An understanding of the potential roles as lipid mediators of a family of bioactive metabolites called N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) depends on their accurate identification and quantification. The levels of 18C unsaturated NAEs (e.g. NAE18:2, NAE 18:3, etc.) in wild-type seeds (about 2000 ng/g fw) generally decreased by about 80% during germination and post-germinative growth. In addition, results suggest NAE-degradative fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) expression does not play a major role in normal NAE metabolism as previously thought. Seedlings germinated and grown in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA), an endogenous plant hormone, exhibited growth arrest and secondary dormancy, similar to the treatment of seedlings with exogenous Nlauroylethanolamine (NAE12:0). ABA-mediated growth arrest was associated with higher levels of unsaturated NAEs. Overall, these results are consistent with the concept that NAE metabolism is activated during seed germination and suggest that the reduction in unsaturated NAE levels is under strict temporal control and may be a requirement for normal seed germination and post-germinative growth.
Recently, three distinct isoforms of phospholipase D (PLD) were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLD α represents the well-known form found in plants, while PLD β and γ have been only recently discovered (Pappan et al., 1997b; Qin et al., 1997). These isoforms differ in substrate selectivity and cofactors required for activity. Here, I report that PLD β and γ isoforms were active toward N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), but PLD α was not. The ability of PLD β and γ to hydrolyze NAPE marks a key difference from PLD α. N-acylethanolamines (NAE), the hydrolytic products of NAPE by PLD β and γ, inhibited PLD α from castor bean and cabbage. Inhibition of PLD α by NAE was dose-dependent and inversely proportional to acyl chain length and degree of unsaturation. Enzyme kinetic analysis suggested non-competitive inhibition of PLD α by NAE 14:0. In addition, a 1.2-kb tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cDNA fragment was isolated that possessed a 74% amino acid identity to Arabidopsis PLD β indicating that this isoform is expressed in tobacco cells. Collectively, these results provide evidence for NAE producing PLD activities and suggest a possible regulatory role for NAE with respect to PLD α.
Male Fischer rats (n=43) were used in a diet-diet/ exercise design to investigate the apparent protein sparing effects of exercise. The animals were divided into five groups: INITIAL (baseline), SEDENTARY (control), DIET, DIET/EXERCISE, and EXERCISE. Carcasses were analyzed for body composition, the blood for plasma alanine concentration and the urine for urea nitrogen concentration. The results showed no significant differences between groups in urinary urea nitrogen, plasma alanine, body weight, or carcass weights. The EXERCISE group had a significant increase in percent protein and a significant decrease in percent fat and grams of fat when compared to all other groups (p <.05).
Legumes play an important role in agriculture as major food sources for humans and as feed for animals. Bioavailable nitrogen is a limiting nutrient for crop growth. Legumes are important because they can form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia that results in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In this symbiosis, rhizobia provide nitrogen to the legumes and the legumes provide carbon sources to the rhizobia. The Medicago truncatula NPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene is essential for root nodule development and also for proper development of root architecture. Work in our lab on the MtNPF1.7/MtNIP/LATD gene has established that it encodes a nitrate transporter and strongly suggests it has another function. Mtnip-1/latd mutants have pleiotropic defects, which are only partially explained by defects in nitrate transport. MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD is a member of the large and diverse NPF/NRT1(PTR) transporter family. NPF/NRT1(PTR) members have been shown to transport other compounds in addition to nitrate: nitrite, amino acids, di- and tri-peptides, dicarboxylates, auxin, abscisic acid and glucosinolates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the AtNPF6.3/NRT1.1( CHL1) transporter was shown to transport auxin as well as nitrate. Atchl1 mutants have defects in root architecture, which may be explained by defects in auxin transport and/or nitrate sensing. Considering the pleiotropic phenotypes observed in Mtnip-1/latd mutant plants, it is possible that MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD could have similar activity as AtNPF6.3/NRT1.1(CHL1). Experimental evidence shows that the MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene is able to restore nitrate-absent responsiveness defects of the Atchl1-5 mutant. The constitutive expression of MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene was able to partially, but not fully restore the wild-type phenotype in the Atchl1-5 mutant line in response to auxin and cytokinin. The constitutive expression of MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene affects the lateral root density of wild-type Col-0 plants differently in response to IAA in the presence of high (1mM) or low (0.1 mM) nitrate. MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene expression is not regulated by nitrate ...
Commonly, when it is desirable to replace an essential gene with an allelic series of mutated genes, or genes with altered expression patterns, the complementing constructs are introduced into heterozygous plants, followed by the selection of homozygous null segregants. To overcome this laborious and time-consuming step, the newly developed two-component system utilizes a site-specific recombinase to excise a wild-type copy of the gene of interest from transformed tissues. In the first component (the first vector), a wild-type version of the gene is placed between target sequences recognized by FLP recombinase from the yeast 2 μm plasmid. This construct is transformed into a plant heterozygous for a null mutation at the endogenous locus, and progeny plants carrying the excisable complementing gene and segregating homozygous knockout at the endogenous locus are selected. The second component (the second vector) carries the experimental gene along with the FLP gene. When this construct is introduced, FLP recombinase excises the complementing gene, leaving the experimental gene as the only functional copy. The FLP gene is driven by an egg apparatus specific enhancer (EASE) to ensure excision of the complementing cDNA in the egg cell and zygote following floral-dip transformation. The utility of this system is being tested using various experimental derivatives of the essential sucrose-proton symporter, AtSUC2, which is required for photoassimilate transport.
The study of root nodule symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and leguminous plant species is important because of the ability to supplement fixed nitrogen fertilizers and increase plant growth in poor soils. Our group has isolated a mutant called nip in the model legume Medicago truncatula that is defective in nodule symbiosis. The nip mutant (numerous infections with polyphenolics) becomes infected by Sinorhizobium meliloti but then accumulates polyphenolic defense compounds in the nodule and fails to progress to a stage where nitrogen fixation can occur. Analysis of the transcriptome of nip roots prior to inoculation with rhizobia was undertaken using Affymetric Medicago Genome Array microarrays. The total RNA of 5-day old uninoculated seedlings was analyzed in triplicate to screen for the NIP gene based on downregulated transcript levels in the mutant as compared to wild type. Further microarray data was generated from 10 days post inoculation (dpi) nip and wild type plants. Analysis of the most highly downregulated transcripts revealed that the NIP gene was not identifiable based on transcript level. Putative gene function was assigned to transcripts with altered expression patterns in order to characterize the nip mutation phenotypically as inferred from the transcriptome. Functional analysis revealed a large number of chaperone proteins were highly expressed in the nip mutant, indicating high stress in the mutant prior to infection by rhizobia. Additionally, a database containing the information regarding the nip expression profile at both 0 days post inoculation (dpi) and 10 dpi were created for screening of candidate genes as predicted from sequence in the genomic region containing NIP.
The industrial uses of cottonseed oil are limited by its fatty acid composition. Genetic modification of cotton lipid profiles using seed-specific promoters could allow cotton growers to produce valuable new oils in the seed without adverse effects on fiber quality and yield, therefore making this crop more commercially profitable. Transgenic cotton callus harboring a diverged fatty acid desaturase gene (FADX) from Momordica charantia was characterized for production of alpha-eleostearic acid (conjugated double bonds: 18:3 D9 cis, 11 trans, 13 trans), not normally found in cotton. Gas chromatography (GC) in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS) confirmed production of alpha-eleostearic acid in the transgenic cotton tissues. A second series of transformation experiments introduced the cotton fatty acid thioesterase B (FATB) cDNA, fused to the seed-specific oleosin promoter into cotton to promote the over-expression of FATB, to generate cotton with increased palmitate in the cottonseed. PCR amplification, as well as fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography, confirmed introduction of the FATB cDNA in transgenic tissues. Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the fatty acid composition in cotton via transgenic approaches and form the basis for continued efforts to create novel oils in cottonseed.
A novel luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) nanocircuit assay involving a donor and two acceptors in tandem was developed to study the dynamic interaction of skeletal muscle contraction proteins. The donor transmits energy relayed to the acceptors distinguishing myosin subfragment-1 (S1) lever arm orientations. The last acceptor allows the detection of S1's bound near or in between troponin complexes on the thin filament. Additionally, calcium related changes between troponin T and myosin were detected. Based on this data, the troponin complex situated every 7 actin monomers, hinders adjacently bound myosins to complete their power stroke; whereas myosins bound in between troponin complexes undergo complete power strokes.
Calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKC) was partially purified from P1798 lymphosarcoma. Phospholipid-dependence was specific for phosphatidylserine. PKC phosphorylated Histone 1, with an apparent K_m of 14.1 μM. Chlorpromazine, a lipid-binding drug, inhibited PKC activity by 100%. Further studies were undertaken to establish analytical conditions which could be applied to the study of PKC in intact cells. The conditions included (1) determining optimum cell concentration for measuring PKC activity, (2) recovering PKC into the soluble fraction of cell extracts, (3) evaluating calcium and phospholipid requirements of PKC in this fraction, and (4) inhibiting PKC in this fraction. Final studies involved treatment of intact cells with potential activators. Both phytohaemagglutinin and a phorbol ester increased PKC activation.
The lipid composition of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L) fibers was determined. Fatty acid profiles revealed that linolenate and palmitate were the most abundant fatty acids present in fiber cells. Phosphatidylcholine was the predominant lipid class in fiber cells, while phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol were also prevalent. An unusually high amount of phosphatidic acid was observed in frozen cotton fibers. Phospholipase D activity assays revealed that this enzyme readily hydrolyzed radioactive phosphatidylcholine into phosphatidic acid. A profile of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for genes involved in lipid metabolism in cotton fibers was also obtained. This EST profile along with our lipid metabolite data was used to predict lipid metabolic pathways in cotton fiber cells.
Faithful segregation of chromosomes is ensured by the spindle checkpoint. If a kinetochore does not correctly attach to a microtubule the spindle checkpoint stops cell cycle progression until all chromosomes are attached to microtubules or tension is experienced while pulling the chromosomes. The C. elegans gene, san-1, is required for spindle checkpoint function and anoxia survival. To further understand the role of san-1 in the spindle checkpoint, an RNAi screen was conducted to identify genetic interactions with san-1. The kinetochore gene hcp-1 identified in this screen, was known to have a genetic interaction with hcp-2. Interestingly, san-1(ok1580);hcp-2(ok1757) had embryonic and larval lethal phenotypes, but the phenotypes observed are less severe compared to the phenotypes of san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) animals. Both san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) and san-1(ok1580);hcp-2(RNAi) produce eggs that may hatch; but san-1(ok1580):hcp-1(RNAi) larvae do not survive to adulthood due to defects caused by aberrant chromosome segregations during development. Y54G9A.6 encodes the C. elegans homolog of bub-3, and has spindle checkpoint function. In C.elegans, bub-3 has genetic interactions with san-1 and mdf-2. An RNAi screen for genetic interactions with bub-3 identified that F31F6.3 may potentially have a genetic interaction with bub-3. This work provided genetic evidence that hcp-1, hcp-2 and F31F6.2 interact with spindle checkpoint genes.
Glyoxylase II (Glo II, E.C. 188.8.131.52) catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-Lactoylglutathione (SLG) to D-Lactate and glutathione. This is the rate limiting step in the conversion of methylglyoxal to D-Lactate. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not a relationship exists between some naturally occuring metabolites and in vivo modulation of Glo II. We have observed a non-competitive inhibition (~ 45%) of Glo II in crude preparation of rat liver by GTP (0.3 mM). A factor (apparently protein),devoid of Glo II,when reconstituted with the purified Glo II, enhanced Glo II activity. This coordinate activation and inhibition of Glo II suggest a mechanism whereby SLG levels can be modulated in vivo.
N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous plant lipids hydrolyzed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). When wildtype Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were germinated and grown in exogenous NAE 12:0 (35 µM and above), growth was severely reduced in a concentration dependent manner. Wildtype A. thaliana seeds sown on exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) exhibited similar growth reduction to that seen with NAE treatment. AtFAAH knockouts grew and developed similarly to WT, but AtFAAH overexpressor lines show markedly enhanced sensitivity to ABA. When low levels of NAE and ABA, which have very little effect on growth alone, were combined, there was a dramatic reduction in seedling growth in all three genotypes, indicating a synergistic interaction between ABA and NAE. Notably, this synergistic arrest of seedling growth was partially reversed in the ABA insensitive (abi) mutant abi3-1, indicating that a functional ABA signaling pathway is required for the full synergistic effect. This synergistic growth arrest results in an increased accumulation of NAEs, but no concomitant increase in ABA levels. The combined NAE and ABA treatment induced a dose-dependent increase in ABI3 transcript levels, which was inversely related to growth. The ABA responsive genes AtHVA22B and RD29B also had increased expression in both NAE and ABA treatment. The abi3-1 mutant showed no expression of ABI3 and AtHVA22B, but RD29B expression remained similar to wildtype seedlings, suggesting an alternate mechanism for NAE and ABA interaction. Taken together, these data suggest that NAE metabolism acts through ABI3-dependent and independent pathways in the negative regulation of seedling development.
Two swine kidney proteins (PI 4.8 and 5.8) both possessing 9-prostaglandin ketoreductase (9-PGKR) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) activities were purified to homogeneity. Purification increased specific activities in parallel. Molecular weight, subunit size, amino acid composition, coenzyme and substrate specificity and antigenicity of both proteins were similar. Gel filtration and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis molecular weights of 29,500 and 29,000, respectively, suggested a single subunit. Although a variety of prostaglandins served as substrates, the best for 15-PGDH was PGB, while PGA_1-GSH showed the lowest Km for 9-PGKR. Rabbit antibody against the PI 5.8 protein crossreacted with both purified renal enzymes and with extracts from rat spleen, lung, heart, aorta, and liver.
Phloem transport is along hydrostatic pressure gradients generated by differences in solute concentration between source and sink tissues. Numerous species accumulate raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in the phloem of mature leaves to accentuate the pressure gradient between source and sinks. In this study, metabolic engineering was used to generate RFOs at the inception of the translocation stream of Arabidopsis thaliana, which transports predominantly sucrose. To do this, three genes, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE and STACHYOSE SYNTHASE, were expressed from promoters specific to the companion cells of minor veins. Two transgenic lines homozygous for all three genes (GRS63 and GRS47) were selected for further analysis. Sugars were extracted and quantified by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), and 21-day old plants of both lines had levels of galactinol, raffinose, and stachyose approaching 50% of total soluble sugar. All three exotic sugars were also identified in phloem exudates from excised leaves of transgenic plants whereas levels were negligible in exudates from wild type leaves. Differences in starch accumulation or degradation between wild type and GRS63 and GRS47 lines were not observed. Similarly, there were no differences in vegetative growth between wild type and engineered plants, but engineered plants flowered earlier. Finally, since the sugar composition of the phloem translocation stream is altered in these plants, we tested for aphid feeding. When green peach aphids were given a choice between WT and transgenic plants, WT plants were preferred. When aphids were reared on only WT or only transgenic plants, aphid fecundity was reduced on the transgenic plants. When aphids were fed on artificial media with and without RFOs, aphid reproduction did not show differences, suggesting the aphid resistance is not a direct effect of the exotic sugars.
N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are enriched in seed-derived tissues and are believed to be formed from the membrane phospholipid, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) via the action of phospholipase D (PLD). In an effort to identify a functional NAPE-PLD in cotton seeds and seedlings, we have screened a cotton seedling cDNA (cotyledon mRNA from 48 h dark grown seedlings) library with a 1.2 kb tobacco partial cDNA fragment encoding the middle third of a putative PLDβ/γ (genbank accession, AF195614) isoform. Six plaques were isolated from the Uni-ZAP lambda library, excised as pBluescript SK(-) phagemids and subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. Alignment of derived sequences with Arabidopsis PLD family members indicated that the cDNAs represent six different PLD gene products -three putative PLD β isoforms and three putative PLD δ isoforms. The PLD β isoforms, designated Ghpldβ1a, GHpldβ1b and a truncated Ghpldβ1b isoform. Both the full-length PLD β proteins contained characteristic HKxxxxD catalytic domains, a PC-binding domain, a PIP2-binding domain and a C2 domain. In addition both cotton PLD β isoforms had a N-terminal "SPQY" rich domain which appeared to be unique to these PLDs. The three PLD δ isoforms, designated Ghpldδ1a, Ghpldδ1b and Ghpldδ1b-2 encode full-length PLDδ proteins, and like the above PLDs, contained the characteristic catalytic and regulatory domains. The expression of Ghpldδ1b showed hydrolytic and transphosphatidylation activity toward radiolabelled phosphatidylcholine (PC) but it appears Ghpldδ1b does not utilize NAPE as a substrate to produce NAEs nor does it seem to be suppressed by NAEs.
Cytoplasmic 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase from swine kidney was purified to specific activity of 1.2 U per mg protein, by chromatographic techniques. Native molecular weight of enzyme was estimated at 45,000. Enzyme was inhibited by sulfhydryls, diuretics, and various fatty acids. Substrate studies indicated NAD+ specificity and ability to catabolize prostaglandins, except prostaglandin B and thromboxane B. Initial velocity studies gave intersecting plots conforming to a sequential mechanism. 15-keto-prostaglandin exhibited linear noncompetitive production inhibition with respect to either prostaglandin or NAD+; NAD yielded linear competitive production inhibition with respect to NADH. Results, and those of dead-end inhibition and alternated substrate studies, are consistent with an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism: NAD+ is added first, then prostaglandin; then 15-keto-rostaglandin is released, then NADH.
In this experiment, fluorescent N- (1-pyrenyl) iodoacetamide modified the two reactive thiols, SH1 (Cys 707) and SH2 (Cys 697) on myosin to detect SH1-SH2 a -helix melting. The excimer forming property of pyrene is well suited to monitor the dynamics of the SH1 and SH2 helix melting, since the excimer should only form during the melted state. Decreased anisotropy of the excimer relative to the monomeric pyrene fluorescence is consistent with the disordering of the melted SH1-SH2 region in the atomic model. Furthermore, nucleotide analogs induced changes in the anisotropy of the excimer, suggesting that the nucleotide site modulates the flexibility of SH1-SH2 region.
Prostanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid with a wide range of physiological effects in vertebrates including modulation of inflammation and innate immune responses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids. In order to better understand the potential of environmental NSAIDS for interruption of normal levels COX products in fishes, we developed an LC/MS/MS-based approach for tissue analysis of 7 prostanoids. Initial studies examining muscle, gut and gill demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was the most abundant of the measured prostanoids in all tissues and that gill tissue had the highest and most consistent concentrations of PGE2. After short-term 48-h laboratory exposures to concentrations of 5, 25, 50 and 100 ppb ibuprofen, 50.0ppb and 100.0 ppb exposure concentrations resulted in significant reduction of gill tissue PGE2 concentration by approximately 30% and 80% respectively. The lower exposures did not result in significant reductions when compared to unexposed controls. Measured tissue concentrations of ibuprofen indicated that this NSAID had little potential for bioaccumulation (BCF 1.3) and the IC50 of ibuprofen for inhibition of PGE2 production in gill tissue was calculated to be 0.4 µM. Short-term laboratory exposure to ibuprofen did not result in significant alteration of concentrations of PGE2 at environmentally relevant concentrations.
Tyrosine tRNA was isolated from bovine liver and its nucleotide sequence was determined using in vitro 32p_ labeling techniques. Several important structural features of the tRNA are: the presence of gal-Q in the first position of the anticodon, acp3U at position 20, and a pair of adjacent N,N-dimethylguanosines (residues 26 and 27). A human DNA fragment harbored in a lambda phage clone was isolated, and restriction enzyme analysis revealed the presence of three tRNA genes in a 6.0-kb BamHI subfragment. Portions of the 6.0-kb DNA fragment containing the tRNA genes were sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert and analyzed for transcriptional activity in vitro using homologous cytoplasmic extracts. A threonine tRNAUGU gene exhibited high transcriptional activity dependent on its 5'- flanking sequence. The enhanced transcription is not completely inhibited by alpha-amanitin. The value of studying tRNA structure in concert with the cognate tRNA. genes is discussed.
Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of oxalacetate and reduction of pyruvate. Thus, the present classification (E.C. 184.108.40.206) for this enzyme should be changed to E.C. 220.127.116.11. In the absence of nucleotide, both the chicken liver NADP-malic enzyme and Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzymes catalyze the decarboxylation of oxalacetate. A study of the pH dependence of kinetic parameters for oxalacetate decarboxylation and pyruvate reduction was carried out for the NAD(P)-malic enzyme with Mg^2+ and Mn^2+ in the presence and absence of nucleotide. In all cases, an enzyme residue is required in its protonated form for reaction while for oxalacetate decarboxylation the β-carboxyl of oxalacetate is required unprotonated. Of a number of inhibitory binding analogs of malate tested, oxalate is the tightest binding inhibitor for Ascaris suum enzyme.
The objectives of these investigations were (1) the purification of MG reductase from sheep liver and (2) studies of some of its characteristics. MG reductase was purified 40 fold and showed a single band on SDS-PAGE. Molecular weight estimations with SDS-PAGE showed a molecular weight of 44,000; although gel filtration with Sephadex G-150 gave a molecular weight of 87,000 indicating that the enzyme might be a dimer. The Km for MG is 1.42 mM and for NADH it is 0.04 mM. The pH optimum for the purified enzyme is pH 7.0. Isoelectric focusing experiments showed a pI of 9.3. In vivo experiments involving rats treated with 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T_3) and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) indicated that MG reductase was depressed by T_3 and elevated by PTU.
A method for purification and radiolabelling phosphoglucose isomerase was devised in order to develop a sensitive quantitative radioimmunoassay for the detection of the enzyme irrespective of its catalytic activity. For four genetic variants of PGI no difference in the molecular specific activity was observed. In one variant (PGI-Denton), liver and heart tissue extracts, and in mature erythrocytes (as compared to normal erythrocytes), a decreased molecular specific activity was observed which initially may imply that these samples contain cross-reactive material which is not catalytically active.
Purified S6/H4 kinase (Mr 60,000) requires autophosphorylation for activation. A rabbit anti-S6/H4 kinase peptide (SVIDPVPAPVGDSHVDGAAK) antibody recognized both the S6/H4 kinase holoenzyme and catalytic domain. Immunoreactivity with p60 kinase protein, and S6/H4 kinase activity were precisely correlated in fractions obtained from ion exchange chromatography of P1798 lymphosarcoma extracts. An enzyme which catalyzed the MgATP-dependent phosphorylation and activation of S6/H4 kinase coeluted with immunoreactivity from Mono 5, but not Mono Q chromatography. Since S6/H4 kinase is homologous with rac-activated PAK65, the observation that phosphorylation is also required for activation suggests a complex mechanism for in vivo activation of the S6/H4 kinase.
The temperature-dependent catalytic activity of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3 -methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) displays the nonlinear Arrhenius behavior characteristic of many membrane-bound enzymes. A two-conformer equilibrium model has been developed to characterize this behavior. In the model, HMG-CoA reductase undergoes a conformational change from a low specific activity to a high specific activity form. This conformation change is apparently driven by a temperature-dependent phase transition of the membrane lipids. It has been found that this model accurately describes the data from diets including rat chow, low-fat, high-carbohydrate, and diets supplemented with fat, cholesterol or cholestyramine. The effects characterized by the model are consistent with the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase by enzyme-lipid interactions.
The stability of myosin subfragment 2 was analyzed using gravitational force spectroscopy. The region was found to destabilize under physiological force loads, indicating the possibility that subfragment 2 may uncoil to facilitate actin binding during muscle contraction. As a control, synthetic cofilaments were produced to discover if the observations in the single molecule assay were due to the lack of the stability provided by the thick filament. Statistically, there was no difference between the single molecule assay data and the synthetic cofilament assay data. Thus, the instability of the region is due to intrinsic properties within subfragment 2.
Familial Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) causes ventricle walls to thicken and often leads to sudden death especially in adults. Mutations in the subfragment 2 (S2) of β-cardiac myosin are implicated in the genetic disorder. This S2 region is a coiled-coil rod region resulting from the dimeric form of myosin II. It has been proposed that an elastic quality allows normal S2 to absorb force during the powerstroke according to the sliding filament model. To test the flexibility of single molecules of S2 against levels of physiological force, the Gravitational Force Spectrometer (GFS) is being developed. This novel system employs a standard microscope on an equatorial mount that allows the spectrometer to be rotated freely in space. Stationary glass beads are attached to a microscope slide where the molecule is tethered between the stationary bead and a smaller mobile bead. The GFS is oriented so that the force of gravity can act on the mobile bead and so impart a small force to the tethered subfragment. Additionally, a video system in conjunction with ImageJ software makes a distance measurement of the molecule possible with a resolution of around 11 nm. The S2 can be stretched parallel or perpendicular to the coiled coil to elucidate different structural properties of the rod. This study is the first to show structural evidence that S2 in vertebrate skeletal myosin uncoils proportionally to physiological force loads. Because of this, the usefulness and promise of the novel GFS is highlighted, and the biological role of S2's flexibility can be directly commented on. If the dimer undergoes uncoiling at physiological force loads as shown, then it is reasonable to think that this might occur in nature in response to the stress of the powerstroke on a single molecule. This unwinding could be to absorb force as a mechanism to ...
Two different cloned human DNA segments encompassing transfer RNA gene and pseudogene clusters have been isolated from a human gene library harbored in bacteriophage lambda Charon 4-A. One clone (designated as λhVal7) encompassing a 20.5-kilobase (Kb) human DNA insert was found to contain a valine transfer RNA_AAC gene and several Alu-like elements by Southern blot hybridization analysis and DNA sequencing with the dideoxyribonucleotide chain-termination method in the bacteriophage M13mp19 vector. Another lambda clone (designated as λhLeu8) encompassing a 14.3-Kb segment of human DNA was found to contain a methionine elongator transfer RNA_CAT pseudogene and other as yet unidentified transfer RNA pseudogenes.
Several key flexure sites exist in the muscle crossbridge including the actomyosin binding site which play important roles in the actomyosin crossbridge cycle. To distinguish between these sources of flexibility, a new single molecule assay was developed to observe the swiveling of rod about a single myosin. Myosins attached through a single crossbridge displayed mostly similar torsional characteristics compared to myosins attached through two crossbridges, which indicates that most of the torsional flexibility resides in the myosin subfragment-2, and thus the hinge between subfragment-2 and light meromyosin should contribute the most to this flexibility. The comparison of torsional characteristics in the absence and presence of ADP demonstrated a small but significant increase in twist rates for the double-headed myosins but no increase for single-headed myosins, which indicates that the ADP-induced increase in flexibility arises due to changes in the myosin head and verifies that most flexibility resides in myosin subfragment-2.
Huian plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were isolated by a procedure employing polyanion precipitation and column chromatography. Lipid and protein composition of the HDL isolated by this method was found to be similar to another HDL preparation isolated by ultracentrifugation. However, minor differences were noted, including a higher phospholipid and apoproteinE content and lower triglyceride content of the HDL isolated by column chromatography. Four subfraction of HDL were obtained following chromatography on an anion exchange column. The subfraction four had the highest esterified to free cholesterol ratio, the second highest phospholipid to unesterified cholesterol, and the lowest molecular weight. In addition it was consistently coincided with lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and found to be the best substrate for the enzyme.
Two aspects of the biological activity of N-nitrosamines were studied. First, the effect of ascorbate on the mutagenicity of N-nitrosopiperidines was studied in the Ames Salmanella/ mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. The addition of ascorbate significantly enhanced the mutagenicity of these compounds. This enhancement was selective for N-nitrosamines suggesting a possible role of ascorbate in N-nitrosamine induced carcinogenicity. Second, the technique of velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose density gradients was applied to the detection of N-nitrosamine induced DNA damage in Balb/c 3T3 cells. This technique detected N-nitrosamine induced DNA damage when the cells were made permeable before treatment. This technique compares favorably with other test systems used to evaluate N-nitrosamines and should be useful in further studies of N-nitrosamines.
Transgenic tobacco plants were developed containing a partial PLD clone in antisense orientation. The PLD isoform targeted by the insertion was identified. A PLD clone was isolated from a cDNA library using the partial PLD as a probe: Nt10B1 shares 92% identity with PLDβ1 from tomato but lacks the C2 domain. PCR analysis confirmed insertion of the antisense fragment into the plants: three introns distinguished the endogenous gene from the transgene. PLD activity was assayed in leaf homogenates in PLDβ/g conditions. When phosphatidylcholine was utilized as a substrate, no significant difference in transphosphatidylation activity was observed. However, there was a reduction in NAPE hydrolysis in extracts of two transgenic plants. In one of these, a reduction in elicitor- induced PAL expression was also observed.
The purpose of this research was to study the hybridization of molecular beacons under different conditions and designs. Data collected suggest that the inconsistency found in the emission intensity of several of these probes may be caused by 3 important factors: length of the probe, nucleotide sequence and, the formation of an alternative complex structure such as a dimer. Of all three factors, dimer formation is the most troublesome, since it reduces the emission of the reporter molecules. A new probe design was used to reduce dimer formation. The emission signal of the improved probe was several folds stronger than those probes with the early design. In this research, dimer formation is detected, furthermore a new probe with a different design was tested. If dimer formation can be reduced molecular beacons can be integrated into more complex hybridization systems providing an important tool in research and diagnosis of genetic disorders.
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