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Gene Dosage Study on Human Chromosome 22
A gene dosage study was conducted on a rare complete trisomy 22 human fibroblast cell line utilizing three lysosomal enzymes, ∝-iduronidase, ∝-galactosidase B, and arylsulfatase A, whose genes are located on chromosome 22 and two control enzymes, ,β-hexosaminidase A and -- fucosidase, with genes not on chromosome 22. A gene dosage effect was clearly demonstrated for an early passage number of the fibroblasts; however, later passage numbers gave inconclusive results. This study suggests that gene dosage studies must be carefully designed to be conducted only on early, matched passage number cells. ∝-fucosidase gave anomalous results most likely due to pleiotropic effects. The present gene dosage study confirmed the trisomic nature of the cell line studied and suggests that this type of study may be a useful diagnostic tool for small deletions, additions, or unbalanced translocations.
Monitoring Monocyte Oxldl Phagocytosis As a Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Following a High-fat Meal
Macrophage-derived foam cells play a predominant role in the deposition of arterial plaques during the early stages of atherosclerosis. The deposition of arterial plaques is known to be effected by several factors, including a person’s dietary habits. The consumption of a high-fat (>60% of calories from fat) meal is known to elevate serum LDL and triglycerides, which have been previously implicated in the formation pf foam cells. One limitation of current research models is that it is not possible to directly measure foam cells in vivo. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to validate the use of blood derived monocytes as a proxy measure of foam cells. In order to complete this objective, we evaluated monocyte oxLDL phagocytosis capacity following consumption of a high-fat meal. Eight men and women participated in the present study and venous blood samples were collected prior to the meal, 1-h, 3-h, and 5-h post-meal. Monocytes (CD14+/16- and CD14+/16+) were evaluated for adhesion molecule expression (CD11a, CD11b, and CD18), scavenger R (CD36) expression, and oxLDL phagocytosis using an image-based flow cytometry method developed in our laboratory for this purpose. Data was statistically analyzed for significance using a single-factor ANOVA with repeated measures and a p < 0.05. Consumption of a high-fat meal caused an increase significant increase in the proportion of pro-inflammatory monocytes (CD14+/16+) and a decrease in classic monocytes (CD14+/16-), with the greatest difference occurring at 5 h post prandial (p = 0.038). We also found that pro-inflammatory monocyte expression of adhesion molecules and CD36 increased in a manner that would promote in vivo movement of monocytes into the subendothelial space. Finally, over the course of the 5 h postprandial period, the majority of oxLDL uptake occurred in pro-inflammatory compared to classic monocytes. These results suggest that consuming a high-fat meal increases the ...