UNT Theses and Dissertations - 13 Matching Results

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An Application of Geometric Principles to the Place-Versus-Response Issue

Description: By applying geometric analysis to some experimental maze situations the present study attempted to determine if a continuity in the responding of experimental Ss existed. This continuity in responding might suggest the presence of alternative explanations for the behavior of these Ss in some maze problems. The study made use of a modified version of the Tolman, Ritchie, and Kalish (1946a) experiment using six runways during training rather than one. The results of the study show that three of the six groups obtained the identical angle of choice, angle between the runway trained on and the runway chosen during the experimental trial, indicating the possibility of an underlying behavioral factor determining this continuity in responding.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Williams, John Burgess
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Group Systematic Desensitization, Group Covert Positive Reinforcement, and Test-Retest in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

Description: The investigation was concerned with determining the effectiveness of group systematic desensitization and group covert positive reinforcement, with a control group. The two treatment conditions were to be compared if both were effective in reducing test anxiety as measured by the College Form of the Test Anxiety Questionnaire. Three groups were employed, two treatment and one control group, with four subjects in each. An analysis of covariance yielded insignificant results at the .05 level. A review of the literature was presented, procedural aspects of the treatments were covered, and possible reasons for the insignificant results were discussed.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Smith, William Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Incentive and Frustrative Cues on the Acquisition of an Alleyway Running Response in Rats

Description: The motivational properties of Longstreth's (1970) definitions of incentive and frustrative cues were tested using 32 rats in a two phase straight alleyway experiment. During pretraining, incentive cue Ss were presented a visual cue prior to reinforcement; frustrative cue Ss experienced the visual cue simultaneously with reinforcement. Ss encountered the same cue in mid-alley during 40 CRF training trials. Significant inhibition developed as frustrative cue Ss passed through the cue and postcue segments. Significant incentive effects occurred midway through training only in the postcue segment. Differential resistance to extinction was not found. The results did not support all of Longstreth's assumed functions. The motivational effects were interpreted using Spence's and Amsel's instrumental learning paradigms.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Morey, John Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sex Dimension of the Dogmatism Scale: A Factor Analysis

Description: The problem of this study was to factor-analyze Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and examine the factor structures of the scale for differences in the solutions obtained for the male and female groups. It was hypothesized that the Dogmatism Scale consists of several discriminable dimensions of the construct dogmatism and that these dimensions differ significantly for males and females. The dogmatism scale was administered to 186 male and 115 female college students. The male and female solutions yielded thirteen and sixteen orthogonal factors, respectively. Six male factors and eleven female factors were unique to their respective sex groups, indicating that the Dogmatism Scale is multidimensional and that significant sex differences are found when these dimensions are examined.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Gordon, William Knox
Partner: UNT Libraries

Identification of Ego States and Early Parent-Child Relationships

Description: The purpose was to verify ego states as objectively identifiable phenomena and the influence of early parent-child relationships on their identification using an audio tape of recorded examples of ego states, Thompson's Ego State Tape (EST), and the Roe-Siegleman Parent-Child Relations Questionaire (PCR). No relationship was found between SAT scores and scores on the EST, nor between PCR and EST scores. It was concluded that possibly (1) no relationship existed between how children perceive their parents and the identification of ego states, and (2) that the PCR might not be sampling child rearing practices relevant to the identification of ego states.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Munday, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Application of Group Contingent Reinforcement to Retarded Adults

Description: Two groups of eleven retarded adults each were used as subjects. An individually consequated token economy was in effect during baseline-1 for both groups. The treatment phase of the experiment consisted of group consequation, the first group receiving a high rate of reinforcement and the second group receiving a low rate. The individual token system was reinstated for both groups during baseline-2 measures. Attending behavior and work output were measured during each phase of the experiment. Significant differences were found between group versus individually contingent reinforcement treatments on attending behaviors, and between high and low contingency groups on performance behaviors. Differences between the high contingency and low contingency groups were found to be non-significant in regard to attending behaviors.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Newman, Jan
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Moral Judgements of Males and Females as a Function of Merging Sex Roles

Description: Factors which influence severity of moral judgement in men and women were investigated in this study with 94 male and 89 female undergraduate students as participants. Effects of "sex of judge," "sex of transgressor," and "value orientation" variables were examined across five diverse story conditions. A measure of identification was also obtained. As hypothesized, a significant main effect was found for "value orientation," but not for "sex of judge" or "sex of transgressor" variables. The hypothesized disappearance of a "sex of judge" by "sex of transgressor" interaction was found. Hypotheses concerning a permissive trend and the effects of degree of identification were not confirmed.
Date: August 1976
Creator: McGraw, Phillip C., 1950-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Theories Contrasted: Rudy's Variability in the Associative Process (V.A.P.) and Martin's Encoding Variability

Description: A paired-associate list of three-word stimuli and one-word responses comprised the first list of an A-B, A-Br paradigm. Each of the three words from the first-list three-word stimuli was singly re-paired with first-list responses to make up three of the second-list conditions. The fourth second-list condition used the first-list stimuli plus re-paired first-list responses. Results obtained were that: (a) nine of the sixteen subjects spontaneously shifted encoding cues from first to second lists, (b) evidence of significantly greater negative transfer occurred only in the A-B, A1 2 3-Br condition, and (c) although not attaining significance level, across all A -Br conditions there were more errors on second-list learning for those not shifting encoding cues from first to second list. For those who did shift, performance was only slightly lower than the A-B, C-B control condition. Neither the encoding variability nor the associative variability theory was entirely supported. A gestalt interpretation was suggested.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Fuhr, Susan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measurement of Attitudes Toward Feminism

Description: The relationship of two sexist attitude questionnaires (Attitudes Toward Women Scale and Sexism Scale) was explored. Responses on the Bem Sex Role Inventory were compared with attitude responses to assess the effect of sex-role concept on degree of sexism. Various demographic variables were included to determine if any related to sexist attitude responses. Subjects were 53 male and 113 female undergraduate psychology students, aged 17-47. Test instruments and a demographic data survey were administered, and statistical analyses performed. Attitude measures were significantly correlated and could not be differentiated on the basis of variables included for study. Factor analysis of instruments revealed 3 separate factors: masculinity, femininity,and "sexist" attitudes. Sex-role concept was unrelated to sexist attitude responses. Only the demographic variable ofage was significantly related to attitude scores.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Tofte-Tipps, Sharry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness in Rats: The Effects of Electroconvulsive Shock in an Animal Model of Depression

Description: The response deficit following exposure to inescapable shock has been termed "learned helplessness." This experiment was designed (a) to determine whether learned helplessness following an inescapable footshock induction procedure extends to 48 hours, and (b) to test the hypothesis that electroconvulsive shock (ECS) reverses learned helplessness in rats. Subjects were tested for helplessness in a bar-press shock-escape task. Results indicated that helplessness was not present 48 hours after exposure to inescapable shock. A slight indication of helplessness was observed in the first 10 trials of the 60-trial task. In addition, ECS was shown to enhance performance in the test task; however, this facilitation effect was seen only in control animals that were not previously exposed to inescapable footshock.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Thrasher, Ronald Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Esteem, Sex Roles, and Fundamentalist Religious Belief

Description: Recent sex role research suggested that androgynous subjects demonstrated better adjustment than sex-typed subjects. Fundamentalist religious belief, however, has strongly supported sex role differentiation. This study hypothesized that the effect of appropriate sex role typing or androgyny on self-esteem would depend on religious belief. Although this hypothesis was not supported, a main effect on sex roles for females was obtained; androgynous females had a higher self-esteem level than feminine females. In addition, males in this study had a higher self-esteem level than females.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Zervopoulos, John Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Changes in Racial Attitudes as a Function of Personality Characteristics and Exposure to a Competent Black

Description: The present study examined whether a relationship exists between level of rigidity and prejudicial attitudes and whether prejudiced attitudes could be modified as a function of exposure to a competent black model. It was predicted that individuals with a high level of rigidity would display more racial prejudice than low-rigid individuals and that individuals with a low level of rigidity would demonstrate less prejudice than high-rigid individuals after exposure to a competent model. After exposure to a competent model, a significant main effect for rigidity was found which indicated that low-rigid individuals became less prejudiced than high-rigid individuals,
Date: December 1981
Creator: Myers, Emilie J. (Emilie Joyner)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Repression-Sensitization and External-Internal Dimensions of Millon's Personality Typology

Description: In a study using 73 females and 30 male undergraduates, information on the basic dimensions of Millon's eight personality styles was obtained from correlations of the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory with Rotter's I-E scale and Byrne's R-S scale. Hypotheses predicting a significant relationship between the active-passive and repression-sensitization were generally supported. Predictions of a significant relationship between the dependent-indepenent dimension and generalized expectancy of locus of control were not supported. Implications of these findings for the efficacy of Millon's system are discussed, along with future research possibilities.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Heath, Robert Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries