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The Effects of Lecture Discussion and Group Centered Counseling on Parents of Moderately Mentally Retarded Children

Description: The problem of this study was to determine if involvement in lecture-discussion classes of group centered counseling would significantly alter anxiety level, aspects of self-concept, or knowledge of mental retardation in parents of moderately mentally retarded children.
Date: May 1971
Creator: Siegel, Edward Morton
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Listening Skills Instruction on Students' Academic Performance

Description: Although it is widely assumed that listening is among the most important learning skills (Wolvin & Coakley, 1988), an examination of the literature indicates that it has been woefully neglected as subject matter in schools. Listening has also been neglected as an area of research. Surveys have been conducted to see if listening is being taught or can effectively be taught, but little evidence exists to suggest that effectively teaching listening improves students' academic performance. This study investigated the relationship between listening skills instruction and academic performance among university students. The purpose was to determine if teaching university students comprehensive listening skills improves their academic performance. It was assumed that listening can be effectively taught. The goal of the study was to compare 75 students who were enrolled in a listening course to a similar group of 75 students not enrolled in a listening course. The students were compared on the basis of grade point improvement the semester after the experimental group had completed the listening course. The t test was chosen because it can be used for testing the significance of the difference between the means of two independent samples. The grade point averages of the two groups were collected and the means and standard deviations of the two groups were determined. The t-value and the probability of rejection of the null hypothesis were also determined. The data showed little difference between the mean scores of the two groups or between the standard deviations of the two groups. The observed t-value did not support the hypothesis; therefore, there was insufficient evidence to reject the null, and the conclusion was that listening skills instruction has no impact on university students' academic performance.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Mangrum, C. W. (Clifton William)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Locus of Control and Soluble Discrimination Problems on Intelligence Test Performance

Description: This study investigated the possible differential effects of a series of soluble discrimination problems on internal versus external locus of control subjects. It was hypothesized that externals exposed to a series of discrimination problems would perform better on a test task than external controls, while internals exposed to the same problems would not perform better on the test task relative to their controls. As anticipated, the internals were not affected by the discrimination problems. However, contrary to expectations, the externals were not facilitated by exposure to the soluble problems. Since many external subjects failed to solve all of the soluble problems, a facilitative effect may depend upon the problems being solved.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Smith, Alvin, active 1976-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Long-Term Moderate Ethanol Intake on the Stress Response in Rats

Description: The effect of ethanol on the stress response in rats was examined. Experimental animals were given 0.25 ml of 28 percent ethanol or 0.25 ml of water orally once a day, five days a week, for a period of twelve months and were then subjected to fifteen minute cold stress. Corticosterone levels in ethanol-treated males following stress were significantly lower (22 percent) than in the sham group. Adrenal weights in sham-treated females were significantly higher (15 percent) than in the ethanol group at the end of twelve months. Mortality in sham-treated males was significantly higher (60 percent) than in ethanol-treated males. The effects observed may be due to the sedative action of ethanol on cortical centers controlling the hypothalmus.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Williams, Judy L. (Judy Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Macrophyte Functional Diversity on Taxonomic and Functional Diversity and Stability of Tropical Floodplain Fish Assemblages

Description: Multiple dimensions of biodiversity within and across producer and consumer guilds in the food web affect an ecosystem’s functionality and stability. Tropical and subtropical aquatic ecosystems, which are extremely diverse, have received much less attention than terrestrial ecosystems in regards to the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. We conducted a field experiment that tested for effects of macrophyte functional diversity on diversity and stability of associated fish assemblages in floodplain lakes of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Three levels of macrophyte functional diversity were maintained through time in five floodplain lakes and response variables included various components of fish taxonomic and functional diversity and stability. Components of functional diversity of fish assemblages were quantified using a suite of ecomorphological traits that relate to foraging and habitat use. Response variables primarily distinguished macrophyte treatments from the control. Macrophyte treatments had, on average, double the number of species and total abundance than the control treatment, but only limited effects on stability. The high diversity treatment was essentially nested within the low diversity for assemblage structure and had similar or even slightly lower levels of species richness and abundance in most cases. Gymnotiformes and young-of-year were diverse and relatively abundant in macrophyte treatments contributing to the large differences in diversity between macrophyte and control treatments. Higher fish diversity in structured habitats compared to more homogenous habitats is likely associated with increased ecomorphological diversity to exploit heterogeneous microhabitats and resources provided by the macrophytes.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Treviño, Jessica Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Mainstreaming on the Self-Concept of Physically Handicapped Children

Description: The Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale for Children, the Florida Key: A Scale to Inter Learner Self-Concept, and the Walker Problem Behavior Identification Checklist were used to assess the self-concepts of 18 ambulatory physically handicapped children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Data were analysed via one-sample t-tests. The hypothesis that mainstreamed handicapped children would exhibit somewhat lower self-concept than their nonhandicapped peers was not supported. In fact, some mainstreamed physically handicapped children may indeed exhibit higher frequencies of relating to peers and teachers, less acting-out behavior (among males), and better overall self-concept than the nonhandicapped populations from which the normative data were obtained (p < .05). These results were discussed in terms of the children's experiences within the hospital environment from which they were selected.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Walters, Terry L. (Terry Lynne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Managerial Experience on Assertiveness, Anxiety, and Locus of Control

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of managerial experience on the relationships between assertiveness, trait anxiety, and internality, and on each of these constructs individually. Hypotheses were as follows: a) managers would be more assertive, internal, and less trait anxious than business students; b) males would be more assertive than females when students, not managers; and c) assertiveness and internality would relate positively to each other and negatively to trait anxiety. Subjects consisted of 30 managers and 53 business students. The first and third hypotheses were confirmed, although the assertiveness differences were not significant. Reasons for the observed outcome are discussed as well as implications for these constructs' ability to predict management potential.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Dick, William E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Manifest Anxiety Upon a Measure of Memory Span

Description: This study will attempt to verify the Hullian drive theory, E = f(HxD), as others have done before, but with one exception. The H, or habit strength, will be held to be neutral so that the E, or excitatory potentials, will be a function of drive alone. Without any habit to reinforce, any increase in excitatory potential can be related directly to increase in drive. Four hypotheses were investigated: The first hypothesis was that the HA, or high-anxiety groups, will also be the high-drive groups, and this will follow for the NA and LA groups, to be determined by the performance on the digit-span test. The second hypothesis was that the high-drive groups will perform better on the digit-span tests than the low-drive groups. The third hypothesis stressed that in accordance with Hullian theory, with increased stress being introduced with a single habit tendency, the low-drive groups will be outperformed by the high-drive groups. The fourth hypothesis presumed that verification of the first three hypotheses will show the "Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale" to be capable of differentiating between high and low manifest anxiety groups and will verify the Taylor-Spence hypothesis based on Hullian theory that the HA's will outperform the LA's in a stress situation.
Date: January 1963
Creator: Winston, Robert M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Mastery, Competitive and Cooperative Goals on Performance in Simple and Complex Sport Skills

Description: The present study investigated the effects of different goal and feedback conditions on performance of a basketball field goal shooting task and a more complex one-on-one offensive basketball task. Subjects (N = 100) were matched, based on pre-test performance, into one of five conditions: competitive goal, cooperative goal, mastery goal, "do your best" with feedback, and "do your best" without feedback. Results indicated the competitive group was significantly better than the "do your best" without feedback group in one-on-one performance. No other between group differences were significant, although some consistent group trends were present. Subjects' goal orientations were not related to performance in specific goal conditions, with the exception of mastery oriented subjects in the mastery goal condition.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Giannini, John
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Maternal Aerobic Exercise on Selected Pregnancy Outcomes in Nulliparas

Description: This study evaluated the effects of participation in aerobic exercise on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes included type of delivery, length of labor, gestational age, neonatal birth weight, and maternal weight gain. The 137 nulliparas were categorized as active (N=44) or sedentary (N=93) based on self-reported aerobic exercise. Findings from this study suggest that pregnant women who were active during pregnancy were more likely to have vaginal deliveries than sedentary women. No significant differences between active and sedentary women were found in neonatal birth weight, maternal weight gain, length of labor, or gestational age.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Melgar, Dian L. (Dian Louise)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Maternal Employment Status on the Evening Meals of Adolescents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal employment contributed to the general inadequacy of the adolescent's evening meal, and to examine the attitudes of adolescents regarding the mother's role in evening meal preparation. A questionnaire was administered to 1180 high school students in a suburban area of Dallas-Ft.Worth in May, 1987. The hypotheses were tested using Chi square, Pearson product moment correlation, and Anova. Results indicated that maternal employment affects adolescent evening meals in the number of meals offered per week, fully prepared by mother, and eaten away from home. The amount of adolescent participation in meal preparation was higher for the employed group. Attitudes are different between the sexes and those with employed and unemployed mothers.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Hebert, Karen A. Fleischman (Karen Ann Fleischman)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Meal Size and Type, and Level of Physical Activity on Perceived Masculinity, Femininity, Likability and Attractiveness

Description: Previous research indicates that women are judged on the amount of food eaten and that both men and women are judged on the type of food eaten. This study is an attempt to determine whether meal size or type predominantly accounts for these findings on the variables of masculinity, femininity, attractiveness, thinness, fitness, and likability. Physical activity was also included to determine its effect on these variable. Subjects used were 313 undergraduate students. Results indicate that meal type is more influential than meal size and that physical activity significantly influences judgements of others. The results are discussed in terms of future research and relatedness to socio-cultural theories of eating disorders.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Hill, Christie D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Media Constituents Upon the Growth and Pigment Production of Micrococcus Flavus, Micrococcus Roseus, Micrococcus Subcitreus, and Sarcina Citrea

Description: This investigation has for its aim the explanation of growth and pigment production of Micrococcus flavus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus subvitreus, and Sarcina citrea by the addition of various nutrient test materials to a standard culture medium.
Date: 1947
Creator: Martin, Joseph Hearn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Media Exposure on Body Satisfaction, Beliefs About Attractiveness, Mood and Bulimic Symptomatology Among College Women

Description: The research of Stice et al. (1994) and Stice and Shaw (1994) proposed several mechanisms that may mediate the adverse effects of media exposure to the thin ideal including internalization of the thin-ideal, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study was to extend initial research of Stice and Shaw (1994) by incorporating two forms of media (e.g., TV and Magazines) to assess the effects of exposure to the media portrayal of ideal body shape on women's mood, body satisfaction, and internalization of societal values concerning attractiveness. The relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. The current study improved upon Stice and Shaw's study (1994) by matching participants' scores on BMI, level of negative affect, and level of body satisfaction before random assignment to the experimental conditions. Female undergraduates aged 18 to 25 years participated in premeasure (N = 198) and post measure (N = 164) conditions. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated media exposure to ideal-body images demonstrated no significant changes in women's affect, body satisfaction or endorsement of the thin ideal. Indirect support for the sociocultural theory of eating disorders was provided by multiple regression analyses that demonstrated lower levels of satisfaction with size and shape of body and higher levels of negative affect predicted bulimic symptomatology in women. Future research should determine which females are at greater risk than others for the development of body dissatisfaction, negative mood, and internalization of U.S. values of attractiveness in response to media related messages communicating a thin ideal.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Varnado, Jessica Lea
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Memory Alteration in Schizophrenic Patients Treated with Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy

Description: The problem of this investigation is twofold. First, to demonstrate the effects of the variation of convulsive-nonconvulsive electroshock treatment used in this study in relation to memory alteration in schizophrenia as measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale. Second, to determine those aspects of memory that are the most affected, and those that are the least affected by this form of treatment.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Redding, Kaye George
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Memory Load on the Accuracy of Recognition of Stimuli

Description: The purpose of this study was to find if memory load significantly affects the performance of the subjects in the before condition of a before versus after technique experiment. In order to accomplish this the alternatives were presented either before or after the stimulus, with the alternatives and stimuli being either of high-complexity or low-complexity.
Date: June 1968
Creator: Harris, Jerry Lon
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Mental Imagery Training on a Baseball Throwing Task

Description: This study was designed to determine if long term training of mental imagery skills is more beneficial to an athlete than immediate imagery rehearsal practiced only prior to an event. Subjects were thirty male high school baseball athletes who were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) long term imagery training and practice; (2) immediate imagery practice only; and (3) control. An accuracy relay-throwing test was performed with pre-test, mid-test, and post-test performance trials. Results of the study revealed no statistically significant differences over the three test periods for any of the treatment conditions. Thus, long term imagery combined with immediate imagery practice, immediate imagery practice and control groups performed equally well on the baseball throwing task.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Freeman, James D. (James David Douglas)
Partner: UNT Libraries