UNT Theses and Dissertations - 17,906 Matching Results

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The Effects of Combining Positive and Negative Reinforcement During Training.

Description: The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of combining negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement during teaching with the effects of using positive reinforcement alone. A behavior was trained under two stimulus conditions and procedures. One method involved presenting the cue ven and reinforcing successive approximations to the target behavior. The other method involved presenting the cue punir, physically prompting the target behavior by pulling the leash, and delivering a reinforcer. Three other behaviors were trained using the two cues contingent on their occurrence. The results suggest that stimuli associated with both a positive reinforcer and an aversive stimulus produce a different dynamic than a situation that uses positive reinforcement or punishment alone.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Murrey, Nicole A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Common Electrolytes on Growth and Development of Selected Species of Aquatic Actinomycetes

Description: The role that aquatic actinomycetes play, in the production of tastes and odors in water supplies has been investigated since 1948. The ability of these organisms to produce by-products in lakes and streams, which renders the water unpalatable, is of considerable public health importance. It is desirable that the waterworks industry has as much information as possible concerning the factors that contribute to the growth of these organisms. Since it appears that the aquatic actinomycetes may be isolated from most fresh-water sources, the problem of diversified environments and nutritional requirements offers an excellent field of investigation. The fresh-waters of the world contain variable quantities of electrolytes that may determine in part the biological activity of these organisms. The unsolved questions in this instance are concerned with the electrolytes present and their quantitative effects on the growth and development of these forms.
Date: August 1959
Creator: Sissom, Stanley L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Competitive Basketball Experiences of Girls in the Gainesville State Training School upon Selected Personal and Social Behavior Patterns

Description: This study compared the effects of competitive basketball experiences, no basketball experiences, and choral experiences of girls in the Gainesville State Training School upon selected personality factors, behavior, and social status.
Date: January 1969
Creator: Green, Marjorie L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Complexity on Play Equipment Usage of Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Old Children

Description: Fifteen three-, four-, and five-year olds were assessed for the amount of time they spent on, off, under, and touching play equipment in an environment with play events and one without (i.e. the platform condition), An ABAB experimental design was used. Treatments lasted 3 days a week for 4 consecutive weeks, with each age group being videotaped 20 minutes each day, Data collected from the videotapes was applied to a 3 x 4 (age x treatments) ANOVA and revealed at the . 05 level (a) significantly more on and touching in the play event conditions; (b) significantly greater off and under in the platform (non play event) conditions; (c) a significant increase in off behavior from the first to second play event condition; (d) three-year-olds spent more time under and touching, and significantly less time on; and (e) significant interactions for on and under which seemed to be caused by the three-year-olds showing an inordinate amount of under behavior in the second platform condition, These results supported the assumption that play events would cause a significant increase inactive child-equipment interaction.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Fowler, Curt L. (Curt Layne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Attitudes and Achievement of Fourth Grade Students in Reading and Mathematics

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of participation in a Computer-Assisted instructional program (CAI) on fourth grade student attitudes and achievement in reading and mathematics. This study, based on Campbell and Stanley's quasiexperimental design 10, utilized Diascriptive Reading software for the CAI mathematics group and Milliken Math Sequences software for the CAI mathematics group and was completed by 242 students. The time span between pretests and posttests was seven months. Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Level 10, Form 7/8 was used for achievement testing and Estes Attitude Scale was used for attitude testing. Analysis of covariance was used to determine significance at the .05 level. The findings for this study were: 1. Reading Comprehension posttest scores were significantly higher for the control group than for the reading experimental group; 2. Reading Comprehension posttest scores were not significantly higher for boys than for girls within the reading experimental group; 3. Total math posttest scores were significantly higher for the mathematics experimental group than for the control group; 4. Concepts and Computation math subsets posttest scores were significantly higher for the mathematics experimental group than for the control group. There were no significant differences between the posttest scores of the two groups for the Math Problem Solving subset; 5. Total Math posttest scores were not significantly different for boys than for girls within the mathematics experimental group; 6. Attitude toward reading posttest scores were significantly higher for the reading experimental group than for the control group; 7. Attitude toward reading posttest scores were not significantly different for the boys than for girls within the reading experimental group; 8. Attitude toward mathematics posttest scores were significantly higher for the mathematics experimental group than for the control group; 9. Attitude toward mathematics posttest scores were significantly higher for girls than ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Todd, Wilma Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on the Achievements and Attitudes of Private Postsecondary Vocational-Technical Students in a Supplementary English Course in Thailand

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of normal instruction supplemented by the computer-assisted instruction English program Grammar Game on achievement and attitude scores of vocational-technical students in Thailand. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA design. One hundred seventy-eight students at the Lanna Polytechnical College in Thailand were randomly selected from the population of 10 classrooms. Four classes were intact groups, with two classes randomly assigned to the experimental groups which received Lecture/CAI and the other two as control groups which received Lecture. The 89 students in each group were divided into high- and low- ability, based on their previous English scores. Subjects received treatment for nine weeks. Pre-test and post-test instruments on achievement and attitude were administered to both groups. The Statistical Analysis System (SAS), and the General Linear Model (GLM) package computer program yielded the MANOVA results. Based on data analysis, the findings were as follows: (1) There was a significant difference between the students in a Lecture/CAI English program and the students in a Lecture English program when they were compared simultaneously on the achievement and attitude scores, F(l, 176) = 18.97, p < .05. (2) There was no significant interaction between the types of teaching methods and levels of ability when achievement was used as the dependent variable, F(l, 174) = .48, p > .05. (3) There was no significant interaction between the types of teaching methods and levels of ability when attitude was used as the dependent variable, F(l, 174) = .06, p > .05. The conclusion was that normal instruction supplemented by CAI improved achievement and attitude scores. On the other hand, the effect of two types of methods on achievement remained the same for high- and low-ability students and so did the effect of two types ...
Date: May 1996
Creator: Maneekul, Jarunee
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Computer Intensive Classwork on the Critical Thinking Skills of Community College Students

Description: To determine the relationship between computer intensive classwork and change in critical thinking skills exhibited by college students, the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, which generates Inference, Assumptions, Deduction, Interpretation, Arguments, and Total scores, was administered as pretest and post-test to students enrolled in four sections of a freshman level writing class at a community college, where two sections each were taught by computer intensive (computer) and traditional (non-computer) methods. Students completed a Demographic Questionnaire regarding previous computer experience, gender, and ethnicity. Where available, reading skills information was obtained from college records.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Knezek, David J. (David John)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Computer Performance Assessment on Student Scores in a Computer Applications Course

Description: The goal of this study was to determine if performance-based tests should be routinely administered to students in computer application courses. The purpose was to determine the most appropriate mode of testing for individuals taking a computer applications course. The study is divided into areas of assessment, personality traits, and computer attitudes.
Date: July 1994
Creator: Casey, Sue Hartness
Partner: UNT Libraries

The effects of computer performance assessment on student scores in a computer applications course

Description: The goal of this study was to determine if performance -based tests should be routinely administered to students in computer application courses. The purpose was to determine the most appropriate mode of testing for individuals taking a computer applications course. The study is divided into areas of assessment, personality traits, and computer attitudes.
Date: July 1994
Creator: Casey, Sue Hartness
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Concrete, Symbolic, and Verbal Reinforcement of the Discrimination Learning of Moderately and Severely Retarded Boys

Description: The present study is an attempt to determine which of several different types of reinforcers is most effective in discrimination learning using institutionalized mentally retarded boys of different intellectual levels as subjects. If one type of reinforcement works more effectively in conditioning one level of institutionalized mentally retarded subject, then that type of reinforcement could be used to greater advantage in controlling behavior than some other, less effective kind of reinforcer.
Date: January 1968
Creator: Johnson, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Concurrent Fixed Interval-fixed Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement on Human Responding.

Description: The present study contributes an apparatus and research paradigm useful in generating human performances sensitive to concurrent schedules of reinforcement. Five participants produced performances observed to be under temporal and ratio control of concurrent fixed interval-fixed ratio schedules. Two aspects of interaction between FI and FR schedules were distinguishable in the data. First, interaction between two schedules was observed in that changes in the value of one schedule affected behavior reinforced on another schedule. Second, switching from one pattern to the other functioned as an operant unit, showing stability during schedule maintenance conditions and sensitivity to extinction. These effects are discussed in the context of current views on behavior under concurrent schedules of reinforcement, and some implications for the conceptualization, measurement, analysis, and treatment of complex behavior are presented.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Parsons, Teresa Camille
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Conditional Discrimination Training on Symmetry and Semantic Priming

Description: Psychologists interested in the study of language find that people are faster at making decisions about words that are related than they are at making decisions about words that are not related – an effect called semantic priming. This phenomenon has largely only been document in laboratory settings using natural languages as contest and real words as stimuli. The current study explores the relation between the semantic priming effect and a laboratory procedure designed to give rise to performances that can be described as linguistic. Six adult participants learned to partition a collection of eight stimuli into two sets of four stimuli. Following this, the subjects showed the semantic priming effect within a set of stimuli but not across sets. These data suggest that it may be possible to study linguistic phenomenon in laboratory-based procedures allowing better control and the ability to ask very precise questions about linguistic functioning.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Hudgins, Caleb D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Contingent Money Withdrawal on Three Response Classes of Verbal Behavior

Description: This study attempted to reduce three response classes in the verbal behavior of a forty-three-year-old female graduate student. Consequences were placed on interruptions, illogical statements, and total time talking. Specifically, a response rate was taken on the three response classes, and contingent money withdrawal for exceeding defined limits was used as punishment. The treatment was generally effective in reducing interruptions, illogical statements, and total time talking to one half the baseline level, but the follow-up phase suggests that some form of maintainance procedure would be needed to maintain the rate at the lower level.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Spencer, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Control Theory Training Upon Self-Concept and Locus of Control Among Selected University Freshmen

Description: This study examined the effects of Control Theory training upon self-concept and locus of control among students enrolled in the Provisional Admission Program (PAP) at the University of Texas at Arlington. Twenty-nine students randomly assigned to treatment or placebo control groups took the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSSEI-A) and the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (ANSIE) as pre- and posttests. Participants in the placebo control group attended their regular educational program for the same amount of time given to the treatment group. No significant differences were found on the Analysis of Covariance for CSSEI—A or ANSIE scores following the training period. CSSEI-A and ANSIE scores were elevated, indicating that PAP students think of themselves internally as do other college students, regardless of their SAT scores. The results of this study indicate that Control Theory training is insignificantly effective in producing changes in the self-concept and locus of control among PAP students. Control Theory research may need to be carried out with a smaller group size, use larger samples, provide more time to address the issues specific to PAP student needs, include a stronger counseling emphasis to meet their needs, use more sensitive instruments to detect such changes, and allow more time for the learning to occur before the administration of the posttest.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Smadi, Ahmad Abdel-Majid
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Copper on Immune Responses of Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

Description: Copper exposures of 400 μg/L for 5,10 and 15 days resulted in no significant differences in antibody titers of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides injected with Aeromonas hydrophila compared to control-injected bass. Twenty days of exposure did significantly increase titers. The control group had significantly lower antibody titers than either control-injected or copper-exposed.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Connell, Patrice M. (Patrice Michelle)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Copying Before, Copying After, and Guessing on Acquisition Rate and Retention

Description: Computer-based instructional programs are being used more frequently in classrooms. While these programs offer many benefits from traditional teaching methods, humans still need to program them. There is inconsistency in the literature regarding the best way to design such programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three training procedures in teaching individuals to type a specified three-letter response in the presence of a corresponding symbol. Results show that the training format that prompted individuals to copy the correct response before the opportunity to respond was more efficient than viewing the correct response after an error, or copying the correct response after an error. A discussion of the results as well as implications for classroom use is also provided.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Pinkelman, Sarah Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries

The effects of coronary α₁-adrenergic stimulation on coronary blood flow and left ventricular function

Description: This study examines the α-adrenergic constrictor tone varies with intensity of exercise, the effects of coronary α1-adrenergic blockade on left ventricular contractile function and regional myocardial perfusion, and compares the effects of increasing coronary blood flow by removing α1-constrictor tone.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Dodd-o, Jeffrey M. (Jeffrey Michael)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Counseling and Religious Groups upon Selected Personality and Behavioral Variables

Description: This study investigates and evaluates the effects of an eighteen-hour weekend encounter group and three twelve-week groups--a weekly counseling group, a Bible discussion group, and a church attendance group, upon selected personality and behavioral variables, group morale and social integration. Subjects were forty-eight volunteers from a 250-member Protestant, evangelical church in a suburb of a Texas city of five-hundred thousand people. Six men and six women were randomly assigned to each of the four groups. Data analyzed were the pre-, post-, and post-post-experiment scores of the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and the sociometric variables based on Bonney's "Criteria for a Better Group on Sociometric Scales". The .05 level of significance was required for rejection of the null hypotheses. The statistical analyses were accomplished by applying a one-way analysis of co-variance design to the raw scores from the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and two of the three sociometric variables--mutual choices and opposite sex choices. The sociometric variable, choices between upper and lower quarters, was computed with the z formula. The sociometric data, mutuals and opposite sex choices on the encounter group, were further analyzed using the single-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures. It was hypothesized that the participants in the weekend encounter group would show a significantly greater change in self-actualization, positive personality and behavioral changes, social integration and group morale than would the participants in the other groups. It was further hypothesized that the weekly counseling group would show a significantly greater change in the selected variables, social integration and group morale, than would the Bible discussion or church attendance groups. It was also hypothesized that the Bible discussion group would show a significantly greater change in the selected variables, social integration and group morale than would the church attendance group. ...
Date: August 1974
Creator: Brendel, Harold J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Counselor-Led Group Counseling and Leaderless Group Counseling on Anxiety, Self-Concept, and Study Habits Among High School Seniors

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is the comparison of the effects of two group counseling approaches upon selected counselee characteristics. The purpose of the study was the determination of the relative effectiveness of counselor-led group counseling and leaderless group counseling upon anxiety, self-concept, and study habits and attitudes among high school seniors. Forty of ninety-six Russellville, Arkansas, high school seniors who were referred for group counseling by their high school teachers and counselors were randomly selected as subjects. Thirty of the students were assigned in a random manner to three ten-member experimental groups. Ten of the students were assigned in a random manner to a control group. Following treatment each group was reduced to eight subjects each because of poor participation by a few subjects in each group. The IPAT Anxiety Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes were administered to all subjects prior to and after ten weeks of treatment.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Birmingham, Donald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries