UNT Theses and Dissertations - 383 Matching Results

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Primary Productivity and Community Metabolism in a Small North Central Texas Pond Ecosystem

Description: Rates of primary production and community metabolism were monitored over a one year period using the diurnal oxygen method. Certain physico-chemical parameters were also measured, and autotrophic standing crops were estimated. An in-depth study was made of the phytoplankton community and various diversity indicies were calculated. Simple correlations were run between all parameters measured (biotic and abiotic), and their inter-relationships examined. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop equations predictive of production and community metabolism. Bluegreen algae were the dominant phytoplankters with blooms occurring in late summer and fall. Yearly mean production was approximately 21 kcal per meter square per day with a mean photosynthetic efficiency of 1.2 per cent. Of the various parameters measured turbidity and water temperature were most important in determining rates of primary production.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Kelly, Martin H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Cultured Human Lymphocytes

Description: Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was studied in cultured human lymphocytes using 3-methylcholanthrene, 1,2- benzanthracene, and 4'-bromoflavone as inducers. The substrates used to run the 60 minute assay were benzo(α)pyrene and diphenyloxazole. At the optimum bromoflavone concentration for induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, the induced enzymatic activity compared favorably with that of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induced by 3MC in a 96 hour lymphocyte culture using BP as the assay substrate. The whole cell human lymphocyte system was found to have as much or more activity in 20 ml vials using Joklik's-Modified Minimum Essential Medium at a pH optimum of 7.5 with no co-factor added as did the Roswell Park assay system. The whole cell assay showed that levels of aryl hydrocarbonhydroxylase inducibility in lumphocytes from smokers and non-smokers varied without regard to the subjects' smoking habits. The assay system also indicated that intact lymphocytes generate a similar group of benzo(α)pyrene metabolites as that produced by a hepatic microsomal preparation from C57B1/6J mice.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Guyden, Jerry C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Hypothermia on the Release of Cardiac Enzymes

Description: The myocardium is known to release CPK, LDH1 , and GOT in response to ischemia as a result of myocardial infarction. This study was designed to induce the release of cardiac enzymes without adversely effecting the myocardium by perfusion hypothermia, thereby suggesting that these enzymes are not as specific in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction as once thought. Hypothermia was by in vivo perfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Enzyme activity was measured from sera samples spectrophotometrically and electrophoretically. Significant CPK and LDH1 increases were observed in animals perfused between 25 and 19 C. These results indicate that, while heart function remained unchanged, an alteration occurred in the membrane integrity of the myocardial cells.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Strawn, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Life History and Ecology of the Mayfly Neochoroterpes mexicanus Allen (Ephemeroptera: Leptophebiidae)

Description: The life history and ecology of Neochoroterpes mexicanus was studied from data collected September, 1971, to August, 1972, and January to December, 1973, in the Brazos River, Texas. Nymphal development, instar analysis, voltinism, standing crops, and production estimates were determined from the quantitative samples taken in 1971 and 1972. Aspects of the life history and food habits of 230 specimens were arrived at from qualitative samples and light box captures in 1973. Laboratory investigation in 1973 helped in establishing instar analysis, egg incubation and description, and first instar descriptions. Neochoroterpes mexicanus appeared to have three generations per year with brood overlap in the summer and fall. It displayed 16 and 19 instars for overwintering and combined summer generations respectively.
Date: August 1974
Creator: McClure, Richard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Population Studies of Ulmus Crassifolia in Flood-Plain Forests of Denton County, Texas

Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was the comparison of cedar elm populations in different stands along creeks in Denton County, Texas, and the relationship of certain population parameters to various substrates present at stand sites, Parameters investigated eluded average basal area, basal-area density, transect-segment density, intertree distance, lateral distance, frequency, diameter breast-high, diameter breast-high size-class distribution, and immature-tree density. Variations among populations of Ulmus crassifolia Nutt were noted and analyzed in terms of soil particle size and existing community conditions.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Koch, Linda S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Induction of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Ambystoma tigrinum

Description: Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Colvin, David P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Light and Other Environmental Factors on Growth and Carotenogenesis of Corynebacterium Species Strain 7E1C

Description: This investigation studies effects of environmental factors on growth and carotenogenesis in Corynebacterium strain 7ElC. Changes in pH were found to effect growth more than carotenogenesis. However, certain nutrients or long incubation periods stimulated carotenoid formation more than growth. Dark conditions in a mineral salts-glucose medium stimulated growth, but minimized carotenogenesis. Tryptic soy broth or yeast extract elicited carotenogenesis in darkness. Although brief light exposure during inoculation was photoinductive, continuous exposure to light following inoculation was required for maximum pigment synthesis. Dark grown stationary phase cells required 24-hours of light for maximum pigment synthesis. Chloramphenicol inhibition of carotenogenesis in dark grown cells exposed to light showed that enzymes needed for carotenoid synthesis were absent from dark grown cultures.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Howard, Marta E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Sodium Salicylate on the Ultrastructure of Trypanosoma lewisi

Description: This study examines ultrastructural changes occurring in seven- and fourteen-day populations of Trypanosorfa lewisi when 60 mg sodium salicylate is administered to the host. These changes were related to the host-immune response. Seven-day trypanosomes showed approximately 10 posterior volutin granules. Seven-day trypanosomes whose host had received salicylate exhibited. 30 to 40 volutin granules, and their posterior tip exhibited volutin granules in high numbers sometimes excluding other cellular elements. Fourteen-day trypanosones showed fewer volutin granules than seven-day, salicylate-treated ones. Salicylate treatment caused no additional ultrastructural alterations. Thus the volutin granules are not linked to the reproduction inhibiting antibody (ablast in) but may be involved in the formation of the trypanocidal antibodies.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Beck, Charles F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies of the Bird Life of Denton County, Texas

Description: "As a means of defining the purpose of the problem, the following objectives were considered: (1) to list the species of birds observed in Denton and neighboring counties; (2) to assign a descriptive status to each species; (3) to estimate the relative abundance of each species (4) to annotate the list with data from other sources, when additional data provide a more accurate and complete description of the status of the species in Denton County; (5) to designate the section of the county in which each species was most frequently observed; and (6) to briefly summarize the changes in bird populations during the period 1950-1956, and to suggest some hypotheses which help explain these changes." -- leaf 6.
Date: January 1962
Creator: Rylander, Michael Kent
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Vegetative Key to the Conspicuous Flowering Herbs of Denton County, Texas

Description: "The area of study was restricted to those common flowering herbs of Denton County, Texas, which have conspicuous flowers or a conspicuous flower cluster. There were, however, many plants included in this flora which are common to several counties of north-central Texas. Since there has been no previous key devised for the herbs of Denton County, Texas, the purpose of this key was to provide a flora which could be used by elementary and high school instructors, as well as any other interested persons who lack an extensive knowledge of botanical nomenclature." -- leaf iv.
Date: January 1957
Creator: Fate, Dwight Wesley
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Computer Assisted Micro-Dye Uptake Interferon Assay System

Description: A new rapid computer assisted micro-titer plate interferon assay system was developed and characterized for use in high capacity clinical and research applications. The biological aspect of the assay was a modification of the assay methods of Finter, Armstrong and McManus. It was an application of spectrophotometric quantification of the reduction of viral cytopathic effect (CPE) as reflected by neutral red dye uptake by viable cells. A computer program was developed for the extrapolation of raw data to reference interferon units.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Duvall, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determination of Biotransformation and Biodegradation Rate Constants for Naphthalene, Lindane and Phenol

Description: Biotransformation and biodegradation rate constants were determined for naphthalene, lindane, and phenol in water samples from three different sources. Rate constants produced from monitoring disappearance of the parent chemical (biotransformation) were compared to those obtained from mineralization of the chemical (ultimate biodegradation) by ¹⁴CO₂ evolution as well as acidification of the residual ¹⁴C-labeled compound (primary biodegradation). Rate constants were statistically different for the three chemicals. The water source affected the rate constants. When biomass measurements of the waters were considered and second-order rate constants were derived, there was no statistical evidence that this parameter gave a reliable rate constant statistic that could be useful in predicting the fate of any of naphthalene, lindane, and phenol in these waters.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Crawford, Judith Chase
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Determination of Uptake and Depuration Rate Kinetics and Bioconcentration Factor of Naphthalene and Lindane in Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus

Description: Bluegill were exposed to 3 and 30 pg/L lindane and 20 and 200 pg/L naphthalene to determine uptake rate constants, K1 depuration rate constants, K2, and bioconcentration factors, BCF. Correlations were determined between lipid normalized and non-lipid normalized BCFs, and between observed Kl, K2 and BCFs and predicted values. The K1 values for both chemicals and concentrations were similar. The K2 values were different (1.04 day~1, 0.46 day 1). Naphthalene was more rapid. BCFs for lindane (315) and naphthalene (98) were different. Lipid normalized BCFs for naphthalene were more variable than non-lipid normalized BCFs. The reverse was observed for lindane BCFs. Predicted K1, K2 , and BCFs were in agreement with observed values.
Date: August 1981
Creator: DeFoer, Marguerite J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Hypothermic Perfusion of the Isolated Thyroid Gland and Its Release of T₃ And T₄

Description: Investigations have shown that the hypothalamus and pituitary respond to decreases in body temperature by stimulating thyroid release of T_3 and T_4 . This study was designed to bypass the control of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and investigate the direct effect of temperature on the thyroid gland. Hypothermia was by an in vivo isolated perfusion of the thyroid gland. Radio-immunoassay was used to measure T_3 and T_4 concentrations. Significant increases were observed in animals perfused between 36º and 25ºc. These results indicate that the thyroid gland is directly effected by decreased temperature and that it is capable of exerting control over body temperature independent of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Lower perfusion temperatures produced no significant increases.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Haenke, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biosystematic Study of a Desmodium Complex

Description: An examination of the Desmodium canescens complex (D. canescens; D. tweedyi; D. illinoense) has resulted in the delimitation of a previously unreported alliance between D. canescens and D. tweedyi. The following points support this view: (a) morphological data taken from herbarium and garden specimens indicate that for many characters, the mean values of D. canescens and D. tweedy are not significantly different (b) breeding experiments have shown that artificial interspecific hybridization is possible between D. canescens and D. tweedyi (c) cytological studies have shown that D. canescens and D. tweedyi have a base number of x = 11, while D. illinoense has a base number of x = 10. A new combination is suggested: Desmodium canescens var. tweedyi (Britt.) Williams.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Williams, John G., 1949-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Physiological Studies of the Bdellovibrio-Host Interaction

Description: The purpose of this study was to focus attention on the physiology of the bdellovibrio-host interaction and to determine the metabolic requirements for this reaction. Since bdellovibrio is an aerobic organism, direct measurements of respiration, turbidity, and viable cell counts are reliable indications of the metabolic activity of the cells. It was determined that the metabolic requirements for the parasitic interaction are constituents from either metabolically active host cells or cells which are capable of at least some metabolic activity. The nutritional requirements of host-independent bdellovibrios suspended in buffer are not met by the presence or absence of viable or nonviable Enterobacter aegnes. Unlike the HD bdellovibrios, the HI bdellovibrios lack the ability to make economical use of their self-digesting processes.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Dunton, Philip J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Life History Allocation of Energy to Growth and Reproduction in Gizzard Shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, in North Central Texas

Description: Life history allocation of energy to growth and reproduction was determined for female gizzard shad. Absolute caloric energy allocated to eggs increased with age. The relative amount of production energy directed to reproduction increased with age up to 5 years and then decreased. Seasonal variation in lipids was studied. Quantitative changes occurred in ovarian lipids during the reproductive cycle. Carcass lipids varied seasonally. Age of sexual maturity was 3 years. Delayed maturity is attributed to high allocation of energy to growth enabling shad to outgrow intense competition and predation in pre-reproductive ages; there is little competition and predation in reproductive shad. Growth rates and condition factors indicated constant availability of food seasonally.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Fagan, Joseph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Permeability of the Kidney Capillaries to Narrow-Range Macromolecular Dextran Fractions

Description: Recent investigations into the permeability of the kidney capillaries have produced conflicting reports. This study was an attempt to better describe the permeability of the kidney capillaries by using narrow-range macromolecular dextran fractions in four molecular sizes: MW 61,400, MW 77,000, MW 118,000, and MW 147,000. Permeability was measured by dextran concentration differences in plasma and kidney lymph. Permeability decreased as the dextran molecular weight increased. Molecular weights 61,400 and 77,000 penetrated into the kidney lymph. Molecular weight 118,000 exhibited greater difficulty in penetrating to the lymph. The largest fraction penetrated into the kidney lymph with greatest difficulty. Plasma expansion by saline infusion increased the permeability of all dextran fractions.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Wooldridge, Clayton Bradley
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of 3-Deazaguanine on Chick Embryo Fibroblasts and Rat Kidney Cells Infected with Temperature-Sensitive Mutant and Wild-Type Rous Sarcoma Viruses

Description: Chick embryo fibroblasts and rat kidney cells infected in vitro with Rous Sarcoma viruses were treated with 3-deazaguanine (3-DG). The findings revealed that 3-DG inhibited virus-induced cellular transformation. Degree of inhibition is dependent on concentration and frequency of media change. 3-DG at the concentrations tested will not reverse transformed cells to the untransformed state and does not have marked effect on replication of viruses. Upon removal of 3-DG, its effect was shown to be reversible. Cell growth was generally retarded in medium containing 3-DG. When xanthosine and inosine were added to the medium, cell growth was unaffected, but it increased in guanosine.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Fadare, Samuel O.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Dynamics of a Planktonic Microcrustacean Community in a Small North Central Texas Pond Ecosystem

Description: Seven species of planktonic microcrustacea were identified from the North Texas State University Golf Course Pond. Total adult microcrustacean community density, biomass and biocontent, and seasonal cycles of each species were compared with northern populations. Species diversity and evenness indices were highest in summer and lowest in spring. Variations in microcrustacean density showed a positive correlation with density of phytoplankton. Temperature had a direct effect on metabolic rates of two species of copepods. Metabolic rates of pond species were lower at common temperatures than those of northern populations. An estimate of annual energy flow through the pond ecosystem showed cladocerans contributed the greater percentage of total energy to the next trophic level.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Smith, George Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries

Diphenyloxazole Metabolism by Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase

Description: 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) was tested as a potential alternate inducer for the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) system. Its apparent lack. of carcinogenicity and toxicity provide a possible system for investigation of enzyme systems related to chemical carcinogenesis without exposure of the researcher to potent carcinogenic compounds. These studies found PPO to be an inducer of AHH in cultured human lymphocytes. When PPO was utilized as a substrate for the AHH assay system, the major metabolites produced were strongly fluorescent. A simple fluorometric assay was developed which employed PPO as the substrate and which measured constitutive activity more efficiently than similar assays using benzo(a)pyrene as the substrate. Quantitation of both basal and induced lymphocyte AHH metabolism of PPO may be applicable to human population studies and may provide a tool to determine possible genetic variables with respect to carcinogen metabolism related to cancer risk.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Abreu, Mary E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Light on Carotenoid Synthesis in Corynebacterium 7E1C

Description: The effects of light, light "mimicking" chemicals, and protein synthesis inhibitors on the photo-induced carotenogenesis of Corynebacterium 7EIC were studied. Changes in the dosage of fluorescent light applied to dark grown cells showed a dose related carotenogenic response. Maintaining the same dosage but varying the wavelength of monochromatic light revealed that light with a wavelength of 280 to 450nm was responsible for photo-induction. It further showed a peak of photo-induction between the wavelengths of 370 and 430nm. The light "mimicking" chemicals antimycin A and p-Chloromercurybenzoate were shown to have no light "mimicking" effects. The transcriptional inhibitor of protein synthesis actinomycin D partially inhibited, and chloramphenicol a translational inhibitor, completely inhibited photo-induced carotenogenesis.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Endicott, George R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Colchicine on Neuronal Excitabilty

Description: The abundance of microtubules in receptive dendrites suggests they may function in sensory transduction. Responses of frog muscle spindle receptors and joint receptors is inhibited within 25 minutes by 50 mM colchicine, a microtubuledisrupting agent. The inhibition is reversible upon removal of colchicine, and the time course of recovery is comparable to that of inhibition. Frog olfactory responses are briefly inhibited by washing the olfactory mucosa with perfusion fluid. Colchicine accentuates the inhibition and substantially retards the rate of recovery in a dose-dependent fashion. Colchicine does not affect axonal conduction, nor the oxygen uptake of isolated crab or frog leg nerves. The inhibitory action of colchicine is therefore an effect on the electrical excitability of the receptive dendrites or soma, and not an effect on axonal conduction.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Okafo, Ngozi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Opthalmic Use Of Sodium Cephalothin: An In Vivo Comparison

Description: A rabbit keratoconjunctivities model was used to evaluate ophthalmic formulations containing 1 percent sodium cephalothin in silicon oil, a 1 percent sodium cephalothin aqueous solution, and a 0.3 percent gentamicin sulfate solution. Rabit eyes were inoculated intracorneally with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, After topical treatment, none of the antibiotic formulations were effective in the P. aeruginosa model; all three showed good activity against S. aureus, and against S. pneumoniae, the caphalothin formulations were more effective than gentamicin.In a related stability study, the cephalothin potency of the silicon formulation was maintained for 16 weeks at 4, 25, and 450 C These studies suggest that sodium cephalothin can be formulated as an effective and stable ophthalmic dosage form.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Carney, Gerald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries