UNT Libraries - 603 Matching Results

Search Results

Responses of Cultured Neuronal Networks to the Cannabinoid Mimetic Anandamide

Description: The effects of cannabinoid agonists on spontaneous neuronal network activity were characterized in murine spinal cord and auditory cortical cultures with multichannel extracellular recording using photoetched electrode arrays. Different cultures responded reproducibly with global decreases of spiking and bursting to anandamide and methanandamide, but each agonist showed unique minor effects on network activity. The two tissues responded in a tissue-specific manner. Spontaneous activity in spinal tissue was terminated by 1 μM anandamide and 6.1 μM methanandamide. Cortical activity ceased at 3.5 μM and 2.8 μM respectively. Irreversible cessation of activity was observed beyond 8 μM for both tissues and test substances. Palmitoylethanolamide, demonstrated that CB2 receptors were not present or not responsive. However, the data strongly suggested the presence of CB1 receptors.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Morefield, Samantha I. (Samantha Irene)

Use of tRNA Gene Probes to Identify Polymorphic Loci in the Bovine Genome

Description: A 30-mer oligonucleotide probe encoding the "A box" and anticodon loop regions of a human glycine tRNA gene was used to isolate a 581bp DNA fragment from a bovine genomic DNA library. Although the cross-hybridizing segment of DNA was found not to encode any tRNA gene or pseudogene, a region with homology to the "C-element" of the "BOV-tA" type Alulike artiodactyl retroposons was identified. This cross-hybridization was determined to be the result of conserved RNA polymerase III promoter elements in the probe portion of the tRNA gene and these repetitive elements. A microsatellite repeat (TC) was also found associated with this element. Future screening for bovine tRNA genes will require the use of a) longer probes and higher stringency hybridization conditions or b) the simultaneous screening with probes from the 5' and 3' ends of the gene which avoid the conserved Pol III promoter boxes.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Shariat, Parvaneh

Medial Medulla Networks in Culture: a Multichannel Electrophysiologic and Pharmacological Study

Description: Spontaneously active primary cultures obtained from dissociated embryonic medial medulla tissue were grown on microelectrode arrays for investigating burst patterns and pharmacological responses of respiratory-related neurons. Multichannel burst rates and spike production were used as primary variables for analysis. Pacemaker-like neurons were identified by continued spiking under low Ca++/high Mg++conditions. The number of pacemakers increased with time under synaptic blocking medium. Sensitivity to CO2 levels was found in some neurons. Acetylcholine changed activity in a complex fashion. Curare, atropine and gallamine modified ACh effects. Eserine alone was ineffective, but potentiated ACh-induced responses. Norepinephrine caused channel-specific increases or decreases, whereas dopamine and serotonin had little effect at 30 μM. GABA and glycine stopped most spiking at 70 μM. Developmental changes in glycine sensitivity (increasing with age) were also observed. It is concluded that pacemaker and chemosensitive neurons develop in medial medulla cultures, and that these cultures are pharmacologically histiotypic.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Keefer, Edward W. (Edward Wesley)

Phagocytosis by Earthworm Coelomocytes : A Biomarker for Immunotoxicity of Hazardous Waste Site Soils

Description: Several biomarkers (cell viability and phagocytosis) based on earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) immune cells (coelomocytes), together with whole-worm mortality (LC/LD50's), were used to assess a bioremediation attempt to reduce pentachlorophenol (PCP) toxicity in a former wood processing hazardous waste site (HWS).
Date: December 1997
Creator: Giggleman, Marina A.

N-Acylethanolamines and Plant Phospholipase D

Description: Recently, three distinct isoforms of phospholipase D (PLD) were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLD α represents the well-known form found in plants, while PLD β and γ have been only recently discovered (Pappan et al., 1997b; Qin et al., 1997). These isoforms differ in substrate selectivity and cofactors required for activity. Here, I report that PLD β and γ isoforms were active toward N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), but PLD α was not. The ability of PLD β and γ to hydrolyze NAPE marks a key difference from PLD α. N-acylethanolamines (NAE), the hydrolytic products of NAPE by PLD β and γ, inhibited PLD α from castor bean and cabbage. Inhibition of PLD α by NAE was dose-dependent and inversely proportional to acyl chain length and degree of unsaturation. Enzyme kinetic analysis suggested non-competitive inhibition of PLD α by NAE 14:0. In addition, a 1.2-kb tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cDNA fragment was isolated that possessed a 74% amino acid identity to Arabidopsis PLD β indicating that this isoform is expressed in tobacco cells. Collectively, these results provide evidence for NAE producing PLD activities and suggest a possible regulatory role for NAE with respect to PLD α.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Brown, Shea Austin

Cloning of Carbonic Anhydrase from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Description: Carbonic anhydrase is a ubiquitous zinc-metalloenzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide and carbonate and has been found to play a wide range of roles in animals, plants and bacteria. Cotton genomic and cDNA libraries were screened for the plastidial isoform of carbonic anhydrase. The nucleotide sequences of two 1.2 Kb partial cDNA clones were determined. These clones exhibit high homology to carbonic anhydrases from other dicot plants and possess all the expected peptide motifs. For example, serine and threonine rich chloroplastic targeting peptide and conserved zinc binding residues are both present. These clones were utilized to isolate two carbonic anhydrase genes that were shown to encode different isoforms by PCR and RFLP analysis.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Local, Andrea

Biotic Factors and Temperature Tolerances via Critical Thermal Methodology in Goldfish

Description: CTMinimum and CTMaximum were measured in 620 goldfish to determine if biotic factors, in particular starvation, condition factor and size, affect temperature tolerance. Twenty-eight days of starvation adversely affected both upper and lower temperature tolerance. Condition factor was related to upper but not lower temperature tolerance.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Ford, Tiiu Kirsti, 1972-

Forensic DNA Extraction Strategies for PCR Analysis

Description: There is a transition nationwide on the analysis of forensic evidentiary stains containing biological material from traditional serology to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methodologies. The increased sensitivity of PCR, the limited number of alleles at each locus, and the necessity of producing unambiguous data for entry into the FBI's Combined DNA Index System make this study of extraction procedures of utmost importance. A "single tube" extraction procedure for blood stains collected onto FTA™ paper and a modified differential nonorganic extraction method from spermatozoa containing mixed stains were analyzed and compared. The extraction success was evaluated by amplification and typing of the amplified fragment length polymorphism, D1S80. These modifications of the nonorganic method utilized gave an improved separation of the spermatozoa-containing mixed stains.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Van Winkle, Carolyn

Underwater Optical Properties of Lake Texoma (Oklahoma-Texas) Using Secchi Disk, Submarine Photometer, and High-Resolution Spectroscopy

Description: The underwater optical climate of Lake Texoma was measured at eleven fixed stations from August 1996 to August 1997. Secchi transparency and submarine photometry characterized seasonal and spatial values of secchi depth (SD), vertical attenuation coefficient (η''), and depth of euphotic zone (Zeu). Indices of Zeu:SD and η'' × SD were compared with universally applied values derived from inland and coastal waters. Turbidity explained 76% of the variation (p = 0.0001) of η'' among water quality parameters, including chlorophyll-α. Using a spectroradiometer, spectral signatures of chlorophyll-α and turbidity were located. Stations with low turbidity exhibited a distinct green reflectance peak around 590-610 nanometers, indicating presence of chlorophyll-α. Stations with high turbidity exhibited a reflectance peak shift towards the red spectrum, making it difficult to detect the chlorophyll signature. Derivative analysis of the reflectance signal at 590-610, and 720-780 nanometers allowed discrimination of this chlorophyll signature from those of turbidity (0.66 ≤ r^2 ≤ 0.99).
Date: August 1998
Creator: Rolbiecki, David A. (David Alan)

Documentation of Biodiversity Impacts (Including Cumulative Biodiversity Impacts) in Environmental Impact Statements

Description: In the United States, biodiversity impact assessment has historically received little attention. Responding in 1993, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) released guidelines on incorporating biodiversity into environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The objectives of the study here were to identify the level of documentation of biodiversity impact assessment in sample Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); identify whether in the years following the release of 1993 CEQ guidelines any significant changes have taken place in assessment of biodiversity; identify deficiencies, and if the need exists, formulate appropriate recommendations and approaches for addressing biodiversity in EISs. The study involved a systematic review of 30 EISs published since the release of CEQ guidelines, and five EISs published prior to it. The review involved answering a series of standard questions, which attempted to ascertain the level of biodiversity impacts included in each impact statement. Trends in approaches to biodiversity impact assessment were investigated and deficiencies summarized. The analysis resulted in a series of recommendations for improving the manner in which biodiversity impact assessment can be approached.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Bhatia, Sarika

Oral Microbiology

Description: Recent studies regarding research on oral microorganisms and the oral diseases are presented. The normal flora of the mouth and the oral environment are first described. Dental plaque and dental caries are primary causes of oral disease. Streptococcus mutans is the major contributor in the initiation and progression of dental caries. Lactobacillus, Actinomyces, and Veillonella are other genera of bacteria linked to dental caries. Periodontitis and gingivitis are periodontal diseases that are caused by oral microorganisms. New research has indicated that various antimicrobial agents and techniques to eliminate or lessen the severity of periodontal diseases. Premature delivery of low birth weight babies in pregnant women has been strongly linked to periodontal disease. Present and future microbiological tests are available to easily determine the causative organisms for most oral diseases that help in diagnosis and treatment of a particular disease.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Osman, Shaiesta

Construction of a Cloning Vector Based upon a Rhizobium Plasmid Origin of Replication and its Application to Genetic Engineering of Rhizobium Strains

Description: Rhizobia are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, soil bacteria with the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia as symbiont bacteroids within nodules of leguminous plant roots. Here, resident Rhizobium plasmids were studied as possible sources of components for the construction of a cloning vector for Rhizobium species.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Jeong, Pyengsoo

Enzyme Assays Using Earthworms for Assessing Innate and Nonspecific Immunotoxicity of Xenobiotics

Description: Principal objectives of my research were to: (1) report for the first time that coelomocytes are able to reduce NBT dye and confirm the presence of lysozyme-like activity in earthworm; (2) develop a standard methodology for determination of NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity in earthworms; (3) compare NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity in earthworms with those of murine and human cells and fluids; and (4) demonstrate the sensitivity of earthworm NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity as the assays using matrics in refuse-derived fuel fly ash (RDFF) and CuSO4.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Chen, Shing-Chong

Prediction of Post Mortem Interval from Degradation of Endogenous Nucleotides in Human Subjects

Description: High Performance Liguid Chromatography was used to measure degradation of nucleotides in human cadavers for the purpose of prediction of post mortem interval. Endogenous nucleotides were extracted from integumentary tissue of six(6) human cadavers using six percent(6%) tricholoacetic acid. Linear regression statistical techniques were used to determine linearity of degradation of various nucleotide pools.
Date: April 1993
Creator: Williams, John Burgess

Physiological Effects of Ascaris Suum Intestinal Microflora on 5-Hydroxytryptamine Level and Binding Sites in the Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Description: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to activate carbohydrate metabolism in adult female Ascaris suum. Serotonin may be either absorbed directly from the environment or synthesized de novo from the absorbed L-tryptophan in adult female A. suum. The enzymes necessary for the synthesis of 5-HT have been identified in both intestine and muscle tissues. The serotonin absorbed from the environment is obtained either from the host's gastrointestinal contents or from the 5-HT producing bacteria in the intestine of A. suum. Numerous 5-HT producing bacteria were identified in the intestinal microflora. The physiological contributions of 5-HT producing bacteria to the 5-HT level, turnover and binding sites in the intestinal tissue of A. suum were investigated.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Shahkolahi, Akbar Mohammadpour

Isolation, Characterization and Physiological Studies of Cyanide-Utilizing Bacteria

Description: Ten bacteria capable of growth on the metal-cyano complex, tetracyanonickelate (II) {K2 [Ni(CN)J } (TCN), supplied as the sole nitrogen source, were isolated. Seven isolates were identified as pseudomonads while the remaining three were classified as Klebsiella species. In addition to TCN, all isolates were able to utilize KCN although it was significantly more toxic. The degradation of TCN was most complete when supplied at growth-limiting concentrations, did not occur when ammonia was present, and resulted in the formation of nickel cyanide [Ni(CN)2] as a degradation product.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Silva Avalos, Juan G. (Juan Guillermo)

Biodiversity of Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Interior Highlands of North America

Description: Caddisflies (Trichoptera) were collected from over 500 different locations throughout the Interior Highlands (Ozark, Ouachita, Arbuckle, and Wichita Mountains) between March 1990 and March 1994. I systematically sampled representative lotic and lentic habitats in 131 natural watersheds that comprise the 17 different physiographic subregions of this area. From my examination of approximately 60,000 specimens, surveys of regional museum collections, and review of literature records, I document 229 species distributed in 16 families and 58 genera. Included in this total are 27 endemic species and 15 new regional records. Descriptions are provided for a species new to science (Cheumatopsyche robisoni), four larvae (Helicopsyche limnella, H. piroa, Marilia species A, Polycentropus crassicornis) and a female (Helicopsyche piroa). Hydropsyche reiseni Denning, previously known only from the Arbuckle Mountains, is reduced in synonymy with H. arinale Ross. Further, I provide illustrated family, generic, and selected species-level keys that reflect this regional biodiversity.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Moulton, Stephen R. (Stephen Richard)

Autophosphorylation and Autoactivation of an S6/H4 Kinase Isolated From Human Placenta

Description: A number of protein kinases have been shown to undergo autophosphorylation, but few have demonstrated a coordinate increase or decrease in enzymatic activity as a result. Described here is a novel S6 kinase isolated from human placenta which autoactivates through autophosphorylation in vitro. This S6/H4 kinase, purified in an inactive state, was shown to be a protein of Mr of 60,000 as estimated by SDS-PAGE and could catalyze the phosphorylation of the synthetic peptide S6-21, the histone H4, and myelin basic protein. Mild digestion of the inactive S6/H4 kinase with trypsin was necessary, but not sufficient, to activate the kinase fully
Date: May 1994
Creator: Dennis, Patrick B. (Patrick Brian)

Responses of Selected Texas Fishes to Abiotic Factors, and an Evaluation of the Mechanisms Controlling Thermal Tolerance of the Sheepshead Minnow

Description: Low oxygen tolerances of ten fishes were estimated using an original nitrogen cascade design, and reciprocally transformed to express responses as ventilated volume necessary to satisfy minimal oxygen demand (L·mg O2^-1). Values ranged from 0.52 to 5.64 L·mg^-1 and were partitioned into three statistically distinct groups. Eight stream fishes showed moderately high tolerances reflecting metabolic adaptations associated with stream intermittency. Juvenile longear sunfish and two mollies comprised the second group. High tolerance of hypoxia may allow juvenile sunfish to avoid predation, and mollies to survive harsh environmental oxygen regimens. The sheepshead minnow was the most tolerant species of low oxygen, of those examined, explaining its presence in severely hypoxic environments.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Bennett, Wayne A. (Wayne Arden)

Discovery and Characterization of Two Tn5 Generated pyrA Mutants in Pseudomonas putida and the Generation of Hfr Strains

Description: A pyrA mutation in Pseudomonas putida was isolated using transposon mutagenesis for the first time. Transposon Tn5 was used to inactivate the pyrA gene for carbamoylphosphate synthetase in these mutants. Accordingly, these mutants were defective in pyrimidine and arginine biosynthesis. The suicide vector, pM075, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to introduce the transposon into the cells. Tn5 was subsequently used to supply homology so that the plasmid pM075 could be introduced in its entirety into the Pseudomonas putida chromosome at the locus of the Tn5 insertion in the pyrA gene. Consequently, these strains exhibited high frequency of recombination and were capable of chromosome mobilization.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Liljestrand, Laura Gail

Characterization of a Human 28S Ribosomal RNA Retropseudogene and Other Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Isolated from a Human X Chromosome-Specific Library

Description: Three genomic clones encompassing human DNA segments (designated LhX-3, LhX-4, and LhX5) were isolated from an X chromosome-specific library and subjected to analysis by physical mapping and DNA sequencing. It was found that these three clones are very rich in repetitive DNA sequence elements and retropseudogenes.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Wang, Suyue

Nucleotide Sequence Determination, Subcloning, Expression and Characterization of the xy1LT Region of the Pseudomonas putida TOL Plasmid pDK1

Description: The complete nucleotide sequence of the region encoding the DHCDH function of the pDK1 lower operon was determined. DNA analysis has shown the presence of two open reading frames, one gene consisting of 777 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 27.85 kDa and another gene of 303 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 11.13 kDa. The results of enzymatic expression studies suggest that DHCDH activity is associated only with xy1L. However although the addition of xy1T cell-free extracts to xy1L cell-free extracts does not produce an increase in DHCDH activity, subclones carrying both xy1L and xy1T exhibit 300- 400% more DHCDH activity than subclones carrying only xy1L.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Baker, Ronald F. (Ronald Fredrick)

The Eosinophil Response in Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis as Indicated by Phospholipase B Activity

Description: The host eosinophil response was compared in mice infected with either T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis by determination of levels of splenic and intestinal phospholipase B, a marker enzyme for eosinophils. Primary infection of naive mice and challenge infection of homologously sensitized mice with T. pseudospiralis resulted in significantly lower tissue phospholipase B activities than infection with T. spiralis. Mice homologously challenged with T. pseudospiralis did exhibit an anamnestic eosinophil response compared to mice given a primary T. pseudospiralis infection. This anamnestic response, however, was significantly lower than the eosinophil response seen in sensitized mice given a homologous T. spiralis challenge. Mice sensitized to T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis and heterologous challenge demonstrated an elevated eosinophil response compared to mice given a primary infection with either parasite. The heterologous challenge response, however, was not as intense as found for sensitized mice given a homologous challenge.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Hsu, Shing-Chien