UNT Libraries - 14 Matching Results

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The Cognitive and Emotional Correlates of Neglect in School Age Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and emotional functioning of neglected, physically abused, and clinical control children between six and thirteen years of age who were referred for testing at the Dallas Child Guidance Clinic.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Elisens, Merrie M.

Factors Influencing Myoelectric Wearing Patterns of Pediatric Prosthetics Patients

Description: Upper limb deficiencies in children may be the result of trauma, disease, or congenital problems. Although biomechanical losses are the primary problem associated with a limb deficiency, the loss of such an obvious body part has cosmetic and psychosocial implications as well. Fitting a child with a prosthesis typically is the treatment chosen by families. Presently, there are three types of prostheses available for pediatric amputees, including passive, cable-operated, and myoelectric arms, but the myoelectric appears to be the most popular choice of children and their families. However, there is growing concern among clinicians that, despite its advanced technological capabilities, the myoelectric prosthesis is chosen for aesthetic rather than functional reasons. It is difficult, then, to justify the expense of fitting a myoelectric prosthesis when a more inexpensive prosthesis, or none at all, would be a more appropriate prescription. The question of when to prescribe a myoelectric prosthesis for a pediatric patient remains one of the most controversial questions in the field of prosthetics today due to this cost/benefit issue. In this study, the researcher examined psychological factors that may influence whether or not a child will wear a prosthesis and how that prosthesis will be used. Thirty prosthetics patients of Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children and their parents answered questionnaires indicating self-perception, social acceptance, and family functioning. A prosthetic usage diary also was completed. Results indicated a significant relationship between optimal residual limb length and increased wearing time. Other trends in the data are discussed. Consideration of these variables by medical staff can be useful in developing appropriate expectations of adherence to treatment by the patient and the family. Recommendations are made for the prescription of pediatric prostheses that are both cost-effective and beneficial.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Glenn, Shannon M. (Shannon Richardson)

HIV-Associated Dementia: Cofactors as Predictors of Severity of Neurocoenitive Deficits

Description: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between a set of cofactors and severity of cognitive impairment, to determine if there were any factors which significantly predicted more severe neurocognitive deficits in persons with AIDS. Twenty-four male volunteers recruited from community groups and physician referrals participated. Subjects completed several self-report questionnaires eliciting information regarding demographics and risk factor variables, in addition to a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. A severity of cognitive impairment summary score was computed for each subject, reflecting both the number of impaired tests and their distance in the impaired direction from normative data. Neither CD4 count, number of months since diagnosis of AIDS, number of AIDS-related illnesses, number of recent stressors, history of head injury/LOC, history of substance use, current or past psychiatric disorder, history of learning disability nor history of other medical illness were found to be significantly related to severity of cognitive impairment in this sample, after controlling for the effects of age, level of education, estimated premorbid IQ and mood status. However, no reliable conclusions could be drawn from this study because the small sample size resulted in an unacceptably low level of statistical power for the desired regression analysis. Exploratory analyses of variance revealed no significant group differences for any of the covariate or cofactor variables when subjects falling at the low, middle, and high ranges of severity of impairment were compared, with the exception of a possible inverse relationship with CD4 count. This was consistent with an exploratory stepwise regression analysis in which only CD4 count entered the model. Some potential limitations of the operational definitions used for the variables in this study were identified, and modifications were suggested. The results of additional exploratory analyses comparing group differences between the "globally impaired" and "unimpaired" subjects (Maj et ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Anderson, Deborah E. (Deborah Elaine), 1967-

Impact of Stress Inoculation on Performance Efficacy Linked to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living

Description: Utilizing a sample of community-residing older adults, this pretest-posttest design evaluated the short term (approximately 1 week) impact on everyday functioning of Stress Inoculation (SI) training, a cognitive-behavioral intervention that is essentially a coping skills enhancement program. The targets of training were anxiety and concern about being able to successfully perform everyday living tasks. The training program was contrasted with a no contact (waiting list) control. In an effort to maximize the practical aspects of this study, the assessment battery included the use of two ecologically valid measures of everyday problem solving skills (one self-rated and one interviewer-rated). Also included were a measure of everyday intelligence widely used in gerontological research, two measures of self-efficacy, a geriatric depression scale, a state-trait anxiety scale, and a self-report measure of failures in perception, memory, and motor function. The results suggest that Stress Inoculation training is an effective intervention for improving everyday competence but that personal perceptions of self-efficacy and the emotional states of anxiety and depression mediate treatment effects. In general, only persons with lower levels of self-efficacy and higher levels of anxiety and/or depression saw improvement in their cognitive performance following SI training.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Galt, Cynthia P.

Life Stress, Coping, and Social Support in Adolescents: Cultural and Ethnic Differences

Description: Although much research has examined the impact of life stress and the subsequent development of health symptoms, most of this research has been done with White middle class adults. Similar to the adult research, life stress research with children and adolescents has focused on White middle class individuals. The present study expands the knowledge about the stress process in ethnic/racial adolescents while controlling for the effects of SES. A sample population consisting of 103 Black students, 129 Hispanic students, and 105 White students was compared with respect to stressful events experienced, coping strategies, and social support. Students from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds were included within each ethnic/racial group studied. After experimentally and statistically controlling for the effects of socioeconomic status, significant differences were observed. Black and Hispanic students reported receiving higher levels of Enacted Social Support (actual support) than White students. Contrary to what has been previous suggested, Black and Hispanic students reported having experienced fewer stressful life events than White students. Other ethnic/racial group differences that emerged included differences in ways in which specific patterns of moderator variables served to enhance the relationship between life stress and psychological symptomatology.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Prelow, Hazel (Hazel M.)

Patterns of Relationship Violence among Low Income Women and Severely Psychologically Abused Women

Description: Little research has addressed the degree to which domestic violence is mutual and whether patterns are stable across women's relationships. Studies that exist have conflicting results. This study addressed these issues and the effects of sustaining past violence on women's expressions of violence in their current relationship. Archival data from a sample of severely psychologically abused community women (N = 92) and a sample of low-income community women (N = 836) were analyzed. Results showed the presence of mutual violence in women's current relationships which was not related to past partners' violence. Results regarding the stability of violence are weak, but indicate that the frequency and severity of violence across relationships sustained by women does not decrease across relationships. Overall, results supported the hypothesis that violence is mutual in the relationships of community women, although specific patterns may differ by ethnicity.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Weston, Rebecca

Perceived Parental Goal Projections and Parental Pressure on the Development of Children's and Adolescents' Goal Orientations in Sport

Description: The present investigation evaluated sport-related motivational climates by assessing personal and perceived parental goal orientations and perceived parental pressure in children and adolescents. Data were collected from 202 middle-class, racially diverse students, including 43 male and 50 female children aged 12 or below (M age = 10.6) and 51 male and 58 female adolescents aged 13 or above (M age = 14.7), who had participated in a variety of organized sports, and were enrolled in elementary, middle, and high schools of the Dallas (TX) Independent School District. Measures included personal and parental projected versions (mother's and father's) of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ), the Sport Parental Pressure Scale (mother's and father's versions), and a background assessment.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Weigand, Daniel A. (Daniel Arthur)

Personal Construction of the Self in Outpatients with Major Depression

Description: Clinical depression is characterized by alterations in thoughts, judgment, cognition and social behavior. This study focuses on non-optimal views of self and significant others that are proposed to underlie many of these alterations. Perceptions of self and significant others were elicited using the Role Construct Repertory Grid (Kelly, 1955a). Participants included depressed outpatients with high levels of trait anxiety (n = 27), depressed outpatients with lower levels of trait anxiety (n = 29) and a control group of never-depressed volunteers (n = 28). Consistent with prediction, significant group differences were found for negative self perception, discrepancies between actual self and self goals, alienation from significant others, and inconsistencies in self image. Results provided partial support for the self discrepancy theory of emotionality (Higgins, 1987). Among depressed patients, higher levels of anxiety were associated with increased self negativity and greater discrepancies between actual self and self goals. Increased levels of depression were associated with more alienation from significant others and more consistency in self image. Depressed patients' judgments of self and others were altered from optimal ratios, as predicted by the theory of interpersonal judgment (LeFebvre, LeFebvre & Adams-Webber, 1986). Findings have theoretical and clinical importance for the understanding and treatment of persons with clinical depression. They suggest that self image and interpersonal perceptions may be important characteristics to consider in chosing the most effective treatment for these individuals.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Weissenburger, Jan E. (Jan Elizabeth)

Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Community Sample of Women: Examination of the Role of Violence and Ethnicity

Description: The purpose of the current study was to examine Dutton's (1992) model of moderating and mediating variables which may impact the relationship of violence from an intimate partner with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This model was tested within three ethnic groups (African American, n = 303, Euro-American, n = 271, and Mexican American, n = 260), of low income, community women in serious, long-term relationships. The importance of the differences and similarities observed are discussed within a framework of the PTSD as well as domestic violence literature.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Vogel, Laura C. M.

Preparedness to Counsel HIV-Positive Clients: a Survey of Practitioners

Description: This purpose of this study was to investigate and examine the attitudes of therapists who treat HIV-positive (HIV+) clients. Specifically, therapists' perceptions of their own preparedness in dealing with specific issues and emotions of HIV+ clients were examined. Also, therapists' evaluation of their own efficacy of specific therapeutic approaches with HIV+ clients was examined. These therapists' perceptions and evaluations of all their clients in general were compared to their HIV+ clients. Comparisons were also made within the two groups.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Rowe, Christina J. (Christina Jo)

The Relationship between Level of African-American Acculturation and Affiliation with Fraternities and Sororities

Description: Ninety-nine African-American undergraduates, at a historically Black college, completed the African American Acculturation Scale to compare fraternity/sorority members with independents' participation in Black cultural traditions versus dominant White society. Greek members were hypothesized to be more traditional, because these organizations represent ethnic enclaves, have duplicate institutions, and communicate ethnic socialization; findings did not support this, but reasons for joining did. They were more superstitious in their beliefs than nonmembers, likely related to pledgeship and initiation rituals. Validity data on the new measure were provided. Why participants join fraternities, why they like/dislike them, and what purposes they serve was also examined.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Wilcots, Kylynnedra D.

Rorschach Assessment of Object Relations Development in Sexually Abused Children

Description: Sexual abuse of children has profound negative effects on psychological development. This study examined the effects of sexual abuse on object relations functioning by using the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (MAS, Urist, 1977) to score Rorschach protocols of 63 abused children and 60 non-abused clinical controls. The hypothesis that abused children would have less developed object relations than their non-abused counterparts was not supported. Neither was the hypothesis that children who experienced greater severity of sexual abuse would exhibit more malevolent object relations. The hypothesis that mean and modal MAS scores would be highly intercorrelated and interchangeable as research variables was supported. Comparisons of this sample to a normative sample are discussed.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Isler, Diane E. (Diane Evelyn)

Stress in Parents of Children with ADHD vs Depression: a Multicultural Analysis

Description: Parents of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are often reported as experiencing more stress than parents of normal children. The bulk of this research has been conducted primarily on a Caucasian population, however, providing little information regarding multicultural aspects of parenting stress. Research has also been lacking in attention given to the stress related to parenting a child with internalizing disorders. The purpose of this study was 1) to compare parenting stress reported by mothers of children with ADHD to parenting stress reported by mothers of children with depressive disorders, and 2) to compare parenting stress as reported by Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic mothers. Results indicated that mothers of ADHD children experienced more parenting stress related only to their children's hyperactive and distracting behaviors. Contrary to previous research, Caucasian mothers reported significantly more overall and parent-related parenting stress than African American mothers.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Walker, Cyndi D. (Cyndi Dianne)

Symptom Based Classification of Environmentally Ill Patients: an Exploratory Study

Description: The purpose of the present study was to discern a symptom pattern for environmentally ill patients and provide evidence of the uniqueness of the resultant pattern to this population. Patients' environmental exposure was confirmed by the presence of toxins in the blood serum. All patients were administered psychological and physical symptom checklists, the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire, and a standardized intermediate neuropsychological examination. Results indicate a response pattern of symptoms including fatigue, low energy, weakness, poor concentration, poor memory, poor comprehension, headaches, aches and pains, clumsiness, sinus discomfort, mucus, eye problems, restlessness, and present performance inferior to prior level of functioning. Presence of these symptoms, as well as the uniqueness of this symptom pattern was supported by comparisons of the patient and standardization groups on the two standardized tests.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Flanagan, William Joseph, 1963-