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The Effects of Socio-Structural, Economic, and Race Considerations on Rates of Property Crime in the United States, 1958-1993

Description: This study investigates changes in rates of property crime in the United States from 1958 to 1993. Predictor variables include changes in rates of economic factors (inflation, technological/cyclical/frictional unemployment), arrest rates for property crimes disaggregated by race (ARPCDR), interaction of ARPCDR and technological unemployment, alcohol offenses, interaction of alcohol offenses and poverty, drug abuse violations, and interaction of drug abuse violations and poverty. Changes in poverty, population growth, and police presence are employed as control variables. The Beach-McKinnon Full Maximum- Likelihood EGLS AR1 Method (accompanied by residual analysis) is used to test seven hypotheses. Significant positive effects upon changes in aggregate property crime rates are found for five predictors: (a) inflation, (b) cyclical unemployment, (c) frictional unemployment, (d) the interaction of white arrest rates and technological unemployment, and (e) the interaction of rates of alcohol offenses and poverty. To explain changes in property crime rates, further research should decompose aggregate rates particularly those pertaining to the economy. Also, the relationship between the interaction of poverty and drug abuse violations, at the aggregate level, and changes in property crime rates should be clarified. This research has important policy implications related to the impact of social, economic, and educational issues on mainstream society and its criminal elements. Law makers should consider this type of research in all macro and micro-oriented policies.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Ralston, Roy W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Growth Rates in Academic Achievement.

Description: The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in academic growth rates as demonstrated on the TAKS test among students based on those who received free lunches, those who received reduced-price lunches, and those not economically disadvantaged. Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for reading and mathematics scale scores were obtained from five Texas public school districts for students who were in 3rd grade in 2003, 4th grade in 2004, 5th grade in 2005, and 6th grade in 2006. The sample included almost 10,000 students. The data were analyzed using SPSS and HLM. SPSS was used to identify descriptive statistics. Due to the nested nature of the data, HLM was used to compare data on three levels- the test level, student level, and district level. Not economically disadvantaged students scored the highest on both TAKS reading and mathematics exams with a mean scale score of 2357 and 2316 respectively in 2003. Compared to the not economically disadvantaged students, students receiving reduce-priced lunches scored approximately 100 points lower, and lowest were the students receiving free lunches, scoring another 50 points below students receiving reduced-price lunches. The results revealed that while gaps in achievement exist between SES levels, little difference exists in the growth rates of the SES subgroups. The results of this study support the need for continued effort to decrease the gap between students who are not economically disadvantaged and those receiving free or reduced-price meals.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Chow, Priscilla En-Yi
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Spouse Presence During Graded Exercise Testing on Psychological and Physiological Parameters in Cardiac Patients and Healthy Adults

Description: The direct effect of spouse presence during graded exercise testing on anxiety and performance has not been previously delineated. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to (a) ascertain if spouse presence during graded exercise testing affects state anxiety or physiological performance variables, and (b) determine differences in psychological status between cardiac patients and healthy adults.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Baylor, Krissa A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Stock Delistings on Firm Value, Risk, Market Liquidity and Market Integration: With Evidence on Wealth Effects from the Stock Exchanges of Malaysia and Singapore, Using GARCH

Description: This study examines the effects of delisting on firm value, risk and market liquidity. In a world where markets are becoming increasingly integrated, delistings may prove counter productive. We use the unique event, free from company specifics, that occurred on January 2, 1990 in the stock exchanges of Singapore and Malaysia to test for the above effects. On that day, dual listed companies were required to delist from the foreign stock exchange. We also use this event to test if the Singapore and Malaysia markets are globally integrated. Since financial data is found to show persistence in volatility, we model the return generating process in a generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic (GARCH) framework that takes into consideration changing volatility. For comparison purposes, OLS and Time-Deformation models are included. The study found delistings to decrease firm value, the size of which is related to how actively the stocks were previously traded on the foreign stock exchange. Risk levels increased following delistings. Nevertheless, thinly traded stocks showed significant changes in neither firm value nor riskiness. Further evidence of new listings to increase firm value was noted. Consistent with the political motive hypothesis, delisted stocks showed an increase in post-event volume, but however, lost relative liquidity compared with other stocks. While all portfolios considered show evidence for existence of conditional heteroskedasticity, comparison with standard OLS event-study results yields similar conclusions, although the return generating models with GARCH errors result in lower abnormal return variances. As for the time-deformation model, trading volume was found to be a good proxy for rate of information flow only for smaller capitalized stocks. Correlation and regression analyses showed that the Singapore and Malaysia markets are integrated to some degree with the international markets, such that a major delistings event between both markets did not change the pricing of risk ...
Date: May 1996
Creator: Meera, Ahamed Kameel
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Student-Perceived Instructor Demotivating Behaviors on Doctoral Students' Information Seeking Behaviors

Description: In their studies on student motivation in th4e 1990s, Gorham & Christophel and Christophel & Gorham found that students perceived their own demotivation to be caused by instructor behaviors. While there are studies that explore the topic of student demotivation and other studies that illustrate the great influence instructors have on student information seeking behaviors, research focusing on the connection between these two concepts is almost nonexistent. Using Gorham & Christophel's concept of instructor-owned student demotivation, this mixed-methods study sought to identify which instructor behaviors doctoral computer science and information science students found demotivating and to what extent their perceptions of these demotivating instructor behaviors influenced their information seeking behaviors in a face-to-face classroom. Demographic and student-perceived demotivating instructor behavior surveys along with semi-structured interviews and follow-up questions were used to collect data. The surveys will be analyzed using descriptive statistics in Excel, and the semi-structured interviews and follow up questions were analyzed using content analysis and Colaizzi's method of phenomenological enquiry in NVivo. The findings showed that instructor demotivating behaviors not only influence student information seeking behaviors in the classroom, but they also can lead to lasting effects on the student. In addition, the participants have expectations of instructor behaviors, which come from their own experiences. These expectations also influence the level of demotivation they feel in a face-to-face classroom.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Cantu, Brenda Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Sublethal Copper Exposure on Escape Behavior and Growth of Rana pipiens Tadpoles

Description: This research is designed to test how sublethal exposure to copper affects tadpole predator-escape behavior and how quickly tadpoles recover. After exposure, tadpoles were separated. Escape behavior was recorded for two-thirds of exposed tadpoles while one-third of the exposed population was measured weekly to determine growth and recovery. Control tadpoles were consumed within 15 minutes whereas those exposed to higher concentrations were consumed at a slower rate, which does not support the hypotheses. Although the rate of predation was lower, tadpoles exposed to higher Cu concentrations were on average, 1.47 cm in total body length. Those exposed to 0.93 mg/L averaged 0.86 cm. After being placed into clean water, treatment tadpoles recovered after 20 days.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Redick, Melinda
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Sucrose on Ethanol Consumption in Ethanol Naïve and Non-naïve Rats

Description: Sucrose fading and intermittent access are two common procedures that induce alcohol consumption in rodents. Sucrose fading procedures involve exposing ethanol naïve rats to a mixture of ethanol and sucrose and gradually reducing the concentration of sugar. Intermittent access procedures involve providing rats with access to ethanol on alternating days. Given that rats will consume ethanol without sucrose, the role of sugar in the sucrose fading procedure is unclear. Rats must be ethanol naïve when they are exposed to treatment with sucrose fading, so there is no point of comparison to show that exposure to sugar in sucrose fading produces higher levels of drinking. There has yet to be any work that isolates the effects of sugar on the consumption of alcohol. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the effects of sucrose on ethanol consumption in rats with different alcohol histories. Two groups of six rats were exposed to two successive sucrose fading procedures, 30 days apart and their drinking was measured 30 days after each one. One group was exposed to an intermittent access procedure to establish drinking prior to treatment with sucrose fading, the other was ethanol naïve. Following sucrose fading, all rats drank pharmacologically active doses of ethanol. For both groups consumption correlated with the concentration of sucrose and decreased in a step-wise manner as it was faded. For the ethanol experienced rats, consumption dropped below baseline levels as sucrose was faded and decreased further with the second exposure. In contrast, the ethanol-naïve rats did not decrease consumption from the first sucrose fading procedure to the second. Slight differences in peak force of responses were also observed.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Dove, Rachel Jolene
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Supplemental Performance and On-Task Contingencies on the Acquisition of Math Skills for Elementary School Students with Behavioral Disorders, Students with Attention Deficit Disorders, and Students without Disabilities

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of supplemental on-task and performance contingencies on the acquisition of math skills for elementary school children identified as seriously emotionally disturbed/behaviorally disordered, attention deficit disordered, and students without disabilities. Three experimental conditions were utilized, involving teacher-directed instruction with (a) no contingencies, (b) contingencies for academic performance, and (c) contingencies for academic performance and on-task behavior. The study was designed to measure the effects of these contingency conditions on the number of math problems solved accurately by the study's participants.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Suter, Cheryl L. (Cheryl Lynn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Supportive and Non-Supportive Nonverbal Movements Upon the Acquisition of a Gross Motor Skill

Description: The purposes of the study were (1) to validate five selected supportive and five selected non-supportive nonverbal movements, and (2) to determine the effects of the nonverbal expressions upon subjects' learning of a gross motor skill. Subjects were twenty-eight college women who met the established criteria. The testing instrument was the Bachman Ladder. Fourteen subjects received the supportive-- non-supportive nonverbal treatment sequence; fourteen subjects received the reverse treatment sequence. Subjects numerically ranked the degree of treatment following each experimental session. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance method. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of this study were (1) that nonverbal supportive and non-supportive treatments do not significantly affect gross motor learning, and (2) the selected expressions are valid techniques for nonverbal communications.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Laflin, Joyce
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Surface Type on Experienced Foot Contact Pressures and Lower Limb Functioning During Running Performance

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different surfaces on lower limb motion and encountered pressures at two locations on the plantar surface of the right foot. Nine females performed five trials for each of four surface conditions. The results provided no evidence for surface-related changes in experienced foot contact pressures. Both asphalt and grass surfaces resulted in the shortest relative time of forefoot immobility. No surface related differences were found for the range of pronation.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Denniston, Nancy L. (Nancy Louise)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Suspended Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Daphnid Growth and Reproduction

Description: Multi-walled carbon nanotube aggregates can be suspended in the aqueous phase by natural organic matter. These aggregates are ingested by filter feeding zooplankton. Ingested aggregates result in decreased growth and decreased reproduction. These effects may be caused by reduction in energy input from normal feeding behavior. pH alters natural organic matter structure through changes in electrostatic repulsion. Altered natural organic matter structure changes multi-walled carbon nanotube aggregate size. This size variation with variation in pH is significant, but not large enough a change in size to alter toxicity, as the aggregate size range remains well within the particle size selection of the organisms.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Alloy, Matthew Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Suspended Solids on Bioavailability of Chemicals to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

Description: Three suspended solids types containing a range of physicochemical characteristics were used to determine the effect of suspended solids on the bioavailability of acenaphthene, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, zinc, and chlordane to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas. Generally, the bioavailability of zinc and chlordane decreased due to interactions with all suspended solids types while bioavailability of acenaphthene and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene were not clearly reduced. Partition coefficients and slope of dose-response curves related chemical characteristics and organism sensitivity, respectively, to experimentally determined results. It is believed that the biologically available form of these chemicals to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas resides in the aqueous phase.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hall, W. Scott (Warren Scott)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Task-Based Documentation Versus Online Help Menu Documentation on the Acceptance of Information Technology

Description: The objectives of this study were (1) to identify and describe task-based documentation; (2) to identify and describe any purported changes in users attitudes when IT migration was preceded by task-based documentation; (3) to suggest implications of task-based documentation on users attitude toward IT acceptance. Questionnaires were given to 150 university students. Of these, all 150 students participated in this study. The study determined the following: (1) if favorable pre-implementation attitudes toward a new e-mail system increase, as a result of training, if users expect it to be easy to learn and use; (2) if user acceptance of an e-mail program increase as expected perceived usefulness increase as delineated by task-based documentation; (3) if task-based documentation is more effective than standard help menus while learning a new application program; and (4) if training that requires active student participation increase the acceptance of a new e-mail system. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Positive pre-implementation attitudes toward a new e-mail system are not affected by training even if the users expect it to be easy to learn and use. (2) User acceptance of an e-mail program does not increase as perceived usefulness increase when aided by task-based documentation. (3) Task-based documentation is not more effective than standard help menus when learning a new application program. (4) Training that requires active student participation does not increase the acceptance of a new e-mail system.
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Date: May 1999
Creator: Bell, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Tasks on Information-Seeking Behavior in a Police Work Environment in the Context of Criminal Intelligence

Description: Although dominant effects of tasks on individuals' information-seeking behavior is accepted by many scholars, a limited number of studies has been conducted to reveal the nature of the relationship between tasks and information-seeking behavior. In their studies, some earlier researchers categorized tasks according to their complexity while others did the same according to the specifications of tasks. Two of the groundbreaking researchers in this area are Katriina Byström and Kalervo Järvelin who contributed to the understanding of the relationship between task complexity and information-seeking behavior. However, their findings also need empirical support for theory growth. In response to this need, this study attempts to test Byström and Järvelin's findings through a research using different research methods and applied in a police work environment. Other than providing empirical support for theory growth, this research is also expected to contribute to the understudied area of police information-seeking behavior. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants who came from traffic, homicide, and anti-terrorism divisions of Ankara, Eskisehir, and Kirikkale Police Departments in Turkey. The participants identified terrorism cases as the most complex cases to solve, followed by homicide and traffic accident cases. Differences in the information-seeking behavior of three groups of police officers were examined through qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Oneway ANOVA technique and post hoc comparisons were used to analyze the quantitative data. In addition to shedding light on information-seeking behavior of police officers investigating related cases in Turkey, the results provided support for Byström and Järvelin's findings. For instance, the officers investigating more complex tasks used significantly more information sources than the others, while the use of external information sources was significantly higher in more complex cases.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Tatil, Serkan
Partner: UNT Libraries