Search Results

Comparative Resistomics of Ancient and Modern Human Microbiomes

Description: Increased exposure to antibiotics has led to the dissemination of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial metabolites throughout human microbiomes globally via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This has resulted in the emergence of new resistant strains leading to a rising epidemic of deaths from previously treatable infections. Evidence suggests that before the age of anthropogenic antibiotic use, microbes living within a community produced antibiotic metabolites and, subsequently, maintained such genes for several useful functions and a balance of diversity in nature. The question of the origin of these resistant genes is difficult to answer, but with continued advancements in ancient genomic analysis, researchers have developed methods of acquiring a more accurate representation of the microbiome associated with our human ancestors by extracting fossilized microbial specimens from dental calculus and directly sequencing the metagenomes. This thesis outlines the production of taxonomic and functional profiles of 20 different human and non-human oral microbiome samples using metagenomics tools originally developed for living individuals, altered for use with ancient microbial specimens. Putative antimicrobial resistant (AMR) genes derived from these profiles were reconstructed and conserved functional regions were identified. From the data that is available regarding the human microbiome from a range of time points throughout history dating back to Neanderthal specimens, it is possible to elucidate relationships between these AMR genes and to better understand the evolutionary trajectory of antibiotic resistance.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Johnson, Sarah
Partner: UNT Libraries

Early Music Audiences: A Survey and Analysis of Early Music Consumers in Texas

Description: Texas has a rich tradition of Early Music ensembles that dates back to 1969. However, there is little reliable information based on statistical data collection and analysis concerning Texas Early Music consumers. Little is known about why they attend Early Music performances or other important factors that affect the Early Music industry. Through the use of an extensive survey and accompanying statistical analysis, this study answers many questions regarding Early Music consumers in the State of Texas. This study collected demographic and psychographic data in January 2020 about the Early Music concert-going public in three major Texas cities - Dallas, Austin, and Houston. Other factors were identified in two primary areas: audience characteristics and ticket pricing practices.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Emanski, Julianna
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Sport Type to Disordered Eating Correlates among Collegiate Male Athletes

Description: Petrie and Greenleaf's sociocultural model proposes that athletes experience unique sport environment pressures regarding weight, body size/shape, eating and appearance that increases their risk of developing disordered eating (DE) attitudes and behaviors. Although research in cross-correlational studies has looked at prevalence of eating disorders (ED) and DE behaviors in different sport types, such pressures are likely to vary by sport depending on its unique environment and performance demands. For instance, female athletes in leanness sports experience more body dissatisfaction and societal appearance pressures compared to those in nonleanness sports. Because these effects have been established primarily with female athletes, I examined ED/DE correlates from Petrie and Greenleaf's model with 695 collegiate male athletes who represented five sport types (endurance, ball game, power, technical, weight-dependent) based on a well-established categorization system. Through a series of one-way MANCOVAs (BMI serving as the covariate), I found that sport types were significantly different from each other on all ED/DE correlates except for negative affect. Follow-up analysis revealed that power, endurance, and weight-dependent athletes showed the greatest number of significantly different group centroids, demonstrating distinct profiles among the sport types in their experiences of the ED/DE correlates. Discussion focuses on possible explanations for the research findings, future directions, and clinical implications.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Cusack, Kaleb W
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mothers' Parenting Stress in Chinese Immigrant Families: The Role of Fathers' Involvement and Social Support

Description: This study investigated the association between Chinese immigrant mothers' reports of parenting stress and two sources of parenting support: fathers' support and social support. Five independent-samples t-tests were first computed to examine whether there were discrepancies between Chinese immigrant mothers' and fathers' perceptions of fathers' involvement across five domains of fathers' involvement in early child care: (1) fathers' warmth and attunement; (2) control and process responsibility; (3) emotional involvement; (4) indirect care; and (5) positive engagement. Then regression analyses were conducted to understand how and to what extent the five domains of father involvement reported by mothers and mothers' perceived social support influenced Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting stress. In addition, an indirect effects of mothers' self-efficacy on the relation between fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress was also tested. The results showed that Chinese mothers reported significantly greater level of fathers' emotional involvement than the same type of involvement reported by Chinese immigrant fathers. This study also found that fathers' emotional involvement reported by Chinese immigrant mothers was a significant predictor of Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting stress. However, mothers' perceived social support was a stronger predictor, accounting for more variance in their parenting stress than their reports of fathers' involvement across all the five dimensions. Mothers' self-efficacy did not account for the association between Chinese immigrant mothers' reports of fathers' involvement across five dimensions and mothers' parenting stress.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Zhang, Xun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cultivating Liberation: The Effects of Collective Shaping on Context and Power Dynamics within Social Justice Narratives

Description: Social issues are becoming increasingly apparent. More people are experiencing the impact of social issues directly and through their media consumption. It is important to understand and reflect on our collective impact on the media and how the media affects the collective. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a collaborative workshop (collective shaping) and a verbal community that examined media depictions of social justice and injustice related to context and power dynamics. The effects of the workshop were evaluated using an A-B design with multiple probe measures across three participants. During the pre-, probe, and post-training assessments, participants watched videos and responded to a written prompt. Results of the study suggest that written responses were not adequately trained during the workshop. However, anecdotally, participant's verbal responding shifted drastically during the training workshop. The results are discussed within the context of the training apparatus, effects the workshop had on the participants and researchers, and progression forward.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Morris, Gabrielle N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of the Representation of Queen Elizabeth I of England in the Operas by Rossini, Donizetti, and Thomas in the Context of Nineteenth-Century Vocal Style and Historical Influence

Description: The purpose of this research is to analyze representations of Queen Elizabeth I of England in nineteenth-century Franco-Italian opera, and the relationship of these representations to contemporaneous singing style and the historical background. The basis for this analysis is three arias: "Quant'é grato all'alma mia" from Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra (1815) by Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), "Sì, vuol di Francia il rege...Ah! quando all'ara scorgemi...Ah! dal ciel discenda un raggio" from Maria Stuarda (1835) by Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848), and "Malgré l'éclat qui m'environne" from Le songe d'une nuit d'été (1850) by Ambroise Thomas (1811-1896). This research is divided into two main sections: the historical background of Italy and France in the nineteenth century, especially in the contemporaneous vocal style and fashions of literature; and a discussion of the composers' musical and dramatic choices for Queen Elizabeth I in the three selected arias. Chapter 2 is a brief introduction to the early nineteenth-century Franco-Italian historical background, vocal style, and popular literature. Chapter 3 presents an analysis of the three arias. The last chapter summarizes the representations of Elizabeth I in nineteenth-century politics, literature, and vocal style.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Hsiao, Han
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fanfare and Pastoral Topics in Mozart's Così fan tutte

Description: This dissertation explores the use of topics for dramatic purposes in Mozart's Così fan tutte. The five analytical chapters are organized around a central question: how do pastoral and fanfare topics shape the plot of Così fan tutte? Chapter 2 highlights the role topics and tropes play in emplacing and nuancing emergent meaning in the Così fan tutte motto. Chapter 3 examines transformative topical tropes in "Ah guarda, sorella." Chapter 4 shows how the horn fifths and fanfare topics in "Per pietà, ben mio" frame Fiordiligi's choice: the Albanian or Guglielmo. Chapter 5 illustrates the relationship between fanfare topics and galant recitative schemas to articulate formal boundaries between accompanied recitatives and arias. The expectations of closure emplaced by the examples from Così fan tutte nuance a reading of "Hai già vinta la causa!" from Le nozze di Figaro. Chapter 6 discusses the role of recitative intrusions and their articulation of the Count's unrest in "Vedrò mentre io sospiro." Detailed analyses and close readings of the topics and tropes in this dissertation drawn from throughout Così fan tutte showcase Mozart's rich deployment of topics in varied musical and dramatic roles.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Vagts, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Police Training on Occupational Identity

Description: The disproportionate number of police-involved shootings reflect the underlying conditions of traditionally conservative, racist policing. Recent updates and communication refinements to police training methodologies could improve training processes, which in turn, may improve societal perceptions of police in the United States. Law enforcement officers in the United States have become the focus of public policy outcry and generalized distrust, further complicating the dangers of contemporary policing. Concealed weapons and the close proximity of civilians policing the police with cellphone cameras complicate issues of officer safety. State and national incidents have resulted in police processes and behaviors being broadcast and violently challenged. In response to these challenges, Texas police academies and law enforcement training agencies are changing the way police learn to police. During the preparation of this study, the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement adopted a legislatively mandated update to the Basic Peace Officer Certification training. After a three-year revision process, in late 2019, the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement replaced the former 643-hour Basic Peace Officer Course with the newest Basic Peace Officer Course #1000696. Through its goals, definitions, and instructional guides, the Course #1000696 could potentially stimulate occupational identity, unify community policing culture, and foster community perception repair.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Fajardo, Ruth Noemi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Creating a Campus Culture of Academic Integrity in the Community College: Exploring the Relationship between Faculty Perception of Institutional Communication and the Perception of a Culture of Academic Integrity

Description: The purpose of this research was to determine what preferences exist for full- and part-time community college faculty for institutional communication and if institutional communication predicts faculty perception of an academic integrity culture. The sample is nationally representative, consisting of institutional representation from five of the six accreditation regions nationally, a relativity equal distribution of three Carnegie Classifications (higher career & technical, high transfer, and mixed transfer/career & technical) and three Census Bureau defined population areas (urbanized area, urban cluster, and rural area). The survey, completed by 328 faculty from eight community colleges, was a modified version of three widely used instruments: the International Center for Academic Integrity Academic Integrity Faculty Survey, the International Communication Association Audit, and the Organizational Communication Development Audit Questionnaire. Chi-square, independent samples t-test, and hierarchical regression analysis were each used to explore the relationship between the perception of communication, channels of communication, and perceived culture of academic integrity. The results suggest that face-to-face and electronic communication channels are both preferred channels of communication among full- and part-time faculty and that the communication through these two channels is predictive and interactional. In collaboration with a positive perception of communication, both worked to predict a perceived culture of academic integrity.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Haduch, Brett Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

In-situ Analysis of the Evolution of Surfaces and Interfaces under Applied Coupled Stresses

Description: To study the effect of the substrate support on the nanoscale contact, three different regimes, i.e., graphene on rigid (ultra-crystalline diamond) and on elastic (Polydimethylsiloxane) supports and free-standing graphene, were considered. The contribution of the graphene support to the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the graphene/metal contact was studied using the conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique.The results revealed that the electrical conductivity of the graphene/metal contact highly depends on the nature of the graphene support. The conductivity increased when transitioning from suspended to elastic and then to rigid substrates, which is attributed to the changes in the contact area being higher for the suspended graphene and lower for the rigid substrate. The experimental observations showed good agreement with theoretical results obtained from modeling of the studied material systems. Further, the results indicated that in addition to the substrate support, the nature of the contact, static or dynamic, results in large variations of the electrical conductivity of the graphene/metal contacts. In case of the static mode, the contact made with supported graphene was very stable for a wide range of applied normal loads. Transitioning to the dynamic mode led to instability of the graphene/metal contact as demonstrated by lowering in the electrical conductivity values. This transition was even more pronounced for free-standing graphene which is attributed to graphene sagging during rapid scanning of the tip over the graphene surface. This study creates a new knowledge on understanding of the nanoscale contacts forming with 2D materials thus enabling further advances in the applications of 2D materials in highly stable and reliable electronic devices.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Lee, Ji Hyung
Partner: UNT Libraries

Refugee Employment in Dallas, TX: Experiences and Barriers

Description: Changing national policies in recent years represent an unprecedented attack on refugee resettlement in the United States. In this period of political and social uncertainty, understanding the barriers to refugee economic integration is more critical than ever. Following a review of existing literature on refugee resettlement and economic integration, this research assesses experiences of refugee employment in Dallas, Texas—one of the cities that resettles the most new refugees nationwide—through investigating the experiences of four key populations: resettled individuals themselves (including refugees, asylees, and SIVs), resettlement caseworkers, third-party staffing agencies, and the management/HR staff of refugee employers. These diverse perspectives will assist in understanding the structural constraints that shape refugee employment services, as well as the interaction of these various individuals and organizations as parts of a dynamic system. The project also aims to explore employers' experiences of hiring refugees and working with resettlement programs, as the perspectives of entrepreneurs and the business community are those most likely to influence the attitudes of legislators and encourage renewed support of resettlement in Texas. The conclusion of this study offers recommendations for how resettlement organizations can navigate the ambiguities of a resettlement system driven by neoliberal economics and a push for rapid employment while supporting clients' successful economic integration and avoiding the exploitative work relationships that have come to characterize refugee employment in many areas.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Orzech, Mark N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kriging Methods to Exploit Spatial Correlations of EEG Signals for Fast and Accurate Seizure Detection in the IoMT

Description: Epileptic seizure presents a formidable threat to the life of its sufferers, leaving them unconscious within seconds of its onset. Having a mortality rate that is at least twice that of the general population, it is a true cause for concern which has gained ample attention from various research communities. About 800 million people in the world will have at least one seizure experience in their lifespan. Injuries sustained during a seizure crisis are one of the leading causes of death in epilepsy. These can be prevented by an early detection of seizure accompanied by a timely intervention mechanism. The research presented in this dissertation explores Kriging methods to exploit spatial correlations of electroencephalogram (EEG) Signals from the brain, for fast and accurate seizure detection in the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) using edge computing paradigms, by modeling the brain as a three-dimensional spatial object, similar to a geographical panorama. This dissertation proposes basic, hierarchical and distributed Kriging models, with a deep neural network (DNN) wrapper in some instances. Experimental results from the models are highly promising for real-time seizure detection, with excellent performance in seizure detection latency and training time, as well as accuracy, sensitivity and specificity which compare well with other notable seizure detection research projects.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Olokodana, Ibrahim Latunde
Partner: UNT Libraries

Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitude Responses to Casts of Video Game Characters

Description: Prior research has established a relationship between playing video games containing stereotyped representations of traditionally marginalized groups and resulting negative attitudes towards those groups. Yet, very little work has examined video games containing more positive, non-stereotyped representations and whether these diverse casts have inverse effects resulting in positive attitudes following exposure, an effect demonstrated in television media. The current study makes use of two paradigms, one based on short-term priming theory concerning immediate exposure to media, and one on long-term cultivation theory dealing with the overall media diet, and the relation to attitudes towards Blacks including symbolic racism, colorblindness, and implicit bias. In Study 1 (n = 31), Black and White participants reported how much time weekly they spent playing a popular game with positive representations of People of Color before completing measures. In Study 2 (n = 91), Black and White participants were exposed to one of three games, one with positive representation, one with negative representation, and a control game before completing study measures. Findings suggested that participant race was related to pro-Black attitudes (p = .009), but that direct exposure to a game with positive representation (p = .13) as well as playing the game during the week (p = .25) was not, while controlling for participant interracial contract. Despite this, discussions are made in face of interesting patterns of results that could be expanded upon in future work to explain the present findings. Furthermore, practical applications of the present study are made for both non-academic creators and consumers of video games.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Archibald, Audon G
Partner: UNT Libraries

"Worlds Beyond": A Stylistic Analysis of Collage in the Music of Daniel Schnyder as a Universal Model for the Bass Trombone Repertoire

Description: The modern trombone player can experience a variety of styles on any given day. There is a need for the ability to switch between a plethora of styles ranging from avant-garde pieces to many forms of popular music to masterworks of the symphonic repertoire. It is the responsibility of the musician (performer or educator) to be familiar with all music due to global access via the internet. There is a responsibility to properly perform and respect music as more composers are beginning to blend different styles, genres, idioms, and cultures within the same composition. Daniel Schnyder is a prominent continuation of this style of musical collage that began with composers such as George Rochberg, Luciano Berio, Bernd Alois Zimmermann, and Charles Ives. The goal of this project is to analyze the stylistic saturation of Daniel Schnyder's Worlds Beyond Suite, focusing on performance and stylistic analysis to aid in an informed performance. This project will highlight the flexibility required by modern trombonists to perform with a deeper understanding of music in multiple styles, as the blending, juxtaposing, and superimposition of style is the universal future of music.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Norton, Colby Jackson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pedagogical Applications in the Clarinet Quartets of Yvonne Desportes

Description: Yvonne Desportes (1907-1993) was an influential female composer, teacher, and music theorist. Her early success as a recipient of the Prix de Rome for composition (1932) marked the beginning of her distinguished career in music culminating in a 35-year professorship at the Paris Conservatory. Despite the relative obscurity of her music, Desportes was a prolific composer and published numerous works for clarinet quartet. This dissertation seeks to promote the clarinet music of Yvonne Desportes through a pedagogical examination of her clarinet quartets. The equitable parts and quality of Desportes' compositional style allow her clarinet quartets to be effective teaching tools for the development of fundamental clarinet skills relating to tone, technique, and musical style.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Rice, Kathryn Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Embarrassment Paradox: Encouraging Compensatory Consumption in Contexts of Immoral Inaction

Description: This research introduces the unique context of immoral inaction—situations in which consumers have the opportunity to engage in virtuous behaviors but opt against doing so. Through five studies I demonstrate that in such contexts, embarrassment—a negatively valenced self-conscious moral emotion evoked by the perception that one's behavior is worthy of judgment by others—interacts with the use of approach-motivated coping strategies to lead consumers to engage in prosocial compensatory behaviors. Though extant literature suggests that marketers seeking to evoke prosocial behaviors should employ communications and promotions framed to elicit consumers' guilt, such studies are based in contexts whereby individuals feel guilty and/or embarrassed because of something they have done, not for something they did not do. This research suggests that that the condition of immoral inaction serves to evoke a contrasting psychological mechanism that reverses these findings, making embarrassment a more effective driver of desired outcomes when marketers seek to promote overcoming past inactions. These findings are discussed in light of their implications for research and application.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Bennett, Andrea Rochelle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adaptive Slot Location in the Design of Slotted Microstrip Multi-Frequency Antenna for Radionavigation and Radiolocation Applications

Description: In light of incidents and concerns regarding the vulnerability of the global positioning system (GPS), the main purpose of the thesis is to look at alternative systems for radio guidance and to put up a serious study on such alternatives with receive and transmit antenna. There is also the need to design such antennas with multiple frequencies to offer robustness in the unlikely event that such adversarial attacks on the GPS happen. The basis on which such alternative antennas are designed is a slotted microstrip. The characteristics of the slot or slots on the microstrip are analyzed by mapping their exact locations on the patch and then noting the resultant center frequencies, the return losses, and the bandwidth. The activities associated with this also focus on the design, fabrication, validation, and characterization of one or more slotted antennas prototypes. The measurement of the antenna prototypes does confirm several frequencies that coexist to see applications, in aeronautical radionavigation, fixed-mobile radionavigation, and radiolocation. The antennas could also feature in a wide-area augmentation system (WAAS), satellite ground link system (SGLS) as well as in surveillance and precision approach radars. Some variations of the antenna are deployed in the areas of law enforcement, surveillance, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Applications of the antenna in an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) are feasible due to its multiple resonant frequencies. Radiolocation and radionavigation antennas have also been known to be mounted in UAVs or on tethered balloons along the borders of the United States to detect low-flying aircraft in support of drug interdiction programs.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Agbor, Ikechukwu Wilson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of Standards Based Grading on Algebra I Students

Description: In seeking to maximize student learning, educators must implement grading practices that assess well-defined course standards and clearly articulate student proficiency. Standards-based grading (SBG) practices enhance student learning by linking well-defined course standards and effective feedback. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing sought to determine if the use of standards-based grading in Algebra I resulted in higher achievement on standardized tests, specifically the Algebra I the State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR) End of Course (EOC) assessment. Specifically, addressing the following research questions: Are there differences on Algebra I scores on the STAAR EOC scores between students in a traditional grading system, hybrid grading system, and a standards-based grading system? Are the effects of grading system methods moderated by participant characteristics, i.e., gender, race/ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, and Asian), English language learner, special education services, or economically disadvantaged? One high school campus in a large school district in North Texas was involved in the current study. The study examines three years of data as the campus transitioned from a traditional grading system to one that employs the tenants of an SBG system while continuing to formally report percentage grades for assessments. In this study, the researcher found evidence to suggest a statistically significant impact from standards-based grading methods on student achievement as measured by the Algebra I STAAR EOC assessment for the entire population with mixed results when examined by participant characteristics.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Edmondson, Corrie Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Resettled: How Refugees Experience Employment and Unemployment in the U.S.

Description: Research on immigration in the United States has commonly studied the employment experiences of refugees. Few studies on refugees have focused on both, refugees' employment and unemployment experiences in the United States. This article draws on twenty in-depth interviews with refugees, along with ethnographic observation at a local refugee resettlement agency, to investigate how refugees make sense of their employment and unemployment experiences in the United States. I find that refugee men and women experience different employment trajectories in the United States, which are shaped by gender inequality in the public and domestic spheres. I further find that refugees' navigation with work in the United Stated influences their unemployment experiences and work in the informal sector. My study extends previous literature on refugee incorporation by conceptualizing refugees' employment as a gendered process, which includes periods of formal paid work, informal paid work, and unemployment in the United States.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Mumtaz, Mehr
Partner: UNT Libraries

Transforming Art Education in Saudi Arabia: Inclusion of Social Issues in Art Education

Description: The purpose of this study was to describe in-service Saudi Arabian art education teachers' (a) philosophies of education before and after an issues-based art education (IBAE) workshop, (b) perceptions of the IBAE workshop and its products, (c) perception of the importance of IBAE approach, reasons, topics, and challenges after the workshop, and (d) perception of IBAE within the Saudi Arabian context. A mixed-methods approach was followed. The qualitative portion of the study utilized a post-workshop questionnaire and reflective essay completed by 37 participants, and personal teaching journal protocol and focus group discussion from 18 participants who attended the workshop and implemented the IBAE lesson in their classrooms. Analysis of the data confirmed that art teachers' perspectives towards IBAE positively increased after attending the IBAE workshop. Specifically, in the quantitative findings, participants indicated a positive attitude toward the teaching philosophy of social reconstruction after the IBAE workshop. These results demonstrate that the tenets of social reconstruction align with the IBAE approach. In addition, the quantitative data suggests that teacher participants' overall perception of the importance of addressing social issues in the art curriculum was positive, with 91.9% of respondents agreeing. Overall the qualitative findings, indicated a positive attitude toward the IBAE workshop. Further, the analysis confirmed that these teachers had positive perspectives toward incorporating social issues in their art education again in their classroom of the IBAE approach especially within the Saudi Arabian context.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Albakri, Ghadah Shukri H. Shukri
Partner: UNT Libraries

"We Do Not Wait for the Government": An Evaluation of a Disaster Rebuilding Program in Kathmandu Valley

Description: Five years ago, a massive earthquake and its subsequent aftershocks rocked the core of Nepal. Recovery from these quakes has been a long and difficult process. This thesis will explore findings from a qualitative evaluation of Lumanti Support Group for Shelter, an NGO in Kathmandu, Nepal that implemented a residential reconstruction program in four peri-urban communities in Kathmandu Valley. These findings are a culmination of 26 semi-structured interviews and document analysis. This research highlights the processes of reconstruction and the forms of resistance that occurred through disaster governance.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Cronin, Shannon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Achievement Motivation Theory as a Model for Explaining College Athletes' Grit

Description: This study examined the direct and indirect associations of the perceived coach-created motivational climate, athletes' implicit theory, and athletes' achievement goal orientation in relation to their levels of grit. Five hundred twenty-three Division I and II collegiate student-athletes (male = 246, female = 277) from five institutions across the south-central and southeast areas of the United States completed self-report measures assessing the previously described constructs. The measurement model fit the data well (SRMR = .055; CFI = .938; RMSEA = .067) and demonstrated invariance across the male and female athletes. The structural model demonstrated adequate fit (SRMR = .088; CFI = .918; RMSEA = .068). All direct and indirect paths in the model were significant in the expected direction, with the exception of the direct path from entity theory to ego goal orientation and the indirect path from ego-involving climate to ego goal orientation through entity theory, which were both non-significant. The mastery-incremental constructs accounted for 65% of the variance in grit. Results indicate that achievement motivation theory is an appropriate framework through which to examine grit, and achievement motivation constructs may be significant antecedents of grit's development. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Albert, Erin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Spiritually-Oriented Expressive Writing and Positive Psychological Outcomes Following a Natural Disaster

Description: Many religious/spiritual (R/S) individuals receive meaning from R/S and utilize R/S to help them cope with stressful life events. However, natural disasters can disrupt the R/S meaning-making process (e.g., positive R/S coping strategies) because natural disasters can elicit cognitive dissonance between one's core R/S beliefs and personal disaster experience. R/S individuals suffering from a disaster experience could benefit from interventions that allow them to process their R/S experiences. The purpose of this dissertation is to fill a gap in the literature by exploring the effectiveness of a spiritually-oriented expressive writing intervention on positive psychological outcomes (e.g., meaning in life, satisfaction with life) in 132 R/S individuals that have experienced a natural disaster (i.e., survivors of the 2016 Baton Rouge, Louisiana flood). Quantitative results indicated the spiritually-oriented intervention was effective in promoting increased meaning in life but not life satisfaction. Survivors with lower pre-intervention positive attitudes toward God evidenced the strongest positive impact on their meaning in life. Qualitative analyses, using the constant comparative method from Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory approach, revealed six themes in the experimental group's written responses: (a) R/S growth, (b) R/S struggle, (c) R/S cognitive dissonance, (d) R/S reappraisals, (e) R/S proximity-seeking, and (f) spiritual support and cohesion. I conclude by discussing limitation, areas for future research, and implications for counseling.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Mosher, David K
Partner: UNT Libraries

Improving Athletes' Confidence and Mindset Post-ACL Reconstructive Surgery

Description: Tears to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) represent a serious sport injury that can be physically and psychologically debilitating for athletes. Recovery from ACL surgery is a six to nine month process, though the first four months of rehabilitation represents the key time of recovery. Thus, psychological interventions should occur during these first four months, but then examine athletes' psychological and physical functioning over the longer term. Past research has supported the efficacy of goal setting and imagery in helping athletes during their ACL recovery, and MSC has been shown to help athletes regulate emotions and improve their sport performance. MSC-based interventions, however, have not been examined in relation to injured athletes' psychological functioning and physical recovery. Thus, I examined the relative effects of three psychological interventions (i.e., GS, IM, and MSC) on athletes' post-ACL responses. Overall, I found no significant differences in the effects of GS, IM, or MSC on athletes' athletic identity, confidence in returning to sport, reinjury anxiety, stress related to sport injury, perceptions of ability to cope with injury, and subjective knee functioning. Although non-significant, athletes in the GS group showed slightly larger rates of change in their reinjury anxiety and cognitive appraisal compared to athletes in the IM and MSC groups, while athletes in the IM group showed slightly greater rates of change in subjective knee functioning compared to athletes in the GS and MSC groups. However, these results did not support the original hypotheses that athletes in the MSC group would demonstrate significantly greater outcomes compared to the GS and IM groups.
Date: August 2020
Creator: Tomalski, Jenna
Partner: UNT Libraries