UNT Libraries - 27 Matching Results

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Study of Interactions Between Diffusion Barrier Layers and Low-k Dielectric Materials for Copper/Low-k Integration

Description: The shift to the Cu/low-k interconnect scheme requires the development of diffusion barrier/adhesion promoter materials that provide excellent performance in preventing the diffusion and intermixing of Cu into the adjacent dielectrics. The integration of Cu with low-k materials may decrease RC delays in signal propagation but pose additional problems because such materials are often porous and contain significant amounts of carbon. Therefore barrier metal diffusion into the dielectric and the formation of interfacial carbides and oxides are of significant concern. The objective of the present research is to investigate the fundamental surface interactions between diffusion barriers and various low-k dielectric materials. Two major diffusion barriers¾ tatalum (Ta) and titanium nitride (TiN) are prepared by DC magnetron sputtering and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), respectively. Surface analytical techniques, such as X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are employed. Ta sputter-deposited onto a Si-O-C low dielectric constant substrate forms a reaction layer composed of Ta oxide and TaC. The composition of the reaction layer varies with deposition rate (1 Å-min-1 vs. 2 Å-sec-1), but in both cases, the thickness of the TaC layer is found to be at least 30 Å on the basis of XPS spectra, which is corroborated with cross-sectional TEM data. Sputter-deposited Cu will not wet the TaC layer and displays facile agglomeration, even at 400 K. Deposition for longer time at 2 Å-sec-1 results in formation of a metallic Ta layer. Sputter deposited Cu wets (grows conformally) on the metallic Ta surface at 300 K, and resists significant agglomeration at up to ~ 600 K. Cu diffusion into the substrate is not observed up to 800 K in the UHV environment. Tetrakis(diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) interactions with SiO2, Cu and a variety of low-k samples in the presence (~ 10-7 Torr or ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Tong, Jinhong

Study of Ruthenium and Ruthenium Oxide's Electrochemical Properties and Application as a Copper Diffusion Barrier

Description: As a very promising material of copper diffusion barrier for next generation microelectronics, Ru has already obtained a considerable attention recently. In this dissertation, we investigated ruthenium and ruthenium oxide electrochemical properties and the application as a copper diffusion barrier. Cu under potential deposition (UPD) on the RuOx formed electrochemically was first observed. Strong binding interaction, manifesting by the observed Cu UPD process, exists between Cu and Ru as well as its conductive ruthenium oxide. Since UPD can be conformally formed on the electrode surface, which enable Ru and RuOx has a potential application in the next generation anode. The [Cl-] and pH dependent experiment were conducted, both of them will affect UPD Cu on Ru oxide. We also found the Cu deposition is thermodynamically favored on RuOx formed electrochemically. We have studied the Ru thin film (5nm) as a copper diffusion barrier. It can successfully block Cu diffusion annealed at 300 oC for 10min under vacuum, and fail at 450 oC. We think the silicidation process at the interface between Ru and Si. PVD Cu/Ru/Si and ECP Cu/Ru/Si were compared each other during copper diffusion study. It was observed that ECP Cu is easy to diffuse through Ru barrier. The function of RuOx in diffusion study on Cu/Ru/Si stack was discussed. In pH 5 Cu2+ solution, Ru and Pt electrochemical behavior were investigated. A sharp difference was observed compared to low pH value. The mechanism in pH 5 Cu2+ solution was interpreted. An interesting compound (posnjakite) was obtained during the electrochemical process. An appropriate formation mechanism was proposed. Also Cu2O was formed in the process. We found oxygen reduction reaction is a key factor to cause this phenomenon.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Zhang, Yibin

Study of Substituted Benzenesulfonate-Containing Layered Double Hydroxides and Investigation of the Hexamethylenetetramine Route of LDH Synthesis

Description: Benzenesulfonates, para-substituted with amine, chloride and methyl groups were successfully incorporated into layered double hydroxides of two different compositions, 2:1 Mg-Al LDH and 2:1 Zn-Al LDH. These parent materials were also doped with small amounts of nickel and the differences in the two systems were studied. The hexamethylenetetramine route of layered double hydroxide synthesis was investigated to verify if the mechanism is indeed homogeneous. This included attempting preparation of 2:1 Mg-Al LDH, 2:1 Zn-Al LDH and 2:1 Zn-Cr LDH with two different concentrations of hexamethylenetetramine. The analytical data of the products suggest that the homogeneous precipitation may not be the true mechanism of reaction involved in LDH synthesis by this method.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Ambadapadi, Sriram

Synthesis and study of crystalline hydrogels, guided by a phase diagram.

Description: Monodispersed nanoparticles of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) and PNIPAM-co-acrylic acid (AA) have been synthesized and used as building blocks for creating three-dimensional networks. The close-packed PNIPAM-co-allylamine and PNIPAM-co-AA nanoparticles were stabilized by covalently bonding neighboring particles at room temperature and at neutral pH; factors which make these networks amicable for drug loading and release. Controlled release studies have been performed on the networks using dextran markers of various molecular weights as model macromolecular drugs. Drug release was quantified under various physical conditions including a range of temperature and molecular weight. These nanoparticle networks have several advantages over the conventional bulk gels for controlling the release of biomolecules with large molecular weights. Monodispersed nanoparticles of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) can self-assemble into crystals with a lattice spacing on the order of the wavelength of visible light. By initiating the crystallization process near the colloidal crystal melting temperature, while subsequently bonding the PNIPAM-co-allylamine particles below the glass transition temperature, a nanostructured hydrogel has been created. The crystalline hydrogels exhibit iridescent patterns that are tunable by the change of temperature, pH value or even protein concentration. This kind of soft and wet hydrogel with periodic structures may lead to new sensors, devices, and displays operating in aqueous solutions, where most biological and biomedical systems reside. The volume-transition equilibrium and the interaction potential between neutral PINPAM particles dispersed in pure water were investigated by using static and dynamic light-scattering experiments. From the temperature-dependent size and energy parameters, the Sutherland-like potential provides a reasonable representation of the inter-particle potential for PNIPAM particles in swollen and in collapsed phases. An aqueous dispersion of PNIPAM particles can freeze at both high and low temperatures. At low temperatures, the freezing occurs at a large particle volume fraction, similar to that in a hard-sphere system; while at high temperature, the freezing occurs at ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Huang, Gang

The synthesis and study of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer network nanoparticle hydrogels.

Description: Homogeneous hydrogels made of an interpenetrating network of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) are synthesized by a two-step process; first making PNIPAm hydrogels and then interpenetrating acrylic acid throughout the hydrogel through polymerization. The kinetic growth of the IPN is plotted and an equation is fitted to the data. When diluted to certain concentrations in water, the hydrogels show reversible, inverse thermal gelation at about 34°C. This shows unique application to the medical field, as the transition is just below body temperature. A drug release experiment is performed using high molecular weight dyes, and a phase diagram is created through observation of the purified, concentrated gel at varying concentrations and temperatures.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Crouch, Stephen Wallace

Tantalum- and ruthenium-based diffusion barriers/adhesion promoters for copper/silicon dioxide and copper/low κ integration.

Description: The TaSiO6 films, ~8Å thick, were formed by sputter deposition of Ta onto ultrathin SiO2 substrates at 300 K, followed by annealing to 600 K in 2 torr O2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of the films yielded a Si(2p) binding energy at 102.1 eV and Ta(4f7/2) binding energy at 26.2 eV, indicative of Ta silicate formation. O(1s) spectra indicate that the film is substantially hydroxylated. Annealing the film to > 900 K in UHV resulted in silicate decomposition to SiO2 and Ta2O5. The Ta silicate film is stable in air at 300K. XPS data show that sputter-deposited Cu (300 K) displays conformal growth on Ta silicate surface (TaSiO6) but 3-D growth on the annealed and decomposed silicate surface. Initial Cu/silicate interaction involves Cu charge donation to Ta surface sites, with Cu(I) formation and Ta reduction. The results are similar to those previously reported for air-exposed TaSiN, and indicate that Si-modified Ta barriers should maintain Cu wettability under oxidizing conditions for Cu interconnect applications. XPS has been used to study the reaction of tert-butylimino tris(diethylamino) tantalum (TBTDET) with atomic hydrogen on SiO2 and organosilicate glass (OSG) substrates. The results on both substrates indicate that at 300K, TBTDET partially dissociates, forming Ta-O bonds with some precursor still attached. Subsequent bombardment with atomic hydrogen at 500K results in stoichiometric TaN formation, with a Ta(4f7/2) feature at binding energy 23.2 eV and N(1s) at 396.6 eV, leading to a TaN phase bonded to the substrate by Ta-O interactions. Subsequent depositions of the precursor on the reacted layer on SiO2 and OSG, followed by atomic hydrogen bombardment, result in increased TaN formation. These results indicate that TBTDET and atomic hydrogen may form the basis for a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the formation of ultraconformal TaNx or Ru/TaNx barriers. The interactions ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Zhao, Xiaopeng

Thermodynamics of the Abraham General Solvation Model: Solubility and Partition Aspects

Description: Experimental mole fraction solubilities of several carboxylic acids (2-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-nitrobenzoic acid, 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoic acid,2-methylbenzoic acid and ibuprofen) and 9-fluorenone, thianthrene and xanthene were measured in a wide range of solvents of varying polarity and hydrogen-bonding characteristics. Results of these measurements were used to calculate gas-to-organic solvent and water-to-organic solvent solubility ratios, which were then substituted into known Abraham process partitioning correlations. The molecular solute descriptors that were obtained as the result of these computations described the measured solubility data to within an average absolute deviation of 0.2 log units. The calculated solute descriptors also enable one to estimate many chemically, biologically and pharmaceutically important properties for the ten solutes studied using published mathematical correlations.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Stovall, Dawn Michele