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Analyzing the Financial Condition of Higher Education Institutions Using Financial Ratio Analysis

Description: The problem concerned the financial indicators used to evaluate the financial condition of the six sister higher education institutions under the authority of the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges. The purposes were to determine the financial ratios that best indicate financial condition; to calculate those financial ratios for the six designated Oklahoma higher education institutions; and to evaluate and compare the financial condition of the six institutions. This study attempted to further the use of financial ratio analysis as an objective addition to subjective studies that examine an institution's definition of its mission, objectives, and goals and its own assessment of the degree to which its resources allow it to attain those goals. The data were obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; the financial reports were audited by independent certified public accountants and presented to the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges; and John Minter Associates, Inc., provided the national norms. The set of financial ratios identified provides a means to study a single higher education institution through trend analysis and in comparison to national norms. It also works well with a sample of homogeneous institutions with interinstitutional comparison. The techniques are intended to provide a general profile of an institution’s financial health. Cause-and-effect ratio analysis has been proposed as another technique to aid administrators in determining changes in their financial statements and what may have caused them. The study identified a set of financial ratios that summarize the financial condition of a higher education institution. The ratios helped to analyze the financial solvency and viability of the six Oklahoma higher education institutions and focused on the ability of the institutions to meet current and future financial requirements. The importance of financial statement analysis should not be underestimated. The understandable format of financial ratios allows virtually any ...
Date: May 1999
Creator: Buddy, Nancy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mentoring in Nursing Doctoral Education: Processes, Perceptions, Problems and Prospects

Description: This study described the mentoring relationship between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Twenty-two public university doctoral programs responded to a request for names and addresses of their doctoral candidates. The Major Professor Mentoring Scale was used to measure the mentoring relationship. The survey also included demographic and open-ended questions regarding the student-committee chair relationship. Surveys were mailed to 269 doctoral students with an 86% return rate. A principal components analysis was performed to identify the structure underpinning the relationship. The typical doctoral student in this sample was found to be a 44 year old Caucasian female, married with children, working full or part time while pursuing a PhD degree. Students traveled an average of 85 miles each way to campus and nearly half had selected their program based on its location. The typical committee chair was a Caucasian, tenured, associate or full professor between 46 and 69 years of age. The majority of chairs were married and had funded research projects. The students in the study reported knowing their chairs for an average of five years. The study revealed that mentoring is occurring in the majority of relationships between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Students identified many strengths and weaknesses in their relationships with their chairs although the relationship appears to be largely positive. The mentoring relationship is composed of four principal components, the largest of which is psychosocial support. Dissertation support, role modeling and scholarly collaboration comprise the other three components. The factor receiving the most positive rating was role modeling, suggesting that students see their chairs as intelligent and hard-working. Students also report positive feelings about both the psychosocial and dissertation support they have received from their chairs. Students reported more neutral feelings about scholarly collaboration suggesting that this is not a frequent occurrence ...
Date: May 1999
Creator: Kirkley, Debra Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Academic Lineage and Student Performance in Medical School

Description: This research investigated the association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. The purposes of the study were to: (1) determine whether the Carnegie classifications of medical school applicants' institutions of origin are associated with academic performance in medical school; (2) consider the relationship between the admission selectivity of the schools of origin and the academic performance of medical school students; (3) compare the performance of medical students from institutions under public governing control with students from privately controlled institutions; and (4) establish a model by which the relative academic strengths of applicants from a variety of undergraduate institutions can be understood more clearly based on the previous performance of medical students from schools with similar institutional characteristics. A review of the literature on medical school admissions was completed and used to develop this research. Medical students from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas who enrolled between the years 1990 and 1994 and graduated or were dismissed between the years 1994 and 1998 were selected as the sample for the study (n=933). The undergraduate institution of origin for each student was coded based on its Carnegie classification, admissions selectivity group, and whether its governing control was public or private. Because the sample was not randomly selected and the data likely would not meet the assumptions of equal means and variance with the population, nonparametric analyses of variance and multiple comparison tests were completed to compare the groups of the independent variables over each dependent variable. The analyses revealed that for the sample of medical students selected for this study there was an association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. Differences were found among Carnegie classifications on the dependent variables of cumulative medical school grade point average, class rank, failure rate, and score ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Wright, James Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Descriptive Study of Students Who Were Accepted for Admission at West Texas A&M University But Did Not Enroll

Description: Each year, institutions of higher education devote valuable financial and personnel resources in the hope of enhancing student recruitment and matriculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics, the factors that influenced students’ decisions to apply for admission to a university, their educational intentions, and their reasons for not enrolling after they had been admitted. The subjects of the study were first-time freshmen accepted for admission to a mid-size, public, southwestern university who did not enroll for the fall 1997 semester. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing no-shows and enrolled students by gender, ethnicity, age, ACT/SAT score, and distance of their hometown from the university. There were more female no-shows, and more males enrolled than females; a greater percentage of no-shows reported the distance of their hometown to be more than 200 miles; and the mean test score for no-shows was higher. Factors important in the college selection process found to be statistically significant among the groups were: a greater percentage of Minorities than Caucasians reported the importance of the financial aid award or a scholarship offer; students living within 100 miles of the campus reported the proximity of the university as important, advice received from current or former students and high school counselors was more important to those living more than 100 miles from the campus. Cost of attendance and scholarships were important to students with the higher test scores. Statistically significant reasons cited by the no-shows for not enrolling were more Minorities than Caucasians reported financial difficulties and job demands; students living farther from the campus reported attending other universities while those living within 100 miles reported attending a community college. Recommendations the university studied could pursue include: developing a program to follow-up on the no-shows, directing more energy at recruiting students living ...
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Date: December 1999
Creator: Barton, Mary Edna
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Qualitative Study of the Use and Value of Financial Performance Indicators in Selected Community Colleges in the State of Texas as Perceived by their Chief Executive Officers

Description: Throughout the United States, colleges and universities are faced with an increasing need for financial funding, while at the same time resources continue to diminish. With the limitations of available funds, community colleges must exhibit efficiencies in the operations of their institutions. External interests, such as governing boards and legislatures, require demonstration of efficient financial management. This evidence is then used to make decisions concerning future financial support for the community college. This study determined if community college chief executive officers use financial performance indicators as provided by the State Auditor's Office and if the chief executive officers of the community colleges value the compilation and the distribution of the financial performance indicators. In the selected colleges, many of the chief executive officers depend on their chief financial officer for understanding and application of financial performance indicators. The performance indicators distributed by the Auditor's Office captured only a snapshot of the college's performance, and failed to fully describe the whole college performance or specific financial events captured by the indicators. Though the indicators had flaws, either through incorrect data or lack of explanation, the CEOs did value their compilation because they provided a means for ‘getting the community college story' to decision makers external to the college.The State Auditor's performance indicators were developed using a university model. Because of the distinct difference in mission between the community college and the university, several of the indicators were not applicable to the community colleges. The CEOs suggested that another set of indicators be developed, using community college input, that would better capture the financial performance of the colleges. The new set of indicators should be simplified and measure only those areas, such as revenues and expenditures, that are truly comparable from one institution to another.
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Date: December 1999
Creator: Hase, Karla Luan Neeley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Benchmarks in American Higher Education: Selected Approaches for Distance Education Copyright and Intellectual Property Policies

Description: An evaluation of American higher education distance education programs was conducted to explore how they approach intellectual property, copyright and information sharing/antitrust policy concerns for Internet-based programs. An evaluation of the current status of distance education and Internet-based training in higher education was conducted through a pilot study that included a random sample of 223 accredited institutions. Seventy-seven institutions responded to a survey, of which there were 14 Research I&II, 17 Doctorate I&II, and 46 Master's I&II institutions included in this study. A review of institutional policy approaches for these 77 institutions was conducted via Internet Web site and bulletin review. A multiple-case study was also conducted which included 10 of the top 30 accredited distance education institutions in America. Policy approaches were examined for all institutions and differences were discussed for public and private institutions as well as the following Carnegie Class institutions- Research I&II, Doctorate I&II and Master's I&II. Ten percent of all institutions that responded to the pilot study developed a written policy addressing antitrust/information-sharing concerns. Additionally, the data indicated that 22% of institutions in these Carnegie Class ranges published copyright and intellectual property policy on their institutions' Internet Web site. Ninety percent of the institutions in the case study advised of central control for the distance education program, as well as central control for copyright and intellectual property policy.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Smith, Kenneth D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Use of the College Student Inventory to Predict At-Risk Student Success and Persistence at a Metropolitan University

Description: Using Tinto's longitudinal model of institutional departure as the theoretical basis for this research, the purpose was to determine what extent selected motivational factors measured by the College Student Inventory (CSI) predict academic success and persistence of at-risk students at the University of North Texas (UNT). The study focused on United States citizens and permanent residents entering UNT as at-risk first-time freshmen admitted via individual approval for the fall 1994 semester. The 409 subjects were enrolled in a developmental course titled Personal and Academic Effectiveness where the CSI was administered during the first 2 weeks of class. Selected predictor variables were tested in relation to the separate criterion variables of grade point average and enrolled status during the 2nd and 4th years of the study. Grade point averages and enrollment data for the 1995-96 and 1997-98 academic years were extracted from the student information management system. The research design employed appropriate multiple regressions, multiple correlations, multiple discriminant analyses, and bivariate correlations. Findings confirmed the ability of five CSI factors to predict grade point average (p < .05) of at-risk students over the time frames used in this study. Nine factors predicting enrolled status were also significant at the .05 level; however, results were not meaningful in the 2nd year as factors classified 95% of all subjects as persisters. By the end of the 4th year, the factors were able to predict correct classification of both persisters and nonpersisters approximately 24% better than chance. This research provides support for Tinto's institutional departure model, particularly associated with pre-entry attributes and goals/commitments over time. The CSI is a viable instrument for use with at-risk first-time freshmen at a metropolitan university; however, required enrollment in a developmental course likely confounded the ability of selected variables to meaningfully predict enrolled status during the 2nd year.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Harris, Joneel J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of the Leadership Role of Deans of Students in the Public Universities of Kenya

Description: This study concerns the leadership behavior of the deans of students in the four public universities of Kenya and their constituent colleges. Both the real and ideal versions of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire and the demographic questionnaire developed under the auspices of faculty advisors were used to collect data from 10 deans of students, 55 student affairs staff members, and 130 student leaders--who constituted the sample of 195 who responded from the chosen population. Data were analyzed using a series of one-way analyses of variance utilizing the f test of statistical difference. Fisher's least significant difference test, a multiple comparison procedure, was utilized to make all pairwise comparisons which were detected by the ANOVA to differ significantly from one-another among the respective mean ratings of the three groups surveyed. Twelve hypotheses were developed and tested, and the major findings included: There were significant differences among the perceptions of the deans of students, student affairs staff members, and student leaders regarding the real and ideal leadership behavior of the deans of students concerning initiating structure and consideration--the two leadership dimensions surveyed on the questionnaire.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Maronga, Geoffrey Bosire
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Interrelationships of Leisure Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction, and Life Satisfaction among Selected Therapeutic Recreation Faculty in Higher Education Institutions

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of leisure satisfaction, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction among selected faculty in higher education institutions whose specialty teaching subject area was therapeutic recreation. This study also investigated the relationship of specific demographic variables to leisure satisfaction, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. The variables included age, gender, education, income level, health, tenure, marital status, type of institution where employed, and participation in therapeutic recreation organizations. The population for this study consisted of 162 faculty whose specialty teaching subject area was therapeutic recreation. Subjects were selected from colleges and universities of the United States listed in the curriculum catalog published by the Recreation and Park Association, Society of Park and Recreation Education for the year 1993-1994.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Wickman, Terrance J. (Terrance Joseph)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Early Childhood Education Students' Perceptions of the Most Important Attributes of Effective College Teachers in Taiwan

Description: This study proposed (a) to identify the most important attributes of effective college teachers as perceived by students in Taiwan, (b) to investigate the influence of different factors on students' perceived attributes of effective college teachers, and (c) to determine if the students in various Taiwanese teachers colleges differ in their opinions of the most important attributes of effective college teachers. Students identified these factors as attributes of effective college teachers: rapport, effective teaching methods, enthusiasm, fairness, interaction, practical experiences, personality, clarity, and being well-prepared. The fact that sophomore students and freshman students value some factors differently was discovered in this study. In addition, students who have previous teaching experience value all of the important attributes higher than those who do not have teaching experience before they attended teachers colleges.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Yang, Su-Yu Huang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ethnoviolence on Campus

Description: The problem of this study concerns ethnoviolence on the campus of a predominantly white, state-supported university in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area. In order to study ethnoviolent behavior, the effects it has on the victims, and the perceptions that minority students have of the campus climate, all African-American, Hispanic, and international students enrolled at The University of Texas at Dallas were mailed a questionnaire.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Rachavong, Narris Darrelene
Partner: UNT Libraries

Strategic Planning in Higher Education : A Study of Application in Arkansas Senior Colleges and Universities

Description: This empirical study focused on the level of application of strategic planning by senior colleges and universities in Arkansas. The study was designed to examine, analyze, and describe the extent of strategic planning practices by Arkansas higher education institutions, as reflected in the opinions and perceptions of the institutions' chief executive officers and based on the profile of characteristics validated by twenty experts in the strategic planning literature.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Agwu, Patrick A. (Patrick Agbai)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characteristics of College Level ESL Administrators

Description: While many studies have been conducted on the methodology of teaching English, second language (ESL), few have focused on ESL administration, specifically college level ESL administration. This descriptive study analyzed and evaluated the personal and professional characteristics of college level ESL administrators.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Shipper-Cordaro, Paula (Paula C.)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationships Among Field Dependence/Independence, GRE Scores, and GPA of Master's Students in Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation

Description: The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the field dependence/independence preference (FD/FI) of selected master's students and their choice of academic discipline, 2) to determine the FD/FI of selected master's students and their areas of specialization within their discipline (kinesiology, health promotion, recreation), 3) to determine the relationship between FD/FI and GRE scores, and 4) to determine the relationship between FD/FI and cumulative GPA. The Witkin Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) was used to test for FD/FI.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Beck, Teresa M. (Teresa Marie)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Issues for the Nineties: An Analysis of 14 State Master Plans for Higher Education

Description: The purposes of this study are (1) to identify the major policy issues being addressed by state agencies responsible for coordinating and regulating higher education; (2) to develop a classification system through inductive "clustering" that will aid in the analysis and synthesis of the major policy issues facing state coordinating boards for higher education; (3) to classify these policy issues; (4) to compare the goals and strategies of the various states; (5) to propose a list of significant policy issues that institutions and state agencies of higher education may face through the 1990s and into the 21st century.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Thompson, John Paul, 1947-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of Cultural Values and Perception of the Anglo-Dominant Curriculum on the Achievement of Mexican-American and Anglo-American Junior and Senior High School Students

Description: This study is concerned with the problem of determining whether there is a relationship between achievement and specific ethnic and profile characteristics of Anglo-American and Mexican-American junior and senior high school students who are enrolled in a large metropolitan public school district. The purposes include (a) delineation of demographic data on these students in terms of specific group membership, gender, age, and educational concerns; (b) identification of the attitudes and values of these students; (c) evaluation of the relationships between the demographic data and the degree to which ethnic membership and interpersonal concerns impact participation in the classroom.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Rorex, P. Dale (Paul Dale)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Historical Development of the University of Texas of the Permian Basin, Odessa, Texas

Description: The University of Texas of the Permian Basin (UTPB) is a public university that serves over 4,500 undergraduate and graduate students as a branch of the University of Texas system located in Odessa, Ector County, Texas. The UTPB was established as an upper-division and graduate school on February 4, 1969, and first opened its doors to students in September, 1973. This historical study focuses on the development and progress of the UTPB from its inception until it was elevated from an upper-level institution to a four-year university twenty-two years later. The formation, mission, and curriculum are examined as well as are faculty and student characteristics and support. This study addresses the background history of higher education in the region, the role of community and college leaders in the UTPB's creation and struggle for four-year status, and the UTPB's unique features. The study was conducted by collecting data from available primary and secondary sources. The written data were then subjected to both external and internal criticism to determine the authorship and meaning of the documents. To explain events and put the written documents in context, oral histories, given by participants, were used. The educational opportunities offered by the UTPB have enriched the lives of Ector County citizens as well as the lives of many students from surrounding counties in the region of Texas known as the Permian Basin. Additional research topics related to the UTPB as well as other educational institutions are suggested.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Kern, Stephanie P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Assessment of the University of North Texas's Image among the University of North Texas Administration and Board of Regents, Metro-Plex Business Leaders, the Higher Education Coordinating Board, and the Texas House and Senate Sub-Committees

Description: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the image of the University of North Texas as perceived by the University Administration and Board of Regents, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Baord and selected Legislators, and the Boards of Directors of the Metroplex area Chambers of Commerce. The significance of the study was to contribute knowledge that could be used to construct a more direct and cost effective marketing plan.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Hill, S. Trent (Stanley Trenton)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Listening Skills Instruction on Students' Academic Performance

Description: Although it is widely assumed that listening is among the most important learning skills (Wolvin & Coakley, 1988), an examination of the literature indicates that it has been woefully neglected as subject matter in schools. Listening has also been neglected as an area of research. Surveys have been conducted to see if listening is being taught or can effectively be taught, but little evidence exists to suggest that effectively teaching listening improves students' academic performance. This study investigated the relationship between listening skills instruction and academic performance among university students. The purpose was to determine if teaching university students comprehensive listening skills improves their academic performance. It was assumed that listening can be effectively taught. The goal of the study was to compare 75 students who were enrolled in a listening course to a similar group of 75 students not enrolled in a listening course. The students were compared on the basis of grade point improvement the semester after the experimental group had completed the listening course. The t test was chosen because it can be used for testing the significance of the difference between the means of two independent samples. The grade point averages of the two groups were collected and the means and standard deviations of the two groups were determined. The t-value and the probability of rejection of the null hypothesis were also determined. The data showed little difference between the mean scores of the two groups or between the standard deviations of the two groups. The observed t-value did not support the hypothesis; therefore, there was insufficient evidence to reject the null, and the conclusion was that listening skills instruction has no impact on university students' academic performance.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Mangrum, C. W. (Clifton William)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationships Among Writing Quality, Attitudes Toward Writing, and Attitudes Toward Computers in a Computer-Mediated Technical Writing Class for English as a Foreign Language Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of word processor use by foreign college writers and their attitudes toward writing, writing revision practices, writing quality, attitudes toward the use of computers, and time spent on computers. The results indicate that students' attitudes toward writing and their perceptions of computer usefulness significantly affected their writing quality. Students with more positive attitudes toward writing and the usefulness of computers tended to produce better quality writing. In addition, the findings indicate that students' writing revision practices significantly affected their attitudes toward writing. Students who revised their writing more frequently tended to have better attitudes toward writing than those who did not. In contrast, students' levels of computer anxiety, computer confidence, computer liking and their writing revision practices did not significantly affect the quality of their writing. Furthermore, the amount of time that students spent on computers did not significantly affect their attitudes toward using computers in writing.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Thaipakdee, Supaporn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Membership in the Council of Adult and Experiential Learning on the Quality of Prior Learning Assessment Services in Senior Level Institutions Accredited by the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges

Description: Over the past 20 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of adults enrolling in institutions of higher education across America. Adult students presently constitute nearly one-half of all undergraduate enrollment. This influx of adults has generated interest in nontraditional programs, including external degree programs, degree completion programs, and prior learning assessment programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if an association existed between membership in the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) and quality in prior learning assessment services as provided by senior level institutions in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools accrediting region. CAEL has been a pioneer in developing adult degree programs and commissioned Urban Whitaker in 1989 to define the standards for quality in such programs. A survey instrument utilizing these standards, principles, and procedures as the criteria for quality prior learning assessment services was mailed to a random sample of CAEL member and non-member institutions in the Southern Association accrediting region. Member and non-member responses were compared utilizing the Chi-square statistical analysis to determine any differences.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Walker, Lila Bowden
Partner: UNT Libraries