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Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus for Community Colleges

Description: This syllabus includes both lecture notes and laboratory activities for a two-semester anatomy and physiology community college course. The syllabus is based on a 16-week semester that is comprised of a three-hour lecture section and a one-hour laboratory class each week. Both the lecture course and laboratory are necessary to fulfill the requirement for anatomy and physiology. Laboratory activities coincide with lectures to enhance understanding of each topic by providing visual and hands-on experiments for the concepts learned in the lecture. Laboratory quizzes will be given each week to help students maintain a working knowledge of the material learned in the laboratory. This course is appropriate for the typical anatomy and physiology student and should benefit both students who plan to major in biology and also those who are non-biology majors. Because subject matter in anatomy and physiology is quite difficult, the importance of attendance and good study skills is stressed.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Schulz, Leslie

Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS to Modeling Fire for Vegetative Restoration in Northern Arizona

Description: An accurate fire model is a useful tool in predicting the behavior of a prescribed fire. Simulation of fire requires an extensive amount of data and can be accomplished best using GIS applications. This paper demonstrates integrative procedures of using of ArcGIS™, ERDAS Imagine™, GPS, and FARSITE© to predict prescribed fire behavior on the Kaibab-Paiute Reservation. ArcGIS was used to create a database incorporating all variables into a common spatial reference system and format for the FARSITE model. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst was then used to select optimal burn sites for simulation. Our predictions will be implemented in future interagency efforts towards vegetative restoration on the reservation.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Hardison, Tanya

Aspartate Transcarbamoylase of Aeromonas Hydrophila

Description: This study focused on the enzyme, aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from A. hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium found in fresh water. The molecular mass of the ATCase holoenzyme from A. hydrophila is 310 kDa. The enzyme is likely composed of 6 catalytic polypeptides of 34 kDa each and 6 regulatory polypeptides of 17 kDa each. The velocity-substrate curve for A. hydrophila ATCase is sigmoidal for both aspartate and carbamoylphosphate. The Km for aspartate was the highest to date for an enteric bacterium at 97.18 mM. The Km for carbamoylphosphate was 1.18 mM. When heated to 60 ºC, the specific activity of the enzyme dropped by more than 50 %. When heated to 100 ºC, the enzyme showed no activity. The enzyme's activity was inhibited by ATP, CTP or UTP.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Higginbotham, Leah

Bacterial Challenge in Lumbricus Terrestris: A Terrestrial Invertebrate Immunotoxicity Model.

Description: A bacterial challenge assay was developed utilizing the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, in order to assess potential immunotoxic effects from exposure to specific polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Earthworms were inoculated with Aeromonous hydrophila, establishing a 10-day LD50. In vitro assays for effects of PCBs on phagocytosis agreed with mammalian studies, demonstrating potent suppression of phagocytosis by the non-coplanar PCB congener 138 and no suppression by the coplanar congener 126. However, when the effects of the two PCB congeners were evaluated for suppression of resistance to a whole animal infection challenge assay, coplanar PCB 126 decreased the ability of L. terrestris to withstand infection while non-coplanar PCB 138 did not.
Date: May 2007
Creator: McDonald, Jennifer C.

Coelomic Fluid Protein Profile in Earthworms Following Bacterial Challenge.

Description: Proteomic techniques were used to evaluate the protein profile of the earthworm, (Lumbricus terrestris), following a bacterial challenge. One control group received no injection; a second control group received injections of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The experimental group received injections of PBS containing (Aeromonas hydrophila). After incubation for 12 hours at 20°C, coelomic fluid was collected from each group for analysis by 2-D electrophoresis. There were significant differences in spot appearance and density between control and experimental groups. Sixteen spots showed a two-fold increase in density and 63 showed at least a two-fold decrease in density between samples from control and bacteria-challenged earthworms, respectively, suggesting up- and down-modulation of proteins potentially involved in the earthworm's response to bacterial challenge.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Brooks, Geoffrey Lance

College Freshman Biology Two Semester Course: Integrating Deep Processing Teaching Techniques

Description: Development of a college level freshman biology course was undertaken in response to government reports that American students have fallen behind students of other countries in the area of the sciences. Teaching strategies were investigated to accomplish two objectives, to define essential academic material to include in the course and to investigate teaching techniques that would increase deep processing of the information. An active process that consisted of applying the cognitive information to solving problems or developing answers to questions was defined as critical thinking. Critical thinking was incorporated into the course by the use of case studies.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Blevins, Mary Jean

Concentration-dependent Effects of D-Methylphenidate on Frontal Cortex and Spinal Cord Networks in vitro

Description: Spontaneously active frontal cortex and spinal cord networks grown on microelectrode arrays were used to study effects of D-methylphenidate. These central nervous system tissues have relatively low concentrations of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons compared to the richly populated loci, yet exhibit similar neurophysiological responses to methylphenidate. The spontaneous spike activity of both tissues was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by serial additions of 1-500 µM methylphenidate. Methylphenidate is non-toxic as spike inhibition was recovered following washes. The average concentrations for 50% spike rate inhibition (IC50 ± SD) were 118 ± 52 (n= 6) and 57 ± 43 (n = 11) for frontal cortex and spinal cord networks, respectively. A 3 hour exposure of a network to 1 mM methylphenidate was nontoxic. The effective concentrations described in this study are within the therapeutic dosage range. Therefore, the platform may be used for further investigations of drug mechanisms.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Miller, Benjamin R.

Determination of Dissociation Constants for GABAA Receptor Antagonists using Spontaneously Active Neuronal Networks in vitro

Description: Changes in spontaneous spike activities recorded from murine frontal cortex networks grown on substrate-integrated microelectrodes were used to determine the dissociation constant (KB) of three GABAA antagonists. Neuronal networks were treated with fixed concentrations of GABAA antagonists and titrated with muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist. Muscimol decreased spike activity in a concentration dependent manner with full efficacy (100% spike inhibition) and a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.14 ± 0.05 µM (mean ± SD, n=6). At 10, 20, 40 and 80 µM bicuculline, the muscimol IC50 values were shifted to 4.3 ± 1.8 µM (n=6), 6.8 ± 1.7 µM (n=6), 19.3 ± 3.54 µM (n=10) and 43.5 µM (n=2), respectively (mean ± SD). Muscimol titration in the presence of 10, 20, 40 µM of gabazine resulted in IC50s values of 20.1 (n=2), 37.17 (n=4), and 120.45 (n=2), respectively. In the presence of 20, 80, and 160 µM of TMPP (trimethylolpropane phosphate) the IC50s were 0.86 (n=2), 3.07 (n=3), 6.67 (n=2) µM, respectively. Increasing concentrations of GABAA antagonists shifted agonist log concentration-response curves to the right with identical efficacies, indicating direct competition for the GABAA receptor. A Schild plot analysis with linear regression resulted in slopes of 1.18 ± 0.18, 1.29 ± 0.23 and 1.05 ± 0.03 for bicuculline, gabazine and TMPP, respectively. The potency of antagonists was determined in terms of pA2 values. The pA2 values were 6.63 (gabazine), 6.21 (bicuculline), and 5.4 (TMPP). This suggests that gabazine has a higher binding affinity to the GABAA receptor than bicuculline and TMPP. Hence, using spike rate data obtained from population responses of spontaneously active neuronal networks, it is possible to determine key pharmacological properties of drug-receptor interactions.
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Date: December 2005
Creator: Oli-Rijal, Sabnam

Developmental Patterns of Metabolism and Hematology in the Late Stage Chicken Embryo (Gallus Domesticus) at Two Incubation Temperatures.

Description: How temperature affects physiological development in the chicken embryo is unknown. Embryos incubated at 38°C or 35°C showed no difference in growth or survival. The time to hatching was longer in 35°C than 38°C embryos (23.7 vs. 20.6 days), but unaffected was the relative timing of appearance of developmental landmarks (internal, external pipping). At stage 43-44, 38°C embryos maintained oxygen consumption around 1 mL/g/h despite acute temperature reduction (suggesting thermoregulatory maturation), unlike 35°C embryos. In 35°C embryos the lower oxygen-carrying capacity and temperature insensitive blood O2 affinity (P50 about 30 mmHg) may restrict O2 delivery to tissues, limiting metabolism during decreased ambient temperature. Reduced incubation temperature retards normal hematological and thermoregulatory development.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Black, Juli

Effector Response of the Aspartate Transcarbamoylase From Wild Type Pseudomonas Putida and a Mutant with 11 Amino Acids Deleted at the N-terminus of PyrB.

Description: Like its enteric counterpart, aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Pseudomonas putida is a dodecamer of two different polypeptides. Unlike the enterics, the Pseudomonas ATCase lacks regulatory polypeptides but employs instead inactive dihydroorotases for an active dodecamer. Previous work showed that PyrB contains not only the active site but also the effector binding sites for ATP, UTP and CTP at its N-terminus. In this work, 11 amino acids were deleted from the N-terminus of PyrB and the ATCase with the truncated protein was expressed in E. coli pyrB- and purified. The wild type enzyme was similarly treated. Velocity-substrate plots without effectors gave Michaelis-Menten kinetics in all cases. Deleting 11 amino acids did not affect dodecameric assembly but altered effector responses. When carbamoylphosphate was varied, the mutant enzyme was inhibited by UTP while the wild type enzyme was activated 2-fold. When the aspartate was varied, CTP had no effect on the mutant enzyme but strongly inhibited the wild type enzyme.
Date: May 2002
Creator: AsFour, Hani

Effects of Daily Oral Injections of Quercetin on Implanted Colon-25 Tumor Growth in Balb-C Mice

Description: The effects of three oral dosages (0.4 mg, 0.8 mg, and 1.6 mg) of quercetin on Colon-25 tumors implanted in Balb-c mice were studied. The data in this study show that: (1) certain dosages of quercetin in alcohol solutions, reduces the weight, and size of implanted Colon-25 tumors in Balb-c mice, (2) these same dosages of quercetin all produce a profound neutrophilia combined with a significant lymphopenia at day 20 post-implantation, and (3) there was relatively little evidence of histological changes in the quercetin-treated tumor section which would indicate that the action(s) of quercetin is primarily at the subcellular level probably within the nuclei of the tumor cells.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Hayashi, Adam

Evaluation of virulence in wild type and pyrimidine auxotrophs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the eukaryotic model system Caenorhabditis elegans.

Description: The human opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, has been shown to kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans has been a valuable model for the study of bacterial pathogenesis, and has reinforced the notion that common virulence and host defense mechanisms exist. Recently, the pyrimidine pathway was shown to regulate virulence levels. Therefore, mutations in the pyrimidine pathway of PAO1 showed decrease virulence in the nematode. When starving the nematode, bacterial resistance was also shown to increase. It was hypothesized that starvation induced the DAF pathway, which regulates the transcription of genes involved with the antibacterial defense mechanism. Further research will be conducted to test this theory by performing RNAi experiments for the genes functioning in the antibacterial defense mechanism.
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Date: August 2004
Creator: Anvari, Sara

Evidentiary Value of Condoms: Comparison of Durable Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Condoms

Description: Condom trace evidence must not be overlooked in sexual assault cases; understanding the chemical and physical characteristics of condoms is imperative if condoms are to be useful evidence. Previous research shows that condom identification is possible, but it is equally important to evaluate durability of condom residues versus time. Using FT-IR, this study examined vaginal swabs from subjects who self-sampled at intervals for up to 72 hours after having intercourse with a condom. This study investigated whether age and the stage of the menstrual cycle affected the durability of residues in the vagina over time. This study revealed that condoms containing nonoxynol-9, silicone-based lubricants, and particulates provide valuable information for identification, and that nonoxynol-9 specifically withstands the vaginal environment for up to 72 hours. Additionally, age and menstrual cycle both appeared to have an effect on the durability of residues although larger sample size is desirable.
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Date: May 2000
Creator: Belcher, Kelly Leigh

Functional and Categorical Analysis of Waveshapes Recorded on Microelectrode Arrays

Description: Dissociated neuronal cell cultures grown on substrate integrated microelectrode arrays (MEAs) generate spontaneous activity that can be recorded for up to several weeks. The signature wave shapes from extracellular recording of neuronal activity display a great variety of shapes with triphasic signals predominating. I characterized extracellular recordings from over 600 neuronal signals. I have preformed a categorical study by dividing wave shapes into two major classes: (type 1) signals in which the large positive peak follows the negative spike, and (type 2) signals in which the large positive peak precedes the negative spike. The former are hypothesized to be active signal propagation that can occur in the axon and possibly in soma or dendrites. The latter are hypothesized to be passive which is generally secluded to soma or dendrites. In order to verify these hypotheses, I pharmacologically targeted ion channels with tetrodotoxin (TTX), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and monensin.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Schwartz, Jacob C.

Gene Flow among Populations of the Mayfly Epeorus pleuralis (Banks 1910) (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) in Three Adjacent Appalachian Headwater Streams

Description: Dispersal of aquatic insects is difficult to measure with traditional direct trapping methodologies. However, genetic markers are an ideal surrogate to indirectly infer dispersal and gene flow. For this research, a portion of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was used to evaluate gene flow and dispersal of Epeorus pleuralis located in the northern Appalachian headwater streams of the Allegheny, Genesee, and Susquehanna watersheds. A total of 536 basepairs from 16 individual insects were used for analysis. Thirteen haplotypes were discovered, two of which were shared between the Allegheny and Genesee streams. Although no shared haplotypes were found in the Susquehanna, analysis of molecular variance results suggest that there is not a significant genetic difference between the three populations and attributes the majority of variation to within population differences.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Dunlap, Rebecca

General Biology Lecture and Laboratory Curriculum Outline in a Two or Four-Year College

Description: In July of 1999, I wrote to 24 Texas junior and community colleges (and one four-year institution) describing my thesis agenda of a general biology lecture and laboratory syllabus for introductory biology students. I requested the titles and authors of the general biology textbooks and laboratory manuals they were currently using, the publishers of these texts, and the edition of said texts. I then contacted publishers of the various textbooks who, in turn, directed me to the Dallas-area representatives for further inquiries. I assimilated the various authors' general biology topics into a two-semester syllabus of lecture and one semester of laboratory. The document is not a text manuscript, but an all-inclusive listing of a general biology syllabus broken down by subject.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Moreland, Amy L.

Heart rate and oxygen consumption during the critical prenatal period in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus): Influence of light cues and the onset of pulmonary ventilation.

Description: To examine if a rhythm can be entrained in either heart rate or oxygen consumption in late stage embryos (days 17-19.5) with light as a zeitgeber, chicken embryos were incubated in complete darkness (D:D) and 12:12 light:dark cycle (L:D). Light had no impact on oxygen consumption (390 µL O2∙min-1∙egg-1) but increased heart rate for non-internally pipped embryos (260 to 270 beats∙min-1 during light cycle). Oxygen consumption increased independent of pipping while heart rate increased (255 to 265 beats∙min-1) in D:D embryos due to pipping. A light-induced rhythm or effect occurred in heart rate but not oxygen consumption, suggesting heart rate and oxygen consumption may be uncoupled.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Brown, Jessie W.

Hematocrit, hematocrit Regulation and its effect on oxygen consumption in the late stage chicken embryo (Gallus domesticus).

Description: Hematocrit and hematocrit regulation have the potential to affect developing embryos. To examine the ability of chicken embryos at day 15 to regulate hematocrit, they were subjected to either repeated saline injections (5% of total blood volume) or repeated blood removal (5% of total blood volume). Embryos showed an ability to maintain hematocrit (~20%) despite blood volume increases up to 115% of initial blood volume. Embryos were not able to maintain hematocrit in the face of dramatic blood volume loss. Oxygen consumption of embryos could be affected by their level of hematocrit. To examine this, chicken embryos at day 15, 16, and 17 of incubation were given a high hematocrit (~50-60%) sample of blood (400 μl) to artificially increase the hematocrit of the embryos (~10-12%). Despite the increase in oxygen availability, when monitored over a period of six hours, embryos showed no difference (0.36 ± 0.01 (ml O2 - min-1- egg-1) in metabolism from baseline measurements at day 15, 16 and 17.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Khorrami, Sheva

Histological age estimation of the midshaft clavicle using a new digital technique.

Description: Histological methods to estimate skeletal age at death, in forensic cases, are an alternative to the more traditional gross morphological methods. Most histological methods utilize counts of bone type within a given field for their estimation. The method presented in this paper uses the percentage area occupied by unremodeled bone to estimate age. The percentage area occupied by unremodeled bone is used in a linear regression model to predict skeletal age at death. Additionally, this method uses digital software to measure area rather than the traditional technique in which a gridded microscope is used to estimate area. The clavicle was chosen as a sample site since it is not a weight bearing bone and has little muscular insertion. These factors reduce the variation seen as a result of differences in lifestyle or activity pattern.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Ingraham, Mark R.

Home range analysis of rehabilitated and released great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in Denton County, Texas, through radio telemetry.

Description: Raptor rehabilitation has become commonplace globally, yet studies on the survival and adaptation of great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) after release has been neglected to an appreciable extent. The primary objective of this study is to provide quantitative data on the success of rehabilitated and released great horned owls in the North Texas region. Owls (N=12) were rehabilitated and released onto the Ray Roberts Greenbelt Corridor in Denton County, Texas, and monitored using radio telemetry to evaluate home range (November 2002 - February 2005). With approximately 75% of the birds released for this study surviving until transmitter battery failure, it is believed that the rehabilitation process was successful for these birds.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Johnston, Jennifer Lynn

Immunohistochemical characterization of neuronal cilia in the rat central nervous system.

Description: An anti-G"11 antibody was used to label neuronal cilia throughout the rat central nervous system. Immunoreactive cilia were observed in every examined region of the rat CNS, but not in monkey or mouse tissue. Antibodies to G"q and G"q/11 failed to label cilia. Immunoreactive cilia were observed as early as postnatal day 0 in spinal tissue, and postnatal day 3 in hypothalamic tissue. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between a region's mean cilium length and that region's distance to the nearest ventricle; regions nearest ventricles were those with the longest cilia. This correlation suggests neuronal cilia may function as chemosensors, detecting substances as they move out from the cerebrospinal fluid and into the extracellular space of the brain.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Hughes, Rhome

Improved Fabrication and Quality Control of Substrate Integrated Microelectrode Arrays

Description: Spontaneously active monolayer neuronal networks cultured on photoetched multimicroelectrode plates (MMEPs) offer great potential for use in studying neuronal networks. However, there are many problems associated with frequent, long-term use of MMEPs. The major problems include (1) polysiloxane insulation deterioration and breakdown, (2) and loss of gold at the gold electroplated indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The objective of this investigation was to correct these major problems. Quality control measures were employed to monitor MMEP fabrication variables. The phenotypes of polysiloxane degradation were identified and classified. Factors that were found to contribute most to insulation deterioration were (1) moisture contamination during MMEP insulation, (2) loss of the quartz barrier layer from excessive exposure to basic solutions, and (3) repetitive use in culture. As a result, the insulation equipment and methods were modified to control moisture-dependent insulation deterioration, and the KOH reprocessing solution was replaced with tetramethylguanidine to prevent damage to the quartz. The problems associated with gold electroplating were solved via the addition of a pulsed-DC application of gold in a new citrate buffered electroplating solution.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Zim, Bret E.

Influence of copper on resistance of Lumbricus terrestris to bacterial challenge

Description: Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, were challenged orally and intracoelomically with two bacterial species, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and mortality rates were observed. Neither were found to be particularly pathogenic at injected doses of up to 108 bacteria per earthworm. The influence of Cu++ (as CuSO4) on the earthworm's response to bacterial challenge was investigated by exposing earthworms to sublethal levels of Cu++ prior to bacterial challenge. Exposure at sublethal concentrations up to 3 m g/cm2 did not have a pronounced influence on host resistance to challenge as measured by earthworm mortality. Cu++ increased the earthworm's ability to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes, indicating that Cu++ exposure caused coelomocyte death, autolysis and release of agglutinins into the coelom, possibly explaining resistance to bacterial challenge.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Simmons, Carla Stull

Influence of parental swimming stamina on the cardiac and metabolic performance of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Description: Superior swimming stamina in adult fish is presumably passed on to their offspring, but the ontogeny of the appearance of superior stamina and the requisite enhanced cardio-respiratory support for locomotion in larval fishes has not been determined. Is the expression of the suite of parental traits enabling superior swimming stamina in their offspring dependent upon their achieving juvenile/adult morphology, or does it appear earlier in their larvae? To answer this, adults were classified into three groups based on swimming stamina, followed by measurement of length, mass, and width. Larval offspring from the two parental groups -high stamina larvae (HSL) and low stamina larvae (LSL)- were reared at 27°C in aerated water (21% O2). Routine and active heart rate, routine and active mass specific oxygen consumption were recorded through 21dpf, and cost of transport (COT) and factorial aerobic scope were derived from oxygen consumption measurements. Routine heart rate at 2dpf of LSL was 164 ± 1 b·min-1, compared to only 125 ± 2 b·min-1 for HSL. Routine heart rate subsequently peaked at 203 ± 1 b·min-1 at 5dpf in the HSL group, compared to 207 ± 1 b·min-1, at 4dpf in the LSP larvae. Active heart rate at 5 dpf of LSL was 218 ± 2 b·min-1 compared to 216 ± 2 b·min-1 for HSL. Active heart rate increased slightly to 227 ± 2 b·min-1 for LSL before decreasing again, while active heart rate remained relatively constant for HSL. Routine O2 consumption at 2dpf of HSL was 0.09 μmol·mg-1·hr-1, compared to 0.03 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 in LSL. Routine O2 consumption subsequently peaked at 0.70 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 at 9dpf in the HSL, compared to 0.71 μmol·mg-1·hr-1, at 9dpf in the LSL. These values dramatically decreased before leveling off at around 0.20 μmol·mg-1·hr-1 and 0.15 μmol·mg-1·h-1, respectively. Active O2 consumption at 5dpf for HSL was 0.38 ...
Date: May 2007
Creator: Gore, Matthew R.