Black and white drawing of a soldier saluting the grave of another soldier. A weeping boy and a girl kneeling in prayer are at his sides. In the sky to the upper right there is a faint drawing of a row of soldiers standing guard and a commander on horseback.
A crowd of people hands money to a woman draped in a blue, white, and red French flag and wearing a helmet. The woman stands in front of a winged statue of liberty ("La Marseillaise"). The stairs around her are littered with bills, coins, and money bags. A small cherub figure in a helmet sits near the woman's feet.
Poster showing numerous scenes of activities sponsored by the American Library Association Library War Service, including interiors and exteriors of facilities, and military personnel reading and studying.
Color illustration of a wounded yet smiling soldier. His uniform sleeves are tattered, and he is bloodied and bandaged; he wears a helmet and carries three enemy helmets in his hands, in addition to his rifle. A barbed wire fence and the ruins of a building can be seen in the background.
Poster is mainly black text with a red border. Centered at top is a design consisting of an eagle, U.S. flags, and cannons. Centered at the bottom is a blue shield with white text: "U.S. TREASURY WILL PAY INTEREST EVERY SIX MONTHS".
Color poster of a woman holding an infant. The woman has dark hair worn in a bun, and wears a long yellow dress. In the background is a blue inverted triangle (YWCA symbol) with a caduceus (medical symbol) and book.
Color poster of a soldier in uniform, sitting at a desk holding a pipe in one hand and a pencil in his other hand. On the desk are drafting tools, an ink pot, and a paper with drawings. A large Red Cross symbol appears in the top right corner of the picture. (There is a large white spot on the soldier's forehead; Library of Congress catalog describes him as "injured".)
A color image of Cardinal Mercier's head and shoulders is centered on the top half of the poster. He has gray hair and blue eyes, and wears a red garment with a white collar. The bottom half of the poster is all text.
Book containing the names and deeds of the recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross, and the Distinguished Service Medal awarded for actions during World War I. It includes information such as whether the award was posthumous, the person's rank, and their company (if applicable).
In the foreground is the profile of Kaiser Wilhelm II wearing a German helmet. His face is colored green. In the background is a u-boat in the water; farther in the distance is a sinking ship with smoke rising from it. The sky is colored orange and the orange sky is reflected on the surface of the water. Centered at the bottom of the poster is a circular seal: a shield with a U.S. flag motif, surrounded by wheat stalks. (This is a seal of the U.S. Food Administration.)
Color poster depicts a variety of foods on a table: a whole fish on a plate, a bowl of fruit, vegetables, a basket of corn, poultry, and a loaf of bread. The table is brown and the poster background is green.
A white-mustached man resembling Kaiser Wilhelm II, wearing a white helmet and cape, and holding a broken sword, kneels dejectedly with his head down. Above and behind him is held a large group of flags of the Allied states.
This thesis examines the policies and procedures created during and after the First World War that provided the foundation for how the United States commemorated its war dead for the next century. Many of the techniques used in modern times date back to the Great War. However, one hundred years earlier, America possessed very few methods or even ideas about how to locate, identify, repatriate, and honor its military personnel that died during foreign conflicts. These ideas were not conceived in the halls of government buildings. On the contrary, concerned citizens originated many of the concepts later codified by the American government. This paper draws extensively upon archival documents, newspapers, and published primary sources to trace the history of America’s burial and repatriation policies, the Army Graves Registration Services, and how American dead came to permanently rest in military cemeteries on the continent of Europe. The unprecedented dilemma of over 80,000 American soldiers buried in France and surrounding countries at the conclusion of the First World War in 1918 propelled the United States to solve many social, political, and military problems that arose over the final disposition of those remains. The solutions to those problems became the foundation for how America would repatriate, honor, and mourn its military dead for the next century. Some of these battles persist even today as the nation tries to grapple with the proper way to commemorate the nation’s participation in the First World War on the eve of the conflict’s centennial.
Charcoal drawing of a soldier sitting in a trench, drinking out of a cup. Other soldiers can be seen in the background. At the top right corner of the poster is the round seal of the U.S. Food Administration (shield with flag motif surrounded by wheat stalks).
Color poster of people standing on a boat or shoreline near the sea. They appear to be European immigrants. In the foreground, a man appears to be pleading with a woman holding a basket of food. In the background can be seen part of a large ship, the Statue of Liberty, and a rainbow stretching across the New York skyline. A man waves his cap in that direction.
Color image of a happy military family. A soldier holds his young son in one arm while embracing his wife with the other. A helmet hangs on a long cord around the soldier's neck. The child smiles and embraces the soldier while the wife admires a medal attached to the soldier's uniform.
Poster of a soldier playing a bugle on a hill, standing in front of a U.S. flag. In the distant background on the right, a ship is sinking. The image of the bugler is adapted from an original sculpture by Edoardo Cammilli.
Color illustration of a young man, in uniform holding a rifle, shaking the hand of an elderly man with white hair and beard wearing matching gray pants and vest and a white shirt with a bow tie. There is a landscape of farms in the distance. There is a blue border around the picture.
Detailed color illustration of a battle scene. Italian soldiers in blue cross a river and charge against Austrian soldiers in green. Several Austrian soldiers and a horse are falling or dead. A toppled weapon is seen in the foreground. Several explosions can be seen on the river, its banks, the mountains, and a town in the distance. Airplanes are flying, cannons are firing, and multitudes of Italian troops are marching in the far distance.
Drawing of an Allied Forces soldier pushing a German soldier away from a frightened woman who is holding a small child in her lap. The German soldier has blood on his hands. Red flames rise from the ground in the background.
This is the 2nd of 5 reels in the US Army Signal Corp produced film, "America Goes Over," documenting the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. The film was produced in 1918 and this print was likely produced ca. 1927. The footage begins with American troops marching through rainy streets in France, then taking wagons on French roads and gearing up for the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. The footage then shows American guns firing the first shots of the 47-day Meuse-Argonne battle, an artillery observer being launched into the air in a balloon with an early radio, then being shot down by planes and parachuting to safety while anti-aircraft guns shoot at the plane with the balloon bursting into flames afterward. The battle scenes include early night-time battle footage, artillery fire, a Renault FT-17 Tank, and various troop movement. As the troops move into the Argonne Forest the footage shows various small conflicts, the assessment of a wounded soldier, dead lying in the fields, and villages in ruins. The footage also features Generals Foch and Pershing giving an update, troops in downtime, prisoners marching, Pershing pinning medals on American troops, troops playing with a lion cub, milking a goat, dressing as women and dancing, and gambling entertainment.
Film footage of the 5th of 5 reels in the US Army Signal Corp produced film, "America Goes Over," documenting the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. The film was produced in 1918 and this print was likely produced ca. 1927. The film begins with the American forces receiving supplies, repairing roads and clearing them for artillery, and digging trenches. The footage continues with five bi-planes taking off with some footage from the air, then firing artillery and fighting during an October offensive, building a bridge and crossing the Meuse, troops and a Renault tank moving through a shelled out town, and talking with villagers. The film ends with troops celebrating news of the November 11 cease-fire, Joffre, Foch, Pershing, French, and other generals shake hands.
This film is the 1st of 5 reels in the US Army Signal Corp produced film, "America Goes Over," documenting the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. The film was produced in 1918 and this print was likely produced ca. 1927. The footage features the sinking of a ship from the vantage point of a German U-Boat, Woodrow Wilson signing letters and addressing Congress, British and French troops firing and being fired on, and Italian troops scaling mountains and firing guns in the snow. Halfway through the video the focus turns to the American effort with cantonments, guns, and ships being built, then draft numbers being picked out of a bowel by Secretary Baker, Theodore Roosevelt watching a parade of draftees, draftees leaving on a train and being examined by doctors, soldiers being trained near Liberty Island, naval drills, King George of England welcoming the American Navy, Pershing and Foch paying a visit to Lafayette's tomb, and trench warfare training in France. Also, interspersed in the footage are cartoons by "Wally" the famous A.E.F. artist.
This film is the 3rd of 5 reels in the US Army Signal Corp produced film, "America Goes Over," documenting the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. The film was produced in 1918 and this print was likely produced ca. 1927. The footage opens with radio operators working in the trenches, various scenes of battle planning, artillery firing, wounded soldiers being removed from a battlefield and the dead left behind. The film then moves to the American forces move toward Soissons, crossing the Marne, and taking Chateau Thierry. The American troops are seen eating, washing, getting haircuts, and welcoming more troops and supplies from ships from the United States. Footage shows the city of supplies at Gievres, an industrial cooking demonstration, and General Pershing writing commands. The film then moves into the opening of the Saint-Mihiel Offensive of 12 Sep 1918 with many artillery scenes, Renault tanks, soldiers cutting barbed wire at dawn, and troops running out of bunkers to fight. An airplane dogfight is captured on film from this battle, ending with the German pilot being shot down and taken prisoner. Troops are then shown digging in Howitzers, crossing enemy lines, surveying the German dead, helping wounded American troops off the field, resting, then going back the next day. In the German fortifications they find a dog used for sending messages. Troops are seen eating, feeding villagers, and marching German prisoners through the streets. The footage then moves to show the American and Australian troops marching through the Hindenburg line together. The footage ends showing the St. Quentin Canal Tunnel, and King Albert and Queen Elisabeth of Belgium watch the American troops marching.
This is the 2nd of 5 reels in the US Army Signal Corp produced film, "America Goes Over," documenting the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. The film was produced in 1918 and this print was likely produced ca. 1927. The footage begins with American troops marching through rainy streets in France, then taking wagons on French roads and gearing up for the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. The footage then shows American guns firing the first shots of the 47-day Meuse-Argonne battle, an artillery observer being launched into the air in a balloon with an early radio, then being shot down by planes and parachuting to safety while anti-aircraft guns shoot at the plane with the balloon bursting into flames afterward. The battle scenes include early night-time battle footage, artillery fire, a Renault FT-17 Tank, and various troop movement. As the troops move into the Argonne Forest the footage shows various small conflicts, the assessment of a wounded soldier, dead lying in the fields, and villages in ruins. The footage also features Generals Foch and Pershing giving an update, troops in downtime, prisoners marching, Pershing pinning medals on American troops, and a German plane being shot down.
Color poster shows a convoy of green food-supply trucks driving through snow. A soldier in a long coat and helmet appears to be directing the trucks. In the lower left corner is the seal of the U.S. Food Administration.
At right, a French soldier in uniform and helmet holds a French flag. To the left and slightly behind him are two women, one wearing a traditional dress and bonnet of the Lorraine region and the other wearing the traditional dress and headdress of Alsace. The woman from Lorraine brings the flag to her lips as if to kiss it. The top section of the poster contains a portion of the title printed in red, which is partly obscured by laurel branches and a portion of the flag from the lower section.
In the foreground is an image of General Pershing on horseback, leading his troops. Two soldiers behind him hold flags: a U.S. flag and a red flag with a gold emblem. Hovering in the background is a hazy image of medieval crusaders on white horses, carrying heart-shaped shields with cross images on them.
The Portuguese Expeditionary Force fought in the trenches of northern France from April 1917 to April 1918. on 9 April 1918 the sledgehammer blow of Operation Georgette fell upon the exhausted Portuguese troops. British accounts of the Portuguese Corps’ participation in combat on the Western Front are terse. Many are dismissive. in fact, Portuguese units experienced heavy combat and successfully held their ground against all attacks. Regarding Georgette, the standard British narrative holds that most of the Portuguese soldiers threw their weapons aside and ran. the account is incontrovertibly false. Most of the Portuguese combat troops held their ground against the German assault. This thesis details the history of the Portuguese Expeditionary Force.
Color poster of a Red Cross nurse coming to the assistance of a woman and directing her to a Red Cross building. The nurse wears a blue cape and a long blue headdress resembling a nun's habit and veil. The assisted woman is carrying a large cloth bundle and appears to be a refugee in distress.
A crowd of American colonial-era people point at the Liberty Bell ringing out from the tower of Philadelphia's Independence Hall. In the upper left area of the poster is a large close-up picture of the Liberty Bell.
Color poster with turquoise blue background. A female figure dressed in a flowing ivory gown holds a sword in one hand and a palm branch in the other. She has wings and wears a laurel wreath around her head.
Color poster depicts a battle scene with the British, American, French and Italian forces on one side of the river and the enemy on the other side. In the background there is a view of the buildings of Venice. A female figure wearing a crown and draped in a red skirt hovers over the scene holding an Italian flag and a sword. A large yellow star shines behind her and over the city. At her feet are the words, "Da qui non si passa" ("They shall not pass"). At the upper left hand corner are small portraits of "Generale Diaz" (Armando Vittorio Diaz of Italy), "Presidente Poincare" [sic] (Raymond Poincaré, President of France), "Vict. Emm. III." (Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy), "Re Giorgio" (King George V of England), and "Pres. W. Wilson" (Woodrow Wilson, President of U.S.A.). Beneath Wilson's portrait flies a bird bearing a banner, "Per la libertà dei popoli" ("For freedom of the peoples").
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