UNT Theses and Dissertations - Browse

ABOUT BROWSE FEED
Note: All results matching your query require you to be a member of the UNT Community (you must be on campus or login with university credentials for access).

Effects of Strength on Selected Psychomotor Performances of Healthy and Frail Elderly Females

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare muscle strength and psychomotor performance measures in healthy (n = 18) and frail (n = 21) groups of elderly women utilizing movements requiring various amounts of strength and ballistic action. Subjects were community-dwelling females ranging in age from 66-92 years. Evaluations of functional assessment of motor skills and grip strength occurred. Psychomotor performance was measured through production of aiming movements on a Digitizing Tablet. RT, MT, and movement kinematics (e.g., peak velocity, deceleration, movement adjustments) were evaluated. Differences between groups were apparent in quantity and quality of movement. Healthy subjects were stronger and faster than frail subjects, producing smoother movements with fewer adjustments. Strength appears to differentially affect healthy and frail samples and merits further exploration.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Meyer, Rhonda D. (Rhonda Dawn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance

Description: This study examined the effects of frame-by-frame video-computerized feedback on competitive state anxiety, self-efficacy, effort, and baseball performance of high school players. Players were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: (a) Hitting score, (b) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of a mechanically correct swing, (c) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of participant's swing and a mechanically correct swing. Once per week for six weeks, the players completed three questionnaires: (a) Hitting Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2C, and (c) Performance Effort Scale, and performed a hitting task. Results of the 3 (Group) x 6 (Trials) ANOVAs revealed no significant effects. This study does not support previous confidence-baseball hitting research.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Leslie, P. Jason
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploring flow among Division I and intramural athletes.

Description: This study explores the flow experiences of collegiate athletes. NCAA Division I athletes and intramural athletes (N = 180) completed a series of measures on their flow experiences. Comparisons were made regarding the characteristics of flow, the perceived facilitators of flow, the frequency of flow experiences, and explored the role of perceived ability. Using a person by situation interaction framework, this study singles out perceived ability as a person factor and competitive level as a situational factor to more clearly examine flow experiences. Results indicated distinctions between the two groups. Mainly, the intramural athletes reported experiencing the merging of action and awareness, autotelic experience, transformation of time and having clear goals more frequently than the NCAA Division I athletes. No group differences were found for flow frequency or flow facilitators. Perceived ability was found to have a weak, but significant relationship with specific flow facilitators and characteristics.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Peterson, Ryan J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors related to cycling performance

Description: There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if results from field tests (time-trials and a Conconi incremental test) are related to performance in mass-start long-distance bicycle races. The second goal was to investigate inter-relationships among field test variables. The testing variables measured were critical velocity (CV), Conconi anaerobic threshold (AT) velocity, 4mM AT velocity, fatigue index, peak blood lactate, and anaerobic work capacity. Participants were USCF 30 category 1 through 5 cyclists. Participants performed one 20.75 km and two 10.37 km all-out tests in the field. They also performed an incremental test. The tests were performed at one-week intervals. Results from the field tests were compared to recent mass-start racing performance. Results indicated that Conconi AT velocity was related to performance in a 161-km race. There was also a relationship between 4mM AT velocity and CV and between Conconi AT velocity and 4mM AT velocity. It was concluded that field tests might provide information about performance ability in mass-start long-distance bicycle races.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Naukkarinen, Vesa
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Related to Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in College Students: a Social Cognitive Perspective

Description: Engaging in regular physical activity is important for maintaining and improving health. Unfortunately, most college students fail to meet the recommendations for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity guidelines (PAGs). Psychosocial factors described within the social cognitive theory are related to the acquisition and retention of physical activity behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of gender, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support with college students meeting aerobic, muscle-strengthening and both PAGs. Participants (N = 396) completed online questionnaires assessing their physical activity behaviors, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support. Self-reported physical activity was classified as meeting / not meeting PAGs. Using gender, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support as predictors, separate logistic regressions were used to examine their relations with the three PAG classifications. Analyses revealed that being male and level of social support increased the odds of meeting muscle-strengthening PAGs, but students’ level of self-efficacy and outcome expectations increased the odds of meeting all three PAG classifications. These findings indicate that interventions designed to increase self-efficacy and outcome expectancy may be beneficial for increasing college students’ physical activity for meeting the PAGs. Promotion of muscle-strengthening activities targeted at young women is also warranted.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Farren, Gene L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors that Influence Men to Coach Women's NCAA Division II Basketball

Description: This study identified factors that influenced men to coach women's basketball. The CCFQ, designed to determine relative importance of each of nine factors in career selection, was completed by 78 male head coaches of women's NCAA II basketball. Data was analyzed using univariate analysis with repeated measures, t-tests, and ANOVA. These coaches indicated fulfill need for competition, help female athletes reach full potential, and serve as role model as significant influences. Moderate influences included personal attributes of athletes, job attributes, and career advancement. Job availability, belief in own success, and income were not considered influential in career selection. Few differences were indicated between demographic sub-groups on any factor. Factors associated with well being of athletes had the greatest influence.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Jackson, James Calvin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Goal Setting Strategies, Locus of Control Beliefs, and Personality Characteristics of NCAA Division IA Swimmers

Description: The purpose of the present study was to examine goal setting strategies, locus of control beliefs and personality characteristics of swimmers (108 males and 111 females) from top twenty 1999 NCAA Division IA programs. Three questionnaires were completed: (a) Goal Setting in Sport Questionnaire (GSISQ: Weinberg, Burton, Yukelson, & Weigand, 1993), (b) the Internal, Powerful Others, Chance Scale (IPC: Levenson, 1973), and (c) the compliance subscale and six conscientiousness subscales from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R: Costa & McCrae, 1985). Descriptive statistics from the GSISQ indicated that most of the swimmers set goals to improve overall performance (51%) and set moderately difficult goals (58%). Results associated with the IPC scale revealed that most of the swimmers attributed their sport performance to internal factors. Results pertaining to the NEO-PI-R indicated that most swimmers were highly conscientious, disciplined, purposeful, and determined.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Stout, Joel T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Hormonal Response to Free Weight and Machine Weight Resistance Exercise

Description: No study has examined the effect of exercise modality (free weight vs. machine weight) on the acute hormonal response using similar multi-joint exercises. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of resistance exercise modality on acute hormonal responses by comparing the squat and leg press which are multi-joint, and similar in action and lower-body muscle involvement. Ten resistance trained men (21-31 y, 24.7 ± 2.9 y, 179 ± 7 cm, 84.2 ± 10.5 kg) participated in the study. Sessions 1 and 2 determined the participants’ 1-RM in the squat and leg press. During acute heavy resistance exercise testing visits (AHRET), sessions 3 and 4, participants completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions with an initial intensity of 80% of their 1-RM for the squat and leg press exercises. There was a 2 minute rest period between each set. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 15 and 30 minutes after exercise via intravenous catheter during the AHRET visits and were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone. Lactate, plasma volume change, heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were also measured. Total work was calculated for external load only and for external load and the body mass used in the exercises. The 4 sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for exercise mode. Testosterone for the squat (Pre: 23.9 ± 8.7 nmol•L-1; IP: 31.4 ± 10.3 nmol•L) and leg press (Pre: 22.1 ± 9.4 nmol•L-1; IP: 26.9 ± 7.8 nmol•L) increased but more significantly after the squat. Growth hormone increased in both the squat (Pre: 0.2 ± 0.2 µg/L; IP: 9.5 ± 7.3 µg/L) and the leg press (Pre: 0.3 ± 0.5 µg/L; IP: 2.8 ± 3.2 µg/L). The increase was significantly higher after the squat compared to the leg press. Cortisol also increased after performing the squat (Pre: ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Shaner, Aaron Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries

Identifying Changes in Resilience during Rehabilitation from a Spinal Cord Injury

Description: The study purposes were to identify changes in resilience, satisfaction with life (SWL), depression, spirituality, and functional independence (FI) and to examine the relationship between these variables, during the inpatient rehabilitation for a spinal cord injury (SCI). The sample included 42 individuals with a SCI, 33 males and 9 females, who were inpatients with a mean stay of 52 days (SD = 15.78). A repeated measures design was employed with questionnaires completed at three times during rehabilitation. Results indicated that there were significant changes in depression, satisfaction with life, spirituality, and FI during inpatient rehabilitation. Findings also indicated significant correlations between resilience, SWL, spirituality, and depression. Future studies developing interventions, and examining factors that predict resilience could help build resilience and may improve rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: May 2008
Creator: White, Brian Dale
Partner: UNT Libraries

Identifying the Physical Activity Needs of Outpatients with a Traumatic Brain Injury

Description: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health issue due to the incidence, complexity, and cost associated with treatment – emphasizing the need for effective rehabilitation programs. One mode of rehabilitation that has been demonstrated to improve health and reduce healthcare costs is health promotion programs (HPPs) that incorporate physical activity (PA). However, PA is not currently incorporated into the standard of care post-TBI. The purpose of this study was to conduct group interviews among individuals with a TBI undergoing outpatient rehabilitation to determine PA knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and barriers. Results will be used to develop a HPP that focuses on facilitating PA participation as part of the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants completed a series of group interviews (2-3 people/group) regarding their PA needs. A qualitative research design was adopted and trustworthiness was established through triangulation of data (i.e., theoretical underpinning; multiple researchers and data-coders). A cross-case analysis was completed to identify themes and conceptual patterns. The main themes identified were (1) an inability to differentiate between PA and physical therapy, (2) a limited knowledge of PA health benefits and the relationship to rehabilitation, and (3) an interest in participating in a PA HPP as part of their rehabilitation. HPPs for outpatients with a TBI should educate individuals about PA, the associated health benefits, and the role PA plays in the rehabilitation process. A well designed HPP may increase the likelihood that individuals adopt and maintain PA as part of the rehabilitation process, thus reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Self, Megan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Implementing a Physical Activity Centered Education Program for Individuals with Brain Injury

Description: Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, education-based PA curriculum is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and deliver a physical activity centered education (PACE) program that supplemented the existing rehabilitation program for brain injury. PACE consists of an 8-week (16 session) program aimed to (1) increase self-efficacy for being physically active of PACE program participants, (2) increase PA stage of change in PACE program participants or the maintenance of adequate level of PA, and (3) improve the rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, participation, adjustment) of PACE program participants. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that participation in PACE will result in (1A) increased self-efficacy for PA, (1B) greater self-efficacy for PA than the standard of care group, (2A) increased readiness to be physically active, (2B) greater readiness to change their PA behavior than the standard of care group, (3A) improved rehabilitation outcomes, and (3B) greater rehabilitation outcomes than the standard of care group. the PACE program resulted in: (1) an average increase of 19.36% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.37), (2) 15 of the 22 PACE participants (68.18%) reported readiness to engage in regular PA , and (3) an increase in rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, and participation)In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, readiness for regular PA behavior, and improved short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Woolsey, Anne-Lorraine T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Perceived Support From Parental and Peer Relationships on Students' Health-related Beliefs and Behaviors

Description: College is an important time for young adults, but most college students fail to meet the daily recommendations for physical activity. Social support is associated with positive health practices, but limited research is available on the role of perceived support from specific relationships, (e.g., peers and parents). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of perceived support from parental and peer relationships on health-related beliefs and behaviors. Participants (N = 333) completed the Quality of Relationships Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Satisfaction With Life scale, and a short version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. While highly active students did not necessarily have more socially support relationships, females self-reported more conflict with both parents and more depth and support with a special person in their life than males, and parental and peer relationships appeared to be a greater influence on females' perceptions of satisfaction and self-worth.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Barton, Mitch
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Psychological Momentum on Basketball Shooting Performance

Description: The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of fictitious scoring updates on psychological momentum (PM) and athletic performance in a competitive basketball setting. The participants included in this study were 50 male undergraduate students who reported having played basketball previously and qualified by being able to make more than 24% (12 out of 50) of their 3-point shots in a pre-trial session. Participants were told that they were competing in a 50 shot, 3-point shooting competition against another individual, equal in ability. After every 10 shots, participants were given a fabricated score update and answered four questions used to measure PM. Results showed that the fictitious score updates significantly (p < .01) influenced participants’ PM scores, where those who were told they led had higher PM scores than those who were told they trailed. As for shooting performance, no significant differences (p = .76) were found between positive and negative PM states for participants who reported experiencing both during the competition. Together, these findings suggest that manufactured score updates can influence PM, but resultant performance differences may not exist. Results of this study lend support to the notion that PM is experienced by athletes. However, when examining basketball shooting performance, the momentum-performance relationship is statistically unsupported. Thus, although PM is thought of by many as a game-changing factor, this study would suggest that PM plays a negligible role in changes to individual performance.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Harris, Connor
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction on Muscle Dysmorphia and Exercise Dependence

Description: Using the psycho-behavioral model as a conceptual framework, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, muscle dysmorphia, and exercise dependence among college men. Participants (n = 110) completed surveys including a demographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Body Part Satisfaction Scale, Drive for Muscularity Scale, and Exercise Dependence Scale-21. No significant relationship was found between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. A significant correlation was found between body dissatisfaction and muscle dysmorphia, as well as between muscle dysmorphia and exercise dependence. These results partially support the psycho-behavioral model of muscle dysmorphia.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Parnell, Reid
Partner: UNT Libraries

Limiting Disability Post-Brain Injury Through a Physical Activity Centered Education Program

Description: Brain injury (i.e., traumatic brain injury, stroke) is a considerable public health issue due to complicated outcomes of the injury, increasing incidence, and high costs linked with medical treatment. Rehabilitation centers are challenged to help individuals manage the resultant associated conditions and prevent secondary and chronic conditions. Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, PA is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in the services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and implement a physical activity centered education (PACE) program within an outpatient rehabilitation program. PACE consisted of an 8-week (16 session) program which aimed to (1) increase PA self-efficacy, (2) increase intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increase amount of PA completed regularly, and (4) promote positive rehabilitation outcomes. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that participation in PACE would result in (1) increased PA self-efficacy, (2) forward progression in intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increased amount of PA completed, and (4) improved rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, participation). The PACE program resulted in an average increase of 16.1% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.41), an increase from three of nine participants at pre-test to six of nine participants at post-test reporting to be in a stage of change in which they are most likely to be successful in regular PA participation (i.e., action or maintenance), and a comparable improvement in MPAI-4 scores (rehabilitation outcomes) after discharge to a rehabilitation program without a PA education component. In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, intention to change PA behaviors, and short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Irwin, Kelley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measurement of Mood State Changes Throughout a Competitive Volleyball Season

Description: Mood state changes have been assessed in endurance sport athletes such as swimmers, distance runners and rowers. However, much less is known about the psychological changes that occur in team sport athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess mood state changes of intercollegiate female volleyball players across a competitive season.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Schultes, Bruce A. (Bruce Anthony)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mechanisms Affecting Bench Press Throw Performance while Using a Counter-Balanced Smith Machine

Description: The use of a counter-balance weight system of a Smith machine affects measures of bench press throw performance. Twenty-four men performed bench press throws at 30% of their one-repetition maximum under four different conditions: 1) counter-balance and rebound movement (RC), 2) no counter-balance and rebound movement (RNC), 3) counter-balance and concentric only movement (CC), and 4) no counter-balance and concentric only movement (CNC). Peak power, force, and concentric and eccentric velocities were measured using a linear accelerometer; and peak ground reaction force (GRF) was measured using a forceplate. Peak measures for concentric and eccentric velocities showed that NCB> CB and RBT > CBT. Peak GRF measures showed CB > NCB and RBT > CBT. The lower performance measures for CB were likely due to an increase in the net external load when the barbell accelerates faster than the gravitational constant causing the counter-balance weight becomes ineffective.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Buddhadev, Harsh
Partner: UNT Libraries

NCAA Division I Athletes Preferences for Coaching Behaviors

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether coaching behavior preferences of NCAA Division I athletes differ as a function of gender and type of sport. The Coaching Behavior Questionnare (CBQ; Martin & Barnes, 1999) was administered to 195 NCAA Division I athletes. Gender and sport type were the independent variables and the participant's mean scores for the subscales on the CBQ were the dependent variables. Descriptive statistics revealed that, overall, NCAA Division I athletes prefer positive and instructional behaviors more than non-responses or negative behaviors. A 2 (gender) x 3 (type of sport) MANOVA and follow-up discriminant function analysis indicated that coaching behavior preferences differed as a function of gender and type of sport played. Thus, NCAA Division I coaches should consider both individual and situational characteristics when working with their athletes to achieve the desired outcome.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Barnes, Kelly A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Severe Intensity Exercise

Description: The purpose of this study was to describe mathematically the oxygen uptake kinetics during cycle ergometry, and to examine the effect of intensity on the kinetic responses within the severe domain. Sixteen volunteers performed a series of exercise tests at a range of intensities selected to elicit fatigue in ~3 to 10 min. A simple mono-exponential model effectively described the response across all intensities. There was a positive correlation between the response time and the time to fatigue, demonstrating that the maximal oxygen uptake was achieved faster at higher intensities within the severe domain. Models incorporating two components effectively described the responses only in tests lasting 8 min or more. It was concluded that there is a second, slow component in the oxygen uptake response only at the lower intensities within the severe domain.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Blumoff, Sonja
Partner: UNT Libraries

Physiological and Psychological Effects of an Acute Stressor: Comparing Coping Strategies Among Very Physically Active and Less Active Adults

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity status of healthy adult males (N = 59) while in a coping strategy condition (association, disassociation, or control) influences psychophysiological responses to an acute painful stimulus. Measures of pain tolerance, state anxiety, body awareness, and salivary cortisol were investigated. Results indicated no significant differences between physical activity groups for pain tolerance, stress responses (i.e., self-reported state anxiety and cortisol levels), or body awareness. Though, those who indicated using a disassociation coping technique during the exit interview tolerated the acute, surface pain longer. More research is required to further understand the effects of physical activity and coping strategies on pain perception and psychophysiological responses.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Brandt, Grace A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Primary Caregiving Father's Perceptions of Leisure

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact the primary caregiving role had on men's perceptions of leisure. The Assessment of Leisure and Recreation Involvement (Ragheb, 2002) was used to examine men's leisure. Twenty-five stay-at-home dad groups were solicited via e-mail; 81 men submitted usable responses to an online survey. Respondents considered themselves the primary caregiver for children in the household and at least one child was younger than 12. Descriptive data were collected about the experience of being a primary caregiving father, demographics, and how the caregiving role affects the men's perceptions of leisure. Caregiving fathers in the sample resembled the perceptions of many primary caregiving mothers. Perhaps the "caregiving" role, rather than gender, is a more distinct variable explaining perceptions of leisure by parents.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Hall, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relation Between the FITNESSGRAM® Ftness Assessment and Self-Reported Physical Activity Questions

Description: The FITNESSGRAM® is regularly used to assess physical fitness (PF) of adolescents. In addition to the PF assessment, the FITNESSGRAM also includes self-report physical activity (PA) items. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the self-report aerobic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility PA behavior items indicated adolescents’ cardiorespiratory, muscular strength, and flexibility fitness and their body composition. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between the amount of PA and PF status. Adolescents not meeting the recommended PA amount had significantly higher odds of not achieving a healthy fitness status. Meeting the recommended PA amount was associated with achieving healthy PF status. Thus, adolescents’ amounts of aerobic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility PA were an indication of their corresponding health-related PF standard.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Tucker, Jacob
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reliability and Validity of the FITNESSGRAM® Physical Activity Items

Description: Large-scale assessments of children and youth physical activity (PA) behaviors are regularly conducted in school settings. In addition to assessing actual fitness, the FITNESSGRAM® assesses self-reported PA behaviors for aerobic, strengthening, and flexibility activity within the past 7 days. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the three PA items. Participants included 1010 students in grades three through twelve and were either tested under a teacher – teacher condition, an expert - expert condition, a teacher – expert condition, or a trained teacher – expert condition. Comparisons of the responses to the PA items indicated adequate reliability for teachers, but the reliability improved with training. Likewise, the validities for teachers are moderate to fair; however, they improved when teachers received additional training.
Date: August 2011
Creator: San Miguel, Kaleigh
Partner: UNT Libraries