UNT Libraries - 144 Matching Results

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Nucleotide Inhibition of Glyoxalase II

Description: The glyoxalase system mediates the conversion of methylglyoxal, a toxic ketoaldehyde, to D-lactic acid. The system is composed of two enzymes, glyoxalase I (Glo-I) and glyoxalase II (Glo-II), and exhibits an absolute requirement for a catalytic quantity of glutathione (GSH). Glo-I catalyzes the isomerization of a hemithioacetal, formed non-enzymatically from methylglyoxal and GSH, to the corresponding a -D-hydroxyacid thioester, s-D-lactoylglutathione (SLG). Glo-II catalyzes the irreversible breakdown of SLG to D-lactate and GSH. We have observed that ATP or GTP significantly inhibits the Glo-II activity of tissue homogenates from various sources. We have developed a rapid, one step chromatography procedure to purify Glo-II such that the purified enzyme remains "sensitive" to inhibition by ATP or GTP (Glo-II-s). Studies indicate that inhibition of Glo-II-s by nucleotides is restricted to ATP, GTP, ADP, and GDP, with ATP appearing most effective. Kinetics studies have shown that ATP acts as a partial non-competitive inhibitor of Glo-II-s activity, and further suggest that two kinetically distinguishable forms of the enzyme exist. The sensitivity of pure Glo-II-s to nucleotide inhibition is slowly lost on storage even at -80° C. This loss is accelerated at higher temperatures or in the presence of ATP. Kinetics studies on the resultant "insensitive" enzyme (Glo-II-i) show that a significant reduction of the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate, SLG, occurs and further suggest that only one form of the enzyme is kinetically distinguishable after "de-sensitization". Tryptophan fluorescence studies of the two enzyme preparations suggest that a subtle conformational change in the enzyme has occurred during de-sensitization. We have also observed that Glo-II-i is "resensitized" to nucleotide inhibition after incubation in the presence of a reagent that reduces disulfide bonds. The resensitized enzyme exhibits an increased KM value similar to that of the original Glo-II-s. Kinetics studies show that ATP or GTP again ...
Date: May 1999
Creator: Gillis, Glen S

Syllabus for Advanced Placement Biology

Description: The purpose of this syllabus is to provide a working copy to those teachers of the advanced placement biology course taught at the high school level. Reference materials used were the Texas Education Agency ( TEA ) approved Campbell text Biology and the College Board's, Advanced Placement Biology Laboratory Manual. The syllabus is divided into major topics with outlined notes and includes laboratory exercises as recommended by the College Board. The AP biology course is intended to be equivalent to college biology. College freshman biology courses can differ among colleges and among teachers within the same college. This syllabus is intended to serve as an aid to AP teachers, to cover the topics and experiments as set out by the College Board, and to the high school student, the necessary material to successfully complete the AP examination while providing freshman biology equivalence.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Turk, Cathy Christine

An Assessment of the Use of Seeding, Mowing, and Burning in the Restoration of an Oldfield to Tallgrass Prairie in Lewisville, Texas

Description: An examination of the effectiveness of seeding, burning, and mowing in the reestablishment of tallgrass prairie species on overgrazed and abandoned pastureland. The study site is a 20 acre tract on U.S. Corps of Engineers land below Lake Lewisville in Denton County, Texas. The site was partitioned into thirty-nine 40 by 40 meter plots with seeding (carried out in 1996) and management treatment (burning, mowing, and no maintenance carried out in 1998) randomly applied following a two level design. For each plot, nine stratified-random 0.1 m2 subplots were examined and shoot counts for each species recorded. The effects of the treatments on individual species and species richness were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA followed by a SNK multiple range test, both on ranked data. Community level analysis was conducted with both a MANOVA on ranked data and a Canonical Correspondence Analysis on raw data. Results indicate that seeding positively affected species richness, particularly when combined with either burning or mowing in the early spring. Mowing also significantly increased species richness in areas that were not seeded, while burning negatively affected species richness on unseeded plots. Treatments significantly affected community composition with treatments having the most clear effect on spring and summer forbs.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Windhager, Steven

Comparative Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in Isolated and Open Populations of Southern Flying Squirrels

Description: Three populations of Southern flying squirrels were studied in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas to assess the impact of population subdivision-due to island formation--on the population genetics of Glaucomys volans. One island, one mainland, and one open population were investigated. A 367 nucleotide hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA was sequenced in individuals from each population. Individuals and populations were compared to assess relatedness. Higher sequence diversity was detected in the open and island populations. One island individual shared characters with both the island and mainland populations. Results support the hypothesis that the mainland population may have reduced gene flow. Also, the island population may have been originally founded by at least two maternal lineages.
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Date: August 1999
Creator: Cook, Melaney Birdsong

Development of Cardiovascular Regulation in Embryos of the Domestic Fowl (Gallus Gallus), with a Partial Comparison to Embryos of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii)

Description: In adult vertebrates, cardiovascular regulation is accomplished by numerous systems with neural, hormonal and local components responsible for the majority of regulation. These regulatory components work in concert to maintain the essential function of blood perfusion to adult tissues. Given the essential nature of this function it is therefore surprising that the development of cardiovascular regulation during gestation is poorly understood. The majority of what is known is based on a single vertebrate model, the fetal lamb. The fetal lamb has been used in multiple studies due to the clear clinical applications and has been pivotal in understanding the onset of regulation in developing vertebrates. However, study on the fetal lamb is limited to the latter 40% of gestation and has the added complication of an in-utero developmental strategy. Therefore the primary focus of this dissertation was to characterize basic cardiovascular regulation in the chicken embryo to provided the needed information for it's use an alternative to the fetal lamb. Developing chicken embryos rely on both alpha and beta adrenergic tones to maintain normal heart rate and arterial blood pressure during incubation. However, on day 21, just prior to hatch, these animals lose both tones on arterial pressure suggesting the onset of adult regulation. Cholinergic tone, however, was absent throughout chicken development indicating that it must mature during the neonatal life. Adult cardiovascular reflexes become apparent late in chicken development with a clear baroreflex specifically operating initially on day. However, an adult response to changes in ambient gas tension was absent during incubation suggesting embryos possess unique regulatory systems that are absent in adult chickens. This mechanism is comprised entirely of adrenergic systems with no cholinergic action during change in ambient gas tension. Similar developmental patterns were determined in embryos of the desert tortoise suggesting fundamental differences between in-utero and ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Crossley, Dane Alan

A Multimedia Atlas of Dissection for Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates

Description: Traditional methods of teaching the laboratory course for Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates could be improved by applying current computer technology to construct an interactive, multimedial atlas of dissection. Five specimens used in comparative anatomy courses at most institutions were chosen as representative members of the Phylum Chordata: amphioxus, lamprey, dogfish shark, mud puppy, and cat. Specimens were dissected according to the modified method of Wischnitzer, 1993, and each stage was photographed with a Kodak DC120 digital zoom camera. These images were processed on a Power Macintosh 7600 computer with Adobe Photoshop v. 5.0. The atlas was constructed from these images using Macromedia Authorware v. 4.0.3. Each image contains a series of interactive objects that display a highlight and descriptive text as the cursor passes over each object.
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Date: August 1999
Creator: Curran, Anthony A.

Classification of Toolmark Surfaces on Zipper Teeth

Description: This study proposes the classification of the toolmark under the heads of zipper teeth as a subclass characteristic as outlined by the Association of Firearm and Toolmark Examiners (AFTE). Two separate cases in which zipper teeth were found at crime scenes prompted this study. Brass zipper teeth manufactured by YKK were taken from 20 pairs of jeans and studied using a Reichert comparison microscope at 4X power. Photographs were taken and over 750 comparisons made. It was found that the toolmarks on each side on the 20 zippers were unique and independent of all other sides. The observations made in this study indicate that classifying zipper teeth toolmarks as a subclass characteristic is valid.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Jacobsen, Dawn

Syllabus Outline for Genetics Lecture and Laboratory

Description: This work is intended to be used as a teaching tool in conjunction with the text cited. It is written in outline format, highlighting the major concepts of each pertinent chapter. In this format, the concepts can be expanded upon at the discretion of the instructor. This work is to be used as a guide for lecture. The basic concepts contained in the outline are in such a format as to be able to work in more information regarding the subject matter if needed. The instructor can work from this outline as a starting point. Major topics in the chapters are highlighted, making lecture notes for the instructor easier to do.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Preston, E. Lynn

Scientific Considerations of Olestra as a Fat Substitute

Description: Olestra is, a sucrose polyester, a noncaloric fat substitute, made from sucrose and several fatty acid esters. It has been approved by the FDA as a food additive used in preparing low-fat deep-frying foods such as savory snacks. Available literature on olestra was evaluated that had both positive and negative connotations. Clinical trials in numerous species of animals including humans were conducted to determine if olestra would affect the utilization and absorption of macro- and micronutrients; the effects of olestra on growth, reproduction, or its toxicity were also examined. The roles of olestra as a fat substitute, how it could effect on humans and the environment, and the potential impacts from its use in large amounts were assessed. Olestra can be removed from the environment by aerobic bacteria and fungi which may be isolated from activated sludge and soils.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Rattagool, Kullakan

Cassette Systems for Creating Intergeneric Hybrid ATCases

Description: Cassette systems for creating intergeneric hybrid ATCases were constructed. An MluI restriction enzyme site was introduced at the carbamoylphosphate binding site within the pyrB genes of both Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli. Two hybrids, E. coli pyrB polar domain fused with P. putida pyrB equatorial domain and P. putida pyrB polar domain fused with E. coli pyrB equatorial domain, are possible. The intergeneric E. coli-P. putida hybrid pyrB gene was constructed and found to encode an active ATCase which complemented an E. coli Pyr- strain. These hybrids are useful for kinetic and expression studies of ATCase in E. coli.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Simpson, Luci N.

The Potential of Coelomocyte Chemotaxis as an Immune Biomarker in the Earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris

Description: Coelomocyte migration responses, both random and chemotatic, were examined in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Coelomocyte random migration patterns towards non-stimulatory, non-chemotatic solutions were described. Migration responses to immunostimulatory agents lipopolysaccharides (LPS), N-formly-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), sheep erythrocytes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Eisenia fetida and Rhabditis pellio were characterized. Chemotaxis was reported to LPS, FMLP, sheep erythrocytes, S. cerivesae and E. fetida. Bio-indicator potential of chemotaxis is discussed relative to variability in migration responses.
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Date: December 1999
Creator: Mota, Jennifer A.

Structural Analysis of the TOL pDK1 xylGFJQK Region and Partial Characterization of the xylF and xylG Gene Products

Description: TOL plasmids encode enzymes responsible for utilization of toluene and related aromatic compounds by Pseudomonas putida, ultimately converting them to central metabolic intermediates. The nucleotide sequence for the 5.6 kb xylGFJQK region of the pDK1 TOL meta operon was determined. DNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of five open reading frames corresponding to xylG (1458 bp), xylF (846 bp), xylJ (783 bp), xylQ (936 bp) and xylK (1047 bp), encoding predicted protein products of 51.6, 31.3, 27.8, 32.8, and 36.6 kDa in size, respectively. The average G+C content of the xylLTEGFJQK region was 65.7%, somewhat higher than the 58.9% seen in the immediately upstream xylXYZ region and substantially more than the 50% G+C content reported for the upper TOL operon of this plasmid. Homology comparisons were made with genes and proteins of related catabolic plasmids. The dmpCDEFG and pWWO xylGFJQK regions exhibit consistently high levels of nucleotide and amino acid homology to pDK1 xylGFJQK throughout the entire region. In contrast, although the nucleotide sequence homology of the Acinetobacter atdCDE region to xylGFJ is high, the homology of atdFG to xylQK is markedly less. Such radical changes in homology between corresponding regions of different operons, combined with variable base and codon usage patterns within and between operons, provides additional support for the idea that the upper and lower operons encoding enzymes of aromatic pathways have evolved independently of one another and that these operons have continued to exchange genetic material with homologous expression units through a series of recombination events. Recombinant plasmids were constructed for individual expression of each of the xylGFJQK genes. HMSD (XylG) and HMSH (XylF) were partially purified and characterized with respect to substrate specificity and kinetic mechanism. Evidence was obtained suggesting that the HMSD reaction occurs via a steady state ordered mechanism or a random mechanism where ...
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Date: December 1999
Creator: Poulter, Melinda D.

Chemotactic Response of Lumbricus terrestris Coelomocytes to Larval and Adult Stages of Rhabditis pellio

Description: Experiments were performed to assess the suitability of Rhabditis pellio, a nematode found in earthworms, as a challenge organism for use in development of a biomarker assay to determine the potential of chemicals to suppress the immunocompetence of the non-specific immune system. To accomplish this goal, information on the life cycle of R. pellio was determined; including effects of incubation time and temperature on growth rates; along with information on the immune response elicited in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris. Immune parameters measured were coelomocyte migration toward and attachment to R. pellio larvae and adults. Preliminary background information showed that R. pellio has potential as a challenge organism for development of a biomarker assay.
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Date: December 1999
Creator: Medrano, Jennifer Centurion

Eutrophication Monitoring and Prediction

Description: Changes in trophic status are often related to increases or decreases in the allocthonous inputs of nutrients from changes in land use and management practices. Lake and reservoir managers are continually faced with the questions of what to monitor, how to monitor it, and how much change is necessary to be considered significant. This study is a compilation of four manuscripts, addressing one of these questions, using data from six reservoirs in Texas.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Cairns, Stefan H., 1949-

Functional Properties and Organization of Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Description: The physiological characteristics and organization of cat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) were studied in electrophysiological and anatomical experiments. In single cell recording experiments, quantitatively controlled mechanical stimuli were used to examine the responses of SI cortical neurons to the velocity component of skin or hair displacement. The firing frequency of most rapidly adapting neurons increased as stimulus velocity was increased. Rapidly adapting neurons were classified based on their response patterns to constant-velocity ramp stimuli. Neurons in these classes differed significantly in sensitivity to stimulus velocity and amplitude, adaptation rate, and spontaneous firing rate. The results suggest that frequency coding of stimulus displacement velocity could be performed by individual SI rapidly adapting neurons, and that the classes of rapidly adapting neurons may play different roles in sensation of tactile stimuli. Tract-tracing experiments were used to investigate the ipsilateral corticocortical connections of areas 3b and 2 in SI. Different patterns of connections were found for these areas: area 2 projects to areas 3b, 1, 3a, 5a, 4 and second somatosensory cortex (SII), and area 3b projects to areas 2, 1, 3a and SII. To further compare the organization of these areas, the thalamic input to the forepaw representation within each area was studied. The forepaw region in area 3b receives thalamic input exclusively from ventroposteriopr lateral nucleus (VPL), while area 2 receives input from VPL, medial division of the posterior complex (PoM), and lateral posterior nucleus (LP). These results suggest that area 2 lies at a higher position in the hierarchy of somatosensory information flow.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Esteky, Hossein

Regulation, Evolution, and Properties of the ato Qperon and its Gene Products in Escherichia coli

Description: The regulation of short chain fatty acid metabolism has been examined. Metabolism of acetoacetate, and short chain fatty acids such as butyrate and valerate, is predicated upon the expression of genes of the ato operon. Acetoacetate induces expression of a CoA transferase (encoded by the atoDA genes) and expression of a thiolase (encoded by the atoB gene). Metabolism of saturated short chain fatty acids requires the activities of the transferase and thiolase and enzymes of 6-oxidation as well. Spontaneous mutant strains were isolated that were either constitutive or that were inducible by valerate or butyrate instead of acetoacetate.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Chen, Chaw-Yuan

Life History of Mayatrichia ponta Ross (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in Honey Creek, Turner Falls Park, Oklahoma

Description: The life history and ontogenetic microhabitat change of Mayatrichia ponta Ross were investigated in Honey Creek, Turner Falls Park, Murray Co., Oklahoma, U.S.A. from August 1994 to August 1995. The shape of larval cases changed from a small cone to a cylinder. M. ponta had an asynchronous multivoltine life history with considerable cohort and generation overlap; five generations were estimated. The development rate was reduced in winter. The winter generations of M. ponta had wider head capsule widths (136-165 μm) than summer generations (121-145 μm). The sex ratio of adults was 1.43 ♂ : 1 ♀. Fecundity ranged from 46 to 150 eggs/female. Fifth instar larvae and pupae aggregated on the bottom side of substrates. Early instars were distributed evenly on all sides of substrates. General patterns of ontogenetic microhabitat shift in aquatic insects are categorized as flow mediated, flow independent, and population interactions and other resources mediated.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Wang, Yi-Kuang

Stock and Species Identification of Selected Marine Fishes and Shellfishes Using Allozyme Analysis and Isoelectric Focusing: Implications for Texas Fisheries Management

Description: Allozyme frequencies and general protein patterns were surveyed among selected Texas marine fishes and shellfishes to illustrate the application of biochemical genetic techniques to stock and species identification in fisheries management.
Date: May 1992
Creator: King, Timothy L. (Timothy Lee)

Subcloning and Nucleotide Sequence of Two Positive Acting Regulatory Genes, xy1R and xy1S, from the Pseudomonas putida HS1 TOL Plasmid PDK1

Description: TOL plasmids of Pseudomonas putida encode enzymes for the degradation of toluene and related aromatics. These genes are organized into two operons regulated by the Xy1R and Xy1S transcriptional activators. Previous analysis of the TOL pDK1 catechol-2,3-dioxygenase gene (xy1E) and a comparison of this gene to xy1E from the related TOL plasmid pWW0, revealed the existance of a substantial level of sequence homology (82%).
Date: May 1992
Creator: Chang, Teh-Tsai

Characterization of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase and Dihydroorotase in Moraxella Catarrhalis

Description: Bacterial aspartate transcarbamoylases (ATCase's) are divided into three classes that correspond to taxonomic relationships within the bacteria. The opportunistic pathogen Moraxeila catarrhalis has undergone several reclassifications based on traditional microbiological criteria. The previously uncharacterized ATCase from M. catarrhalis was purified to homogeneity and its chemical properties characterized. The ATCase from M. catarrhalis is a class C ATCase with an apparent molecular mass of 480-520 kDa. The M. catarrhalis ATCase is a dodecomer composed of six 35 kDa polypeptides and six 45 kDa polypeptides. The enzyme has an unusually high pH optimum of greater than pH 10. The enzyme exhibited hyperbolic kinetic with a Km for aspartate of 2 mM. A single, separate 78 kDa dihydroorotase from M. catarrhalis was identified and it was not associated with ATCase. These data support the reclassification of M. catarrhalis out of the Neisseriaceae family.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Fowler, Michael A. (Michael Allen), 1961-

Assessing Effects of an Environmental Education Field Science Program Fostering Responsibility at an Urban Middle School

Description: The study investigated the ability of an extracurricular program to influence environmental responsibility of sixth and seventh graders. The Children's Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Survey (CHEAKS) was evaluated for appropriateness in assessing the worth of this particular environmental education strategy emphasizing water quality fieldwork and technology. CHEAKS is designed with psychometric reliability and validity that may be used in comparing disparate programs. Wilcoxon two sample tests were used to analyze data gathered from two student groups; one participated in an "Enviro-Mentals Club"; the other received no treatment. Analysis showed no significant change in environmental attitudes between groups, but did show significance (p <= 0.05) in environmental knowledge growth. Therefore, the investigated program had marginal success in influencing environmental responsibility.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Sills, Blake

Identification and Characterization of the Pyrimidine Biosynthetic Operon in Streptomyces griseus

Description: To further understand the ATCase/DHOase bifunctional complex formed in Streptomyces, the genes encoding these and other pyrimidine enzymes were identified and characterized. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized in this effort. Primers were constructed by selecting conserved regions of pyrimidine genes from known gene and protein sequences of a wide variety of organisms. These sequences were then optimized to Streptomyces codon usage. PCR products were obtained from internal sites within pyrimidine genes and also from primer combinations of different genes. The size, orientation, and partial sequence of the resulting products shows that Streptomyces has a gene organization of pyrR followed by pyrB, pyrC, carA, carB, and pyrF in an operon similar to that found in other Gram-positive bacteria.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Hooten, Jody J. (Jody Jeran)

Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of the Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Dihydroorotase Complex in Pseudomonas putida

Description: Aerobic Gram negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas putida were reported to possess class A ATCases and to have a M.W. of 360 kD. The nucleotide sequence of the P. putida pyrBC was determined to answer this question once and for all. The expected regulatory gene was not found. It is shown that the P. putida pyrB gene is overlapped by pyrC by 4 bp. The P.putida pyrB is 1005 bp (335 aa) in length and the pyrC is 1275 bp (425 aa) long. Both of these genes complement E. coli mutants with their respective genotypes. Another finding borne out from the sequence is an effector binding site at the N-terminus of pyrB of P. putIda. The binding site shows that effectors compete with carbamoylphosphate for the active site. In this dissertation, it is shown that the ATCase of P.putida is a trimer of M.W. of 109 kD (3 x 36.4 kD) and that the gene encoding pyrB is overlapped by the pyrC gene which encodes DHOase. It is also shown that the pyrBC encoded enzymes copurify as a dodecameric complex with a M.W. of 484 kD.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Schurr, Michael J. (Michael John)

Evaluation of Sequential Events in Phagocytosis by Earthworm Coelomocytes as Potential Immunotoxicity Biomarkers

Description: This research evaluated the potential of activation and attachment, as sequential companion biomarkers of phagocytosis by earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, immunoactive coelomocytes for use in immunotoxicology. The potential was assessed by exposing earthworms to sublethal concentrations of CuSO4 and Arochlor 1254®, chemicals used as reference or standard immunotoxicants.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Murray, Stephanie Mae