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A 018μm Cmos Transmitter for Ecg Signals

Description: Electrocardiography (ECG) signal transmitter is the device used to transmit the electrical signals of the heart to the remote machine. These electrical signals are ECG signals caused due to electrical activities in the heart. ECG signals have very low amplitude and frequency; hence amplification of the signals is needed to strengthen the signal. Conversion of the amplified signal into digital information and transmitting that information without losing any data is the key. This information is further used in monitoring the heart.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Kakarna, Tejaswi

AirSniffer: A Smartphone-Based Sensor Module for Personal Micro-Climate Monitoring

Description: Environmental factors can have a significant impact on an individual's health and well-being, and a primary characteristic of environments is air quality. Air sensing equipment is available to the public, but it is often expensive,stationary, or unusable for persons without technical expertise. The goal of this project is to develop an inexpensive and portable sensor module for public use. The system is capable of measuring temperature in Celsius and Fahrenheit, heat index, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration. The sensor module, referred to as the "sniffer," consists of a printed circuit board that interconnects a carbon dioxide sensor, a temperature/humidity sensor, an Arduino microcontroller, and a Bluetooth module. The sniffer is small enough to be worn as a pendant or a belt attachment, and it is rugged enough to consistently collect and transmit data to a user's smartphone throughout their workday. The accompanying smartphone app uses Bluetooth and GPS hardware to collect data and affix samples with a time stamp and GPS coordinates. The accumulated sensor data is saved to a file on the user's phone, which is then examined on a standard computer.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Smith, Jeffrey Paul

Analysis of Pre-ictal and Non-Ictal EEG Activity: An EMOTIV and LabVIEW Approach

Description: In the past few years, the study of electrical activity in the brain and its interactions with the body has become popular among researchers. One of the hottest topics related to brain activity is the epileptic seizure prediction. Currently, there are several techniques on how to predict a seizure; however, most of the techniques found in research papers are just mathematical models and not system implementations. The seizure prediction approach proposed in this thesis paper is achieved using the EMOTIV Epoc+ headset, MATLAB, and LabVIEW as the analog and digital signal processing devices. In addition, this thesis project incorporates the use of the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) method to obtain intrinsic mode functions (IMF) and instantaneous frequency components of the transform. From the IMFs, features as variation coefficient (VC) and fluctuation indexes (FI) are extracted to feed a support vector machine that classifies the EEG data as pre-ictal and non-ictal EEGs. Outstanding patterns in non-ictal and pre-ictal are observed and demonstrated by significant differences between both types of EEG signals. In other words, a classification of EEG signals according to a category can be achieved proving that an epileptic seizure prediction technology has a future in engineering and biotechnology fields.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Medina, Oscar F

An Application of Digital Video Recording and Off-grid Technology to Burrowing Owl Conservation Research

Description: Through this research, engineering students and conservation biologists constructed an off-grid video system for observing western burrowing owls in El Paso, Texas. The burrowing owl has a declining population and their range decreasing, driving scientists' interest to see inside the den for observing critical nesting behavior. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) biologists wanted videos from inside the dark, isolated hillside owl burrows. This research yielded a replicable multi-camera prototype, empowering others to explore applications of engineering and wildlife monitoring. The remote station used an off-the-shelf video recording system, solar panels, charge controller, and lead acid batteries. Four local K-12 science educators participated in system testing at Lake Ray Roberts State Park through the Research Experiences for Teachers (RET, NSF #1132585) program, as well as four undergraduate engineering students as senior design research.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Williams, Jennifer M.

Applied Real-Time Integrated Distributed Control Systems: An Industrial Overview and an Implemented Laboratory Case Study

Description: This thesis dissertation mainly compares and investigates laboratory study of different implementation methodologies of applied control systems and how they can be adopted in industrial, as well as commercial, automation applications. Namely the research paper aims to assess or evaluate eventual feedback control loops' performance and robustness over multiple conventional or state-of-the-art technologies in the field of applied industrial automation and instrumentation by implementing a laboratory case study setup: the ball on beam system. Hence, the paper tries to close the gap between industry and academia by: first, conducting a historical study and background information of main evolutional and technological eras in the field of industrial process control automation and instrumentation. Then, some related basic theoretical as well as practical concepts are reviewed in Chapter 2 of the report before displaying the detailed design. After that, the next Chapter, analyses the ball on beam control system problem as the case studied in the context of this research through reviewing previous literature, modeling and simulation. The following Chapter details the proposed design and implementation of the ball on beam case study as if it is under the introduced distributed industrial automation architecture. Finally, Chapter 5 concludes this work by listing several points leaned, remarks, and observations, and stating possible development and the future vision of this research.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Zaitouni, Wael K

An Arduino Based Control System for a Brackish Water Desalination Plant

Description: Water scarcity for agriculture is one of the most important challenges to improve food security worldwide. In this thesis we study the potential to develop a low-cost controller for a small scale brackish desalination plant that consists of proven water treatment technologies, reverse osmosis, cation exchange, and nanofiltration to treat groundwater into two final products: drinking water and irrigation water. The plant is powered by a combination of wind and solar power systems. The low-cost controller uses Arduino Mega, and Arduino DUE, which consist of ATmega2560 and Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU microcontrollers. These are widely used systems characterized for good performance and low cost. However, Arduino also requires drivers and interfaces to allow the control and monitoring of sensors and actuators. The thesis explains the process, as well as the hardware and software implemented.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Caraballo, Ginna

Automatic Extraction of Highlights from a Baseball Video Using HMM and MPEG-7 Descriptors

Description: In today’s fast paced world, as the number of stations of television programming offered is increasing rapidly, time accessible to watch them remains same or decreasing. Sports videos are typically lengthy and they appeal to a massive crowd. Though sports video is lengthy, most of the viewer’s desire to watch specific segments of the video which are fascinating, like a home-run in a baseball or goal in soccer i.e., users prefer to watch highlights to save time. When associated to the entire span of the video, these segments form only a minor share. Hence these videos need to be summarized for effective presentation and data management. This thesis explores the ability to extract highlights automatically using MPEG-7 features and hidden Markov model (HMM), so that viewing time can be reduced. Video is first segmented into scene shots, in which the detection of the shot is the fundamental task. After the video is segmented into shots, extraction of key frames allows a suitable representation of the whole shot. Feature extraction is crucial processing step in the classification, video indexing and retrieval system. Frame features such as color, motion, texture, edges are extracted from the key frames. A baseball highlight contains certain types of scene shots and these shots follow a particular transition pattern. The shots are classified as close-up, out-field, base and audience. I first try to identify the type of the shot using low level features extracted from the key frames of each shot. For the identification of the highlight I use the hidden Markov model using the transition pattern of the shots in time domain. Experimental results suggest that with reasonable accuracy highlights can be extracted from the video.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Saudagar, Abdullah Naseer Ahmed

Baseband Noise Suppression in Ofdm Using Kalman Filter

Description: As the technology is advances the reduced size of hardware gives rise to an additive 1/f baseband noise. This additive 1/f noise is a system noise generated due to miniaturization of hardware and affects the lower frequencies. Though 1/f noise does not show much effect in wide band channels because of its nature to affect only certain frequencies, 1/f noise becomes a prominent in OFDM communication systems where narrow band channels are used. in this thesis, I study the effects of 1/f noise on the OFDM systems and implement algorithms for estimation and suppression of the noise using Kalman filter. Suppression of the noise is achieved by subtracting the estimated noise from the received noise. I show that the performance of the system is considerably improved by applying the 1/f noise suppression.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Rodda, Lasya

A Bidirectional Two-Hop Relay Network Using GNU Radio and USRP

Description: A bidirectional two-hop relay network with decode-and-forward strategy is implemented using GNU Radio (software) and several USRPs (hardware) on Ubuntu (operating system). The relay communication system is comprised of three nodes; Base Station A, Base Station B, and Relay Station (the intermediate node). During the first time slot, Base Station A and Base Station B will each transmit data, e.g., a JPEG file, to Relay Station using DBPSK modulation and FDMA. For the final time slot, Relay Station will perform a bitwise XOR of the data, and transmit the XORed data to Base Station A and Base Station B, where the received data is decoded by performing another XOR operation with the original data.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Le, Johnny

Characterization of Ecg Signal Using Programmable System on Chip

Description: Electrocardiography (ECG) monitor is a medical device for recording the electrical activities of the heart using electrodes placed on the body. There are many ECG monitors in the market but it is essential to find the accuracy with which they generate results. Accuracy depends on the processing of the ECG signal which contains several noises and the algorithms used for detecting peaks. Based on these peaks the abnormality in the functioning of the heart can be estimated. Hence this thesis characterizes the ECG signal which helps to detect the abnormalities and determine the accuracy of the system.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Ravuru, Anusha

Communication System over Gnu Radio and OSSIE

Description: GNU Radio and OSSIE (Open-Source SCA (Software communication architecture) Implementation-Embedded) are two open source software toolkits for SDR (Software Defined Radio) developments, both of them can be supported by USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral). In order to compare the performance of these two toolkits, an FM receiver over GNU Radio and OSSIE are tested in my thesis, test results are showed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Results showed that the FM receiver over GNU Radio has better performance, due to the OSSIE is lack of synchronization between USRP interface and the modulation /demodulation components. Based on this, the SISO (Single Input Single Output) communication system over GNU Radio is designed to transmit and receive sound or image files between two USRP equipped with RFX2400 transceiver at 2.45G frequency. Now, GNU Radio and OSSIE are widely used for academic research, but the future work based on GNU Radio and OSSIE can be designed to support MIMO, sensor network, and real time users etc.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Cheng, Zizhi

Comparison of Source Diversity and Channel Diversity Methods on Symmetric and Fading Channels.

Description: Channel diversity techniques are effective ways to combat channel fading and noise in communication systems. In this thesis, I compare the performance of source and channel diversity techniques on fading and symmetric continuous channels. My experiments suggest that when SNR is low, channel diversity performs better, and when SNR is high, source diversity shows better performance than channel diversity.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Li, Li

A Comprehensive Modeling Framework for Airborne Mobility

Description: Mobility models serve as the foundation for evaluating and designing airborne networks. Due to the significant impact of mobility models on the network performance, mobility models for airborne networks (ANs) must realistically capture the attributes of ANs. In this paper, I develop a comprehensive modeling framework for ANs. The work I have done is concluded as the following three parts. First, I perform a comprehensive and comparative analysis of AN mobility models and evaluate the models based on several metrics: 1) networking performance, 2) ability to capture the mobility attributes of ANs, 3) randomness levels and 4) associated applications. Second, I develop two 3D mobility models and realistic boundary models. The mobility models follow physical laws behind aircraft maneuvering and therefore capture the characteristics of aircraft trajectories. Third, I suggest an estimation procedure to extract parameters in one of the models that I developed from real flight test data. The good match between the estimated trajectories and real flight trajectories also validate the suitability of the model. The mobility models and the estimation procedure lead to the creation of “realistic” simulation and evaluation environment for airborne networks.
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Date: December 2013
Creator: Xie, Junfei

Consensus Building in Sensor Networks and Long Term Planning for the National Airspace System

Description: In this thesis, I present my study on the impact of multi-group network structure on the performance of consensus building strategies, and the preliminary mathematical formulation of the problem on improving the performance of the National Airspace system (NAS) through long-term investment. The first part of the thesis is concerned with a structural approach to the consensus building problem in multi-group distributed sensor networks (DSNs) that can be represented by bipartite graph. Direct inference of the convergence behavior of consensus strategies from multi-group DSN structure is one of the contributions of this thesis. The insights gained from the analysis facilitate the design and development of DSNs that meet specific performance criteria. The other part of the thesis is concerned with long-term planning and development of the NAS at a network level, by formulating the planning problem as a resource allocation problem for a flow network. The network-level model viewpoint on NAS planning and development will give insight to the structure of future NAS and will allow evaluation of various paradigms for the planning problem.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Akula, Naga Venkata Swathik

Data Compression Using a Multi-residue System (Mrs)

Description: This work presents a novel technique for data compression based on multi-residue number systems. The basic theorem is that an under-determined system of congruences could be solved to accomplish data compression for a signal satisfying continuity of its information content and bounded in peak-to -peak amplitude by the product of relatively prime moduli,. This thesis investigates this property and presents quantitative results along with MATLAB codes. Chapter 1 is introductory in nature and Chapter 2 deals in more detail with the basic theorem. Chapter 3 explicitly mentions the assumptions made and chapter 4 shows alternative solutions to the Chinese remainder theorem. Chapter 5 explains the experiments in detail whose results are mentioned in chapter 6. Chapter 7 concludes with a summary and suggestions for future work.
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Date: August 2012
Creator: Melaedavattil Jaganathan, Jyothy

Data Transmission in Quantized Consensus

Description: In the world of networked system, average consensus is an important dimension of co-ordinate control and cooperation. Since the communication medium is digital, real value cannot be transmitted and we need to perform quantization before data transmission. But for the quantization, error is introduced in exact value and initial average is lost. Based on this limitation, my 16 bit quantization method (sending MSB in 1-4 cycle and MSB+LSB in 5th cycle) reduces error significantly and preserves initial average. Besides, it works on all types of graphs (star, complete, ring, random geometric graph). My other algorithm, distributing averaging algorithm (PQDA) with probabilistic quantization also works on random geometric graph, star, ring and slow co-herency graph. It shows significant reduced error and attain strict consensus.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Parvez, Imtiaz

Design and Application of a New Planar Balun

Description: The baluns are the key components in balanced circuits such balanced mixers, frequency multipliers, push–pull amplifiers, and antennas. Most of these applications have become more integrated which demands the baluns to be in compact size and low cost. In this thesis, a new approach about the design of planar balun is presented where the 4-port symmetrical network with one port terminated by open circuit is first analyzed by using even- and odd-mode excitations. With full design equations, the proposed balun presents perfect balanced output and good input matching and the measurement results make a good agreement with the simulations. Second, Yagi-Uda antenna is also introduced as an entry to fully understand the quasi-Yagi antenna. Both of the antennas have the same design requirements and present the radiation properties. The arrangement of the antenna’s elements and the end-fire radiation property of the antenna have been presented. Finally, the quasi-Yagi antenna is used as an application of the balun where the proposed balun is employed to feed a quasi-Yagi antenna. The antenna is working in the S-band radio frequency and achieves a measured 36% fractional bandwidth for return loss less than -10 dB. The antenna demonstrates a good agreement between its measurement and simulation results. The impact of the parasitic director on the antenna’s performance is also investigated. The gain and the frequency range of the antenna have been reduced due to the absence of this element. This reduction presents in simulation and measurement results with very close agreement.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Mohamed, Younes

Design and Application of Phased Array System

Description: Since its invention, phased array has been extensively applied in both military and civil areas. The applications include target detecting and tracking, space probe communication, broadcasting, human-machine interfaces, and remote sensing. Although the phased array applications show a broad range of potential market, there are some limitations of phased array's development: high cost, complex structure, narrow bandwidth, and high power consumption. Therefore, novel ideas are needed to reduce these constraints. In this thesis, several new approaches about the design and application of phased array are presents. First, the principle of phased array and fundamental design equations are introduced. Second, a new application of phased array antenna for radar respiration measurement is presented. By integrating a 4×4 Butler matrix with four-element antenna array, there will be four distinct main beams in radiation pattern. This new approach can improve the measurement accuracy and realize a high detecting rate. Third, a compact phased array antenna system based on dual-band operations is introduced. Dual-band function can make N-antenna system obtain 2N unique radiation beams (N is an integer) and achieve a significant size reduction compared to the conventional single-band system. To verify the design concept, a four-element phased array antenna working at 5GHz and 8GHz is designed and fabricated. The measurement results make a good agreement with the simulations. Finally, a novel architecture of steering phase feeding network by using bi-directional series-fed topology is presented. This bi-directional series-fed network needs less phase shifters and realizes steering phase function by applying control voltage.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Ren, Han

The Design and Implementation of an Effective Vision-Based Leader-Follower Tracking Algorithm Using PI Camera

Description: The thesis implements a vision-based leader-follower tracking algorithm on a ground robot system. One camera is the only sensor installed the leader-follower system and is mounted on the follower. One sphere is the only feature installed on the leader. The camera identifies the sphere in the openCV Library and calculates the relative position between the follower and leader using the area and position of the sphere in the camera frame. A P controller for the follower and a P controller for the camera heading are built. The vision-based leader-follower tracking algorithm is verified according to the simulation and implementation.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Li, Songwei

Design and Implementation of Broad Band and Narrow Band Antennas and Their Applications

Description: The thesis deals with the design and implementation of broadband and narrowband antennas and their applications in practical environment. In this thesis, a new concept for designing the UWB antenna is proposed based on the CRLH metamaterials and this UWB antenna covers a frequency range from 2.45 GHz to 11.6 GHz. Based on the design of the UWB antenna, another antenna is developed that can cover a very wide bandwidth i.e from 0.66 GHz to 120 GHz. This antenna can not only be used for UWB applications but also for other communication systems working below the UWB spectrum such as GSM, GPS, PCS and Bluetooth. The proposed antenna covering the bandwidth from 0.66 GHz to 120 GHz is by far the largest bandwidth antenna developed based on metamaterials. Wide band antennas are not preferred for sensing purpose as it is difficult to differentiate the received signals. A multiband antenna which can be used as a strain sensor for structural health monitoring is proposed. The idea is to correlate the strain applied along the length or width with the multiple resonant frequencies. This gives the advantage of detecting the strain applied along any direction (either length or width), thus increasing the sensing accuracy. Design and application of a narrow-band antenna as a temperature sensor is also presented. This sensor can be used to detect very high temperature changes (>10000C). This sensor does not require a battery, can be probed wirelessly, simple and can be easily fabricated, can withstand harsh environmental conditions.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Salmani, Zeeshan

Design and Implementation of Communication Platform for Autonomous Decentralized Systems

Description: This thesis deals with the decentralized autonomous system, in which individual nodes acting like peers, communicate and participate in collaborative tasks and decision making processes. An experimental test-bed is created using four Garcia robots. The robots act like peers and interact with each other using user datagram protocol (UDP) messages. Each robot continuously monitors for messages coming from other robots and respond accordingly. Each robot broadcasts its location to all the other robots within its vicinity. Robots do not have built-in global positioning system (GPS). So, an indoor localization method based on signal strength is developed to estimate robot's position. The signal strength that the robot gets from the nearby wireless access points is used to calculate the robot's position. Trilateration and fingerprint are some of the indoor localization methods used for this purpose. The communication functionality of the decentralized system has been tested and verified in the autonomous systems laboratory.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Gottipati, Naga Sravani

Design of a Dual Band Gan Pa Utilizing Dual Band Impedance Transformers

Description: This thesis discusses the design, fabrication, and testing of a high efficiency, dual band radio frequency power amplifier. While it is difficult to demonstrate an exact mode of operation for power amplifiers at radio frequencies, based on the characteristics of the transistor itself, the argument can be made that our high efficiency performance is due to an approximation to class E operation. The PA is designed around a CGH40025 transistor manufactured by Cree, Inc, which has developed a very useful nonlinear model of its transistor, which allows use of software load/source pull methods to determine optimum impedances to be presented to the gate and drain (hereafter referred to as source and load) of the transistor at each band of operation. A recent work on dual-band impedance matching is then used to design distributed element networks in order to present conjugate matches of these impedances to the transistor. This is followed by a careful layout, after which the PA is then fabricated on a low-impedance substrate using a LPKF Protomat S63 rapid prototyping machine. Measurements of gain and drain current provide values for power-added-efficiency. Simulated gains were 21 and 18 dB at 800 MHz and 1.85 GHz, respectively, with PAE around 63% for both bands. Measurements taken from the fabricated PA showed gains of 20 and 16 dB at each band, but PAE of 80% at 800 MHz and 43% at 1.85 GHz.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Poe, David R.

Design of a Wideband Class J Power Amplifier

Description: A conventional RF power amplifier will convert the low powered radio frequency signals into high powered signals. Along with the expected ability to increase the communication distance, data transfer rates, RF power amplifiers also have many applications which include military radar system, whether forecasting, etc. The main objective of any power amplifier research is to increase the efficiency while maintaining linearity and broadening the frequency of operation. The main motivation for the renewed interest in PA technology comes from the technical challenges and the economics of modern digital communication systems. Modern communications require high linear power amplifiers and in order to reduce the complete system cost, it is necessary to have a single broadband power amplifier, which can amplify multiple carriers. The improvement in the efficiency of the power amplifier increases the battery life and also reduces the cooling requirements for the same output power. In this thesis, I aim to design and build a wideband class J power amplifier suitable for modern communications. For wideband operation of the GaN technology PA, a bandwidth extension design method is studied and implemented. The simulation results are proved to have a good argument with the theoretical calculations.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Raavi, Srinivasa

Design of Frequency Output Pressure Transducer

Description: Piezoelectricity crystal is used in different area in industry, such as downhole oil, gas industry, and ballistics. The piezoelectricity crystals are able to create electric fields due to mechanical deformation called the direct piezoelectric effect, or create mechanical deformation due to the effect of electric field called the indirect piezoelectric effect. In this thesis, piezoelectricity effect is the core part. There are 4 parts in the frequency output pressure transducer: two crystal oscillators, phase-locked loop (PLL), mixer, frequency counter. Crystal oscillator is used to activate the piezoelectricity crystal which is made from quartz. The resonance frequency of the piezoelectricity crystal will be increased with the higher pressure applied. The signal of the resonance frequency will be transmitted to the PLL. The function of the PLL is detect the frequency change in the input signal and makes the output of the PLL has the same frequency and same phase with the input signal. The output of the PLL will be transmitted to a Mixer. The mixer has two inputs and one output. One input signal is from the pressure crystal oscillator and another one is from the reference crystal oscillator. The frequency difference of the two signal will transmitted to the frequency counter from the output of the mixer. Thus, the frequency output pressure transducer with a frequency counter is a portable device which is able to measure the pressure without oscilloscope or computer.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Ma, Jinge