UNT Theses and Dissertations - 4 Matching Results

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Effect of Resistance Training on Cytokines in Hiv+ Men with Chemical Dependence

Description: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and substance abuse (drug and/or alcohol) independently impair the immune system; importantly, the combination of HIV infection and substance abuse might produce more than an additive effect on this system. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and Interferon gamma (IFN?) are pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in differentiation of Th0 cells into Th1 cells. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) are anti-inflammatory cytokine involved in differentiation of Th0 cells to Th2 cells. Unbalanced Th1 and Th2 cells can lead to immune suppression. Thus, changes in these cytokines could have important implications for people infected with HIV (HIV+). Resistance training can counteract muscle wasting, improve strength, and improve muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of resistance training on resting concentrations of circulating TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10. Sixteen men (42 ± 11 years, 180.4 ± 9.1 cm, 89.2 ± 20.7 kg) infected with HIV and enrolled in an intensive 60-day in-patient substance addiction/abuse treatment program were recruited shortly after admission to the treatment facility. Participants were assigned to one of two groups using randomization: supervised resistance exercise 3 times per week using a progressive and non-linear periodized program (Exercise) or no exercise training (Non-Exercise) for six weeks. Before (Pre) and after (Post) the 6-week period, resting and fasted blood samples were obtained and analyzed for serum TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10 concentrations using a high-sensitivity ELISA. TNF-? did not change following the 6-week period for Exercise (Pre: 4.8 ± 2.7 pg·ml-1; Post: 4.6 ± 2.4 pg·ml-1) or Non-Exercise (Pre: 3.0 ± 1.3 pg·ml-1; Post: 2.7 ± 0.8 pg·ml-1). IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10 concentrations were below detectable limits. No adverse effects of the intervention were reported. A six-week resistance training program does not elicit changes in circulating TNF-? concentrations in men infected with HIV and ...
Date: May 2012
Creator: Curtis, John Harper
Partner: UNT Libraries

Hormonal Response to Free Weight and Machine Weight Resistance Exercise

Description: No study has examined the effect of exercise modality (free weight vs. machine weight) on the acute hormonal response using similar multi-joint exercises. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of resistance exercise modality on acute hormonal responses by comparing the squat and leg press which are multi-joint, and similar in action and lower-body muscle involvement. Ten resistance trained men (21-31 y, 24.7 ± 2.9 y, 179 ± 7 cm, 84.2 ± 10.5 kg) participated in the study. Sessions 1 and 2 determined the participants’ 1-RM in the squat and leg press. During acute heavy resistance exercise testing visits (AHRET), sessions 3 and 4, participants completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions with an initial intensity of 80% of their 1-RM for the squat and leg press exercises. There was a 2 minute rest period between each set. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 15 and 30 minutes after exercise via intravenous catheter during the AHRET visits and were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone. Lactate, plasma volume change, heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were also measured. Total work was calculated for external load only and for external load and the body mass used in the exercises. The 4 sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for exercise mode. Testosterone for the squat (Pre: 23.9 ± 8.7 nmol•L-1; IP: 31.4 ± 10.3 nmol•L) and leg press (Pre: 22.1 ± 9.4 nmol•L-1; IP: 26.9 ± 7.8 nmol•L) increased but more significantly after the squat. Growth hormone increased in both the squat (Pre: 0.2 ± 0.2 µg/L; IP: 9.5 ± 7.3 µg/L) and the leg press (Pre: 0.3 ± 0.5 µg/L; IP: 2.8 ± 3.2 µg/L). The increase was significantly higher after the squat compared to the leg press. Cortisol also increased after performing the squat (Pre: ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Shaner, Aaron Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries

Implementing a Physical Activity Centered Education Program for Individuals with Brain Injury

Description: Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, education-based PA curriculum is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and deliver a physical activity centered education (PACE) program that supplemented the existing rehabilitation program for brain injury. PACE consists of an 8-week (16 session) program aimed to (1) increase self-efficacy for being physically active of PACE program participants, (2) increase PA stage of change in PACE program participants or the maintenance of adequate level of PA, and (3) improve the rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, participation, adjustment) of PACE program participants. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that participation in PACE will result in (1A) increased self-efficacy for PA, (1B) greater self-efficacy for PA than the standard of care group, (2A) increased readiness to be physically active, (2B) greater readiness to change their PA behavior than the standard of care group, (3A) improved rehabilitation outcomes, and (3B) greater rehabilitation outcomes than the standard of care group. the PACE program resulted in: (1) an average increase of 19.36% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.37), (2) 15 of the 22 PACE participants (68.18%) reported readiness to engage in regular PA , and (3) an increase in rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, and participation)In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, readiness for regular PA behavior, and improved short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Woolsey, Anne-Lorraine T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Soul Line Dancing Among African American Women in the Church: an Expectancy-value Model Approach

Description: Guided by the expectancy value model of achievement choice, this study examined the relationships among expectancy value constructs (expectancy related beliefs and subjective task values), effort and intention for future participation in a culturally specific dance, soul line, among African American adult women in the church setting. Participants were 100 African American women who were members of the women’s ministries from four predominantly African American churches in the Dallas/Ft. Worth metropolitan area. Participants completed a 20-minute soul line session and responded to survey questions, validated in previous research, assessing their expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values, effort, intention for future participation and physical activity. This was the first study to use the expectancy value model as a guide to determine motivations attached to physical activities among African American adult women. Usefulness, a component of subjective task values, emerged as a predictor of intention for future participation. Eighty-one percent of the women did not meet physical activity guidelines for aerobic activity. Of those inactive women 60% indicated an interest in doing soul line dancing often at their church after one short exposure to the activity as indicated by the strongest possible response to both intention questions. A slightly smaller percent of the active women provided with a strong positive response for future intention. These findings suggest that soul line dancing is a practical avenue to increase physical activity among African American women in the church. Future research should test this theoretical model on a wider variety of individuals who are sedentary to physically active, measure actual participation, and directly measure BMI and physical activity.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Rose, Melanie
Partner: UNT Libraries