOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] as the sole product. HOs3(CO)8(μ3-C6H4)[μ2,η1-PPhC=C(PPh2)C(O)CH2C(O)] has been characterized in solution by IR and NMR spectroscopies. Furthermore its molecular structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Reversible C-H bond formation in HOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] is demonstrated by ligand trapping studies to give 1,1-Os3(CO)9L(bpcd) (where L = CO, phosphine) via the unsaturated intermediate 1,1-Os3(CO)9(bpcd). The kinetics for reductive coupling in HOs3(CO)9[γ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] and DOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2-d10)C=C{P(Ph-d5)(C6D4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] in the presence of PPh3 give rise to a kH/kD value of 0.88, whose magnitude supports the existence of a preequilibrium involving the hydride(deuteride) cluster and a transient arene-bound Os3 species that precedes the rate-limiting formation of 1,1-Os3(CO)9(bpcd). Strong proof for the proposed hydride(deuteride)/arene preequilibrium has been obtained from photochemical studies employing the isotopically labeled cluster 1,1-Os3(CO)10(bpcd-d4ortho), whose bpcd phenyl groups each contain one ortho hydrogen and deuterium atom. Equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects in the orthometallation step has been determined by 1H NMR in photochemical studies. Kinetics for the transformation from HOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] to HOs3(CO)8(μ3-C6H4)[μ2,η1-PPhC=C(PPh2)C(O)CH2C(O)] has been studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy for which the mechanism is discussed.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Wu, Guanmin

Thermochemical investigations of crystalline solutes in non-electrolyte solutions: Mathematical representation of solubility data and the development of predictive solubility equations in systems with specific and non-specific interactions.

Description: Understanding the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent mixtures is of critical importance in many chemical and industrial applications. Experimental measurements become progressively difficult as the number of solution components increases -- producing the need for predictive models. Problems in development of predictive models arise if the mixture has one or more components that interact through molecular complexation or association. Experimental solubilities of anthracene and pyrene dissolved in binary systems containing one or more alcohols were measured in order to address this problem. Alcohols examined in this study were: 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In binary solvent mixtures containing only a single self-associating alcoholic solvent, the alkane cosolvents studied were: n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tert-butylcyclohexane. Predictive solubility equations were developed using mobile order theory. This approach differs from classical solution models by representing hydrogen bonding with a probability term rather than with expressions derived from stepwise equilibria or expressions to represent hypothetical solution aggregates. Results were compared with the predicted solubilities found from using expressions developed using the Kretschmer-Wiebe and Mecke-Kempter approaches for modeling associated solutions. It was found that the mobile order approach provided reasonably accurate predictions for the solute solubilities in the systems studied. The limitations and applications for mathematical methods of representing experimental isothermal solubility data were also studied for 72 systems. Two possible descriptive forms for this mathematical representation were suggested based on the various nearly ideal binary solvent (NIBS) and modified Wilson models.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Zvaigzne, Anita Ilze