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The Effect of Three Conditions of Practice on the Performance of the Football Center Snap by College Students
The problem of this study was to determine the effect mental practice, physical practice, and a combination of physical and mental practice had upon the accuracy of the football center snap for field goals and extra points after a touchdown.
The Effect of Three Different Levels of Skill Training in Musical Timbre Discrimination on Alphabet Sound Discrimination in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different levels of skill training in musical timbre discrimination on alphabet sound discrimination in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children. The findings of prior investigations indicated similarities between aural music and language perception. Psychoacoustic and neurological findings have reported the discrimination of alphabet quality and musical timbre to be similar perceptual functions and have provided, through imaging technology, physical evidence of music learning simultaneously stimulating non-musical areas of the brain. This investigator hypothesized that timbre discrimination, the process of differentiating the characteristic quality of one complex sound from another of identical pitch and loudness, may have been a common factor between music and alphabet sound discrimination. Existing studies had not explored this relationship or the effects of directly teaching for transfer on learning generalization between skills used for the discrimination of musical timbre and alphabet sounds. Variables identified as similar from the literature were the discrimination of same- different musical and alphabet sounds, visual recognition of musical and alphabet pictures as sound sources, and association of alphabet and musical sounds with matching symbols. A randomized pre-post test design with intermittent measures was used to implement the study. There were 5 instructional groups. Groups 1, 2,and 3 received one, two and three levels of skill instruction respectively. Groups 4 received three levels of skill training with instruction for transfer; Group 5 traditional timbre instruction. Students were measured at the 5th (Level 1), 10th (Level 2), 14th (Level 3), and 18th (delayed re-test), weeks of instruction. Results revealed timbre discrimination instruction had a significant impact on alphabet sound-symbol discrimination achievement in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children. Different levels of timbre instruction had different degrees of effectiveness on alphabet sound discrimination. Students who received three levels of timbre discrimination instruction and were taught to ...
Effect of Three Different Types of High School Class Schedules (Traditional, Rotating Block, and Accelerated Block) on High School Biology Achievement and on Differences in Science Learning Environments
This study analyzes the effect of three different high school scheduling options on the delivery of biology instruction, on student achievement, and on student perceptions of their instructional activities. Participants were biology students and teachers from twelve high schools in a north Texas urban school district of 76,000. Block classes had 11 to 18 percent less instructional time than traditional classes. Texas Biology I End-of-Course Examination achievement results for 3,195 students along with student and teacher surveys provided information on instructional activities, attitudes, and individualization. Using an analysis of variance at a j i< .01 the following results were found; student achievement was significantly different for each of the scheduled comparisons groups, test score means were not statistically significant between the scheduled comparison groups for different ethnic groups, economically disadvantaged students, and magnet students. No significant differences were found between the science learning activity index for each of the scheduled groups. Student response data when disaggregrated and reaggregrated into program groups found a statistically significant higher index of science activity at a p. < .01 for magnet students when compared to both the regular and honor students. Regular program students had a significantly higher index of individualization than honors program students. Accelerated and rotating block classes were found to hold a significantly more positive attitude about their science learning conditions than did the traditional students. These data suggest that during the first two years of block scheduling, the initial impact of block scheduling, where total time for science is reduced, results in lower student achievement scores when compared to traditionally scheduled classes. Yet, block scheduled student attitudes and perceptions about science learning are significantly more positive than the traditionally scheduled students.
The Effect of Time-Compressed Speech on Comprehensive, Interpretative and Short-Term Listening
No Description Available.
Effect of Time-Lapse Scheduling on Mathematics Achievement
No Description Available.
The Effect of Time on Computer-Assisted Instruction For At-Risk Students
The problem of this study was to determine if the mathematics achievement of at-risk students using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) differed significantly from other groups of students.
The Effect of Time on Training Retention Rates of United States Air Force Loadmaster Apprentice Students
The purpose of this study was to determine if extended periods of time out of the training environment has an effect on the retention of training. The rationale for conducting this study was based on the fact that little research has been done in this area. The findings of the study indicated that extensive periods of time out of training do significantly influence the amount of training retained fromone loadmaster course to the other. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between the number of days out of training and the posttest scores. The optimum training break between courses appears to be between 10 and 20 days. Training retention is apparently affected by time.
The effect of toasting on the protein quality of white bread and white bread supplemented with soybean
Supplemented and unsupplemented white breads were baked and toasted at three different toaster settings, light, medium, and dark. Organoleptically, products were highly accepted when toasted at the light and medium temperatures.
The Effect of Touch on Interpersonal Attraction of Selected Patients in an Initial Interview Held in a Neuropsychiatric Setting
No Description Available.
The effect of trade books on the environmental literacy of 11th and 12th graders in aquatic science.
The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental literacy of 11th and 12th graders who participated in an eighteen-week environmental education program using trade books versus 11th- and 12th-graders who participated in an eighteen-week, traditional environmental education program without the use of trade books. This study was conducted using a quasi-experimental research technique. Four high school aquatic science classes at two suburban high schools were used in the research. One teacher at each high school taught one control class and one experimental class of aquatic science. In the experimental classes, four trade books were read to the classes during the eighteen-week semester. These four books were selected by the participating teachers before the semester began. The books used were A Home by the Sea, Sea Otter Rescue, There's a Hair in My Dirt, and The Missing Gator of Gumbo Limbo. The instrument used to measure environmental literacy was the Children's Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Scale. This test was given at the beginning of the semester and at the end of the semester. The scores at the end of the semester were analyzed by 2 X 2 mixed model ANOVA with the teacher as the random effect and the condition (trade books) as the fixed effect. The statistical analysis of this study showed that the students in the experimental classes did not score higher than the control classes on the Children's Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Scale or on a subset of "water" questions. Several limitations were placed on this research. These limitations included the following: (1) a small number of classes and a small number of teachers, (2) change from the original plan of using environmental science classes to aquatic science classes, (3) possible indifference of the students, and (4) restrictive teaching strategies of the teachers.
The Effect of Training in Test Item Writing on Test Performance of Junior High Students
Students in an inner city junior high school in North Central Texas participated in a study whose purpose was to examine the effect of training in test item construction on their later test performance. The experimental group underwent twelve weeks of instruction using the Test Item Construction Method (TICM). In these sessions students learned to develop test items similar to those on which they were tested annually by the state via the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS). The TICM aligned with state mandated test specifications.
The Effect of Trait Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Autogenic Training on Measures of Electromyography, Skin Temperature, and State Anxiety
Twelve trait anxious male, federal prisoners with high self-esteem and twelve trait anxious male, federal prisoners with low self-esteem participated in the study. Subjects were selected from among those volunteering to participate and who met the scoring criteria on the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire and on the Self-Esteem Scale from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory II. Each volunteer participated in one session of approximately 50 minutes in length. Each subject was asked to respond to a medical/psychological interview, after which he was asked to listen to and follow a series of instructions (autogenic training). Throughout the session electromyographic and skin temperature measurements were taken from each subject's dominant forearm and non-dominant middle finger, respectively. At the end of the session each volunteer was asked to complete the STAI-State Scale. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of self-esteem as a moderator of trait anxiety. In addition, the study was designed to assess the effectiveness of autogenic training with this population. Results indicate no significant difference between high and low self-esteem subjects on measurements of electromyography/ F (1, 22) = .63, p > .05 or peripheral skin temperature F (1, 22) = .20 p > .05. However, a significant difference was found between high and low self-esteem subjects on the STAI-State Scale, F (22) = 4.45 p < .05. High self-esteem subjects obtained significantly lower raw scores than low self-esteem subjects on the state anxiety measurement. A significant difference was also found for the block of trial factor (baseline/relaxation periods) for the electromyography F (6, 132) = 3.43, p < .01, and peripheral skin temperature F (6, 132) = 6.32, p < .001 measurements. Results present partial support for the role of self-esteem as a moderating variable in trait anxious subjects. Self-esteem is conceptualized as a form of ...
Effect of Trampoline Training and Tumbling on the Cardiovascular Efficiency of College Women
The purpose of the study was to determine if subjects would improve in cardiovascular efficiency following a six-week program of trampolining and/or tumbling. Literature concerning cardiovascular efficiency, training, trampoline, testing instruments, test selection and maximal oxygen intake were thoroughly reviewed. The Astrand test of maximal oxygen intake and the Cooper twelve-minute run test of aerobic capacity were found to best fit the needs of the present study.
The Effect of Transcranial Stimulation on the Mechanical Efficiency of Persons with Cerebral Palsy
The problem of this study concerns the reduction of spasticity in physically handicapped persons with CP. The hypotheses tested were: that there would be no significant difference between the mechanical efficiency (ME) of persons with spastic CP following application of the TENS Unit and following application of the placebo unit; that there would be no significant difference between the ME of males with spastic CP, following application of the TENS Unit or the placebo unit, and the ME of females with spastic CP, following application of the TENS Unit or the placebo unit; and that there would be no significant interaction between the treatment factor and the gender category.
The Effect of Two Levels of Noise, Two Types of Noise, and Anxiety on Student Performance of a Coding Task
No Description Available.
The Effect of Two Methods of Programming upon the Development of the Orchestra in a Secondary School
The present study was designed for the purpose of comparing the effectiveness of two methods of orchestral programming, demonstration and non-demonstration, upon (1) the musical perception of the members of a student body audience, and (2) the attitudes of the members of a student body toward orchestra as a school subject. This comparison of demonstration and non-demonstration programming involved the question concerning the effectiveness of instructive listening as compared with free listening in the development of musical perception and attitudes. The problem of the present study is presented in the following major areas: (1) musical perception, end (2) attitudes.
The Effect of Two Methods of Reporting Pupil Progress on Adjustment and Achievement of Fourth Grade Students in a Suburban Elementary School
The present research was an investigation of the effect of two methods of reporting pupil progress on adjustment and achievement of fourth grade pupils in a suburban elementary school. One method involved the use of an evaluation form reflecting performance in terms of ability, parent-teacher conferences, and work samples. The other method was comprised primarily of competitive grading and marking procedures, utilizing a standard report card to report results.
The Effect of Two Plans of Elementary School Organization on Rapid Learners and Non-Rapid Learners
The primary purpose was to determine whether there were differences in the amount of change produced by two plans of elementary school organization for the instruction of rapid learners in order to develop a sound policy of organizing the elementary school. A secondary purpose was to determine the effects of the two plans on other pupils in the sections being studied.
The Effect of Two Variations of Role-Taking Training and Affect on Changes in Juvenile Delinquents' Role-Taking and Moral Judgment Development
No Description Available.
The Effect of Type A and Type B Personality and Leadership Style on Absenteeism
This study explored the relationship of Type A/B personality and leadership style to absenteeism. Absenteeism data were gathered for 243 male fire fighters and fire engineers. Each subject was administered the Jenkins Activity Scale to measure his Type A characteristics and the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire to measure his perception of his supervisor's leadership style. The results, though non-significant, revealed that: a) Type A's had less absenteeism than type B's; b) Subjects who perceived their supervisors as being low on consideration had less absenteeism than those who perceived their supervisors as being high on this dimension; c) Type A's absenteeism was low and Type B's was high when working under a leader perceived as low on structure. Finally, a weak but significant three-way interaction effect revealed that the highest amount of absenteeism occurred when Type B' s worked under supervisors who were high in consideration and low in structure. The least amount of absenteeism occurred when Type A's worked under supervisors who were high in structure and low in consideration.
The Effect of Using Class Discussion as a Pre-Writing Activity in Teaching Composition to ESL Students
This study examines the effect of class discussion as a pre-writing activity on actual writing performance. The experiment was conducted with all the Level 3 and Level 4 students enrolled in the Intensive English Language Institute of North Texas State University in the Spring, 1986 semester. Cochrans C test was performed to test significant differences between groups at the beginning of this test. Multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to determine the treatment effect between and within groups, and a matched t-test was also utilized to analyze the difference within tests. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between the discussion activity score and the actual writing score. Analysis of covariance tests were used to determine which variance of discussion activities had greater effect on the actual writing score.
The Effect of Value Co-creation and Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Commitment in Healthcare Management
Despite much interest in service quality and various other service quality measures, scholars appear to have overlooked the overall concept of quality. More specifically, previous research has yet to integrate the effect of the customer network and customer knowledge into the measurement of quality. In this work, it is posited that the evaluation of quality is based on both the delivered value from the provider as well as the value developed from the relationships among customers and between customers and providers. This research examines quality as a broad and complex issue, and uses the “Big Quality” concept within the context of routine healthcare service. The last few decades have witnessed interest and activities surrounding the subject of quality and value co-creation. These are core features of Service-Dominant (S-D) logic theory. In this theory, the customer is a collaborative partner who co-creates value with the firm. Customers create value through the strength of their relations and network, and they take a central role in value actualization as value co-creator. I propose to examine the relationship between quality and the constructs of value co-creation. As well, due to the pivotal role of the decision-making process in customer satisfaction, I will also operationalize the value co-creation construct. Building upon the “Big Quality” concept, this study suggests a new approach by extending the quality concept to include the value-creation concept in Service Dominant Logic. This study identifies the associated constructs and determinants of Big Quality in routine healthcare management service, and examines the relationship among the associated quality constructs, customer satisfaction, and customer commitment. This study employed an online survey methodology to collect data. In data analysis, I used the variance-based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach to confirm the factor structure, proposed model, and test the research hypotheses. The results show that the customer’s ...
The Effect of Verbal and Graphic Feedback on Direct Care Trainers' Data-Tecording Behavior
This study investigated the effects of verbal and graphic feedback alone and in combination with praise on the data-recording behavior of 12 direct care trainers (DCTs) who recorded their reinforcer deliveries as they interacted with mentally retarded clients. An additional variable examined was the effect of time of delivering feedback on subsequent data-recording behavior. Feedback was delivered by the experimenter. Correspondence checks were conducted and a three-phase multiple condition experimental design was used. All feedback conditions produced an observable difference in DCT data-recording behavior. Time of delivery of feedback also appeared to have an effect on the amount of data recorded by DCTs.
The Effect of Web-Based Support as an Adjunct to a Self-Help Smoking Cessation Program
For the past quarter century, the public has been educated and warned about the dangers of smoking, and both smokers and health researchers have been in search of cost-effective, smoking cessation programs that will lead to long-term cessation. This study used a randomized experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of adding Web-based support materials to a nationally sponsored self-help smoking intervention. There was no significant increase in abstinence rates nor progression through the stages of change by those participants who had access to the Web site. However, there were some overall significant trends that suggested these self-help interventions were successful at decreasing daily rates of smoking and nicotine dependency, as well as tended to encourage repeated quit attempts. Although Web-based supports did not appear to increase the effectiveness of the nationally sponsored self-help intervention, this study demonstrated overall 12 week follow-up abstinence rates of 30-32%--greater than what might be expected, given average success rates of other self-help interventions. This study also supports the notion that women may face additional barriers to smoking cessation. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
The Effect of White Noise on a Visual Discrimination Task
Previous studies have demonstrated that in some instances certain types of auditory stimulation have facilitated a subject's ability at a visual task while in other instances, the subject's ability has been inhibited. The primary objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of auditory stimulation upon a subject's performance on a visual discrimination task.
The Effect of Work-Study Methods Instruction on Student Achievement in Fifth Grade Social Studies
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is the effect of work-study method instruction upon the achievement of students in fifth grade social studies. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effects of the SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) Study Method instruction upon the achievement of students in fifth grade social studies. The subjects ranged in age from ten years two months to thirteen years three months. Th I.Q. for the subjects ranged from 70 to 135. Of the 102 subjects involved in the study, 42 were male and 60 were female. The I.Q. score from the California Test of Mental Maturity, S Form was used to structure the subjects into three intelligence levels. Fifty-four subjects served as the experimental group, and forty-eight served as the control group. The instrument used to obtain pretest and posttest scores on the variable relating to achievement was the SRA Assessment Survey, Blue Level. Form E was used for the pretest, and Form F was used for the posttest. The subjects were assigned to four classes which were near equal. Two classes were selected by the principal to serve as the experimental group. The other two classes served as the control group. The investigator spent equal time with the control and the experimental group. The four classroom teachers rotated between experimental and control groups on an equal basis. Students in the experimental group met nineteen times during the study for a thirty-minute period. During these sessions, the experimental subjects used the SQ3R Study Method to do social studies assignments. The control group met for the same number of sessions and for an equal amount of time. They worked with the same content but without using the SQ3R Study Method. The analysis of covariance was employed with pretest scores as the ...
The Effect of World War II on the Aluminum Industry
This study attempts to impart such facts as will enable the reader to select his own alternative as to the feasibility of monopoly or free competition within the aluminum industry. In order to assist the reader in making decisions the evolution of the supply and price structure of aluminum and its effects on demand are submitted.
The Effect on Group IQ Test Performance of Modification of Verbal Repertoires Related to Motivation, Anxiety, and Test-Wiseness
To investigate the efficacy of a cognitive approach applied to problems of motivation, anxiety, and test-wiseness in a group test situation, programmed texts were used to Condition a repertoire of verbal responses relevant to each of these problems. Five sixth grade classes composed of 118 Students total were administered Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Tests in a pretest-posttest design. For the five groups, ANCOVA demonstrated a significant effect on raw scores, but not on IQ. Significant IQ and raw score gains were found for the combination group over the control group. Due to treatment lower IQ level students of the combination group made greater raw score gains than upper IQ level students.
The Effect on Learning of Geographic Instruction Designed for Students' Verbal and Spatial Abilities
The purpose of this study was to compare student scores on geographic skills in the experimental group with student scores on geographic skills in the control group after adjustment was made in teaching methods and learning materials for verbal and spatial ability for students in the experimental group. Hypotheses tested at the .05 level were as follows. 1. Females would score higher than males on a criterion measure of verbal ability. 2. Males would score higher than females on a criterion measure of spatial ability. 3. Experimental/verbal students would score higher on a geography skills posttest. 4. Experimental/spatial students would score higher on a geography skills posttest. 5. The experimental group would score higher than the control group on a geography skills posttest. The sample was 150 high school United States History students in a medium-sized North Texas school district. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze results of the study of six classes after fifteen days of instruction in physical geography concepts. Experimental classes received geographic instruction directed to verbal and spatial abilities; control group classes received traditional geographic instruction which utilized textbook, lecture, and whole-group instruction. Three high schools participated in the study. Conclusions were that males and females did not differ significantly on verbal and spatial abilities. Values between pretest and posttest for both experimental and control groups were significant, but when adjusted for the covariates of verbal and spatial ability, control/verbal learners' posttest scores were significantly higher than experimental/verbal learners' posttest scores. Spatial/ experimental learners' posttest scores and spatial/control learners' posttest scores were compared, and the result was no significant difference when cell means were adjusted for the higher spatial/experimental learners' spatial ability. The practice of teaching geography through the use of textbook and whole-group instruction resulted in larger learning gains than the practice of using ...
The Effect on Marital Adjustment of Teaching Basic Marital Communication in a Conjoint Couples' Group Using Videotape Feedback
No Description Available.
Effect Size Reporting and Interpreting Practices in Published Higher Education Journal Articles
Data-driven decision making is an integral part of higher education and it needs to be rooted in strong methodological and statistical practices. Key practices include the use and interpretation of effect sizes as well as a correct understanding of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Therefore, effect size reporting and interpreting practices in higher education journal articles represent an important area of inquiry. This study examined effect size reporting and interpretation practices of published quantitative studies in three core higher education journals: Journal of Higher Education, Review of Higher Education, and Research in Higher Education. The review covered a three-year publication period between 2013 and 2015. Over the three-year span, a total of 249 articles were published by the three journals. The number of articles published across the three years did not vary appreciably. The majority of studies employed quantitative methods (71.1%), about a quarter of them used qualitative methods (25.7%), and the remaining 3.2% used mixed methods. Seventy-three studies were removed from further analysis because they did not feature any quantitative analyses. The remaining 176 quantitative articles represented the sample pool. Overall, 52.8% of the 176 studies in the final analysis reported effect size measures as part of their major findings. Of the 93 articles reporting effect sizes, 91.4% of them interpreted effect sizes for their major findings. The majority of studies that interpreted effect sizes also provided a minimal level of interpretation (60.2% of the 91.4%). Additionally, 26.9% of articles provided average effect size interpretation, and the remaining 4.3% of studies provided strong interpretation and discussed their findings in light of previous studies in their field.
The Effect that Socio-Economic Status has upon the Intelligence and Achievement of 120 Fourth-Grade Pupils
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect that socio-economic status has upon the intelligence and achievement of 120 fourth-grade pupils. Ninety of the fourth-grade pupils were enrolled in the Denison Elementary Schools, Denison, Texas, and thirty of the fourth-grade pupils were enrolled in an independent school, one mile outside the Denison city limits.
Effecting a guidance program in the Nocona, Texas, high school
This study is a reflection of the efforts made by faculty members of the Nocona, Texas High School, with the aid of two outside evaluating committees, to set up a workable and practical plan for executing personnel problems and policies in the school. The major portion of this investigation centers around the evaluations made of the guidance service in 1940 and 1942 and the re-evaluation made in 1947.
Effective and Accelerated Informative Frame Filtering in Colonoscopy Videos Using Graphic Processing Units
Colonoscopy is an endoscopic technique that allows a physician to inspect the mucosa of the human colon. Previous methods and software solutions to detect informative frames in a colonoscopy video (a process called informative frame filtering or IFF) have been hugely ineffective in (1) covering the proper definition of an informative frame in the broadest sense and (2) striking an optimal balance between accuracy and speed of classification in both real-time and non real-time medical procedures. In my thesis, I propose a more effective method and faster software solutions for IFF which is more effective due to the introduction of a heuristic algorithm (derived from experimental analysis of typical colon features) for classification. It contributed to a 5-10% boost in various performance metrics for IFF. The software modules are faster due to the incorporation of sophisticated parallel-processing oriented coding techniques on modern microprocessors. Two IFF modules were created, one for post-procedure and the other for real-time. Code optimizations through NVIDIA CUDA for GPU processing and/or CPU multi-threading concepts embedded in two significant microprocessor design philosophies (multi-core design and many-core design) resulted a 5-fold acceleration for the post-procedure module and a 40-fold acceleration for the real-time module. Some innovative software modules, which are still in testing phase, have been recently created to exploit the power of multiple GPUs together.
The Effective Personal Integration Model and Its Impact Upon Locus of Control with Clients in Group Counseling
No Description Available.
Effective Public Service Collaboration: The Role of Leadership and Nonprofit Organizations in Homeless Services
This dissertation investigates factors that facilitate effective collaboration of networks functioning within the context of a federal homeless policy—the HEARTH Act of 2009. While the federal legislation encourages networked collaboration to address the incidence of homelessness, not all networks are effective in achieving their intended purpose. Using a nationwide sample of homeless networks, this research explores the role that nonprofit organizations play in the collaborative process and models the effect of individual leadership, nonprofit-led network, and community nonprofit capacity on two levels of network effectiveness—network and community—using multivariate regression modeling. Results indicate that nonprofits play a significant role as participants of the collaboration process and as leading agents of homeless networks. In addition, the variation in network effectiveness is explained by multidimensional factors.
Effective Teachers in an Effective School: A Case Study
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the behavior of effective teachers working within the context of an effective school. The study focused on both the content and techniques of instruction utilized by the teachers. In addition, the research examined teacher behaviors that were external to the classroom setting, including teacher-to-teacher relationships, teacher-to-parent relationships, and teacher-to-principal relationships. A qualitative research design was selected for this study. The site was an inner city elementary campus. Data were collected from eleven K-3 teachers using participant observation and interviews over a seven-month period. Documents were also used as a source of data. The analysis of data was ongoing and cyclical based on the constant comparative method. The final analysis of data resulted in nine themes based on recurring patterns of teacher behavior. The findings suggest that a caring school culture plays an important role in a school's success and the effectiveness of its teachers. Furthermore, there does not appear to be a universal description that fits all effective teachers. Instead, effective teachers in an effective school function as autonomous decision makers in their classrooms, choosing the curriculum and techniques that work best for them and their students. They tend to focus on basic skills, especially reading and mathematics, using explicit direct instruction methods. However, these teachers frequently digress from their planned lessons to teach life skills and test-taking strategies. Findings for this study also support the creation of structured school and classroom environments for low-income inner city students. Student self-esteem and parental support are not negatively impacted when firm discipline is administered fairly in a caring, supportive school climate. The conclusions of this investigation have implications for teacher staff development and campus administrator training. The findings also suggest further research in the areas of school culture, direct instruction, student discipline, and classroom ...
An Effective Way of Teaching Mass Remedial Reading in the Intermediate Grades
The major purpose of this study was to determine the causes for reading difficulties of a group of fifth-grade children. On this study much emphasis was placed on selecting, preparing and applying appropriate remedial measures, and to ascertain the character and the amount of improvement in reading. In this particular study much emphasis was placed on the various methods used in teaching mass remedial reading.
Effectiveness in Company-sponsored Foundations : A Utilization of the Competing Values Framework
The purpose of this study was to determine the criteria used by foundation directors in assessing the effectiveness of contribution programs in company sponsored foundations. Quinn and Rohrbaugh's Competing Values Approach of organizational effectiveness was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The Competing Values Approach is an integrative effectiveness model which clusters eight criteria of effectiveness into four theoretical models of organizational effectiveness.
Effectiveness of a Child-Centered Self-Reflective Play Therapy Supervision Model
This study investigated the effectiveness of a child-centered self-reflective play therapy supervision model with master's level counselor education graduate students. Specifically, this research determined if the self-reflective play therapy supervision model facilitated significant change in the master's level play therapists': (a) child-centered attitude; (b) knowledge of child-centered play therapy; and (c) confidence in applying play therapy skills. This study also measured change in the skills of: (d) tracking behavior, (e) reflecting content, (f) reflecting feelings, (g) facilitating decision-making and self-responsibility, (h) facilitating esteem-building and encouragement, (i) encouraging the child to lead, (j) setting limits, (k) ability to be congruent, (l) quality of non-verbal responses and (m) quality of verbal responses. The experimental group students (N=15) utilized a 15 week self-reflective play therapy supervision model. This model consisted of a manual that reviewed the rationale and utilization of six therapeutic responses of child-centered play therapy, self-assessment forms that were completed after reviewing weekly play therapy session videos and weekly group supervision. The control group (N=15) received supervision during the 15 weeks but did not use the manual or the self-assessment forms. Prior to working with their first client and again at the end of the semester practicum, the play therapy supervisees completed the Play Therapy Attitude-Knowledge-Skills Survey. Each supervisee submitted a pre-tape and a post-tape of a play therapy session during their semester practicum. Four doctoral students rated play therapy session video tapes using the Play Therapy Skills Assessment form. The play therapy session video tapes were assessed by objective raters. An independent t-test utilizing the gain score as the dependent variable revealed that play therapy supervisees in the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in their ability to implement the skill of tracking behavior, facilitating decision-making and self-responsibility and facilitating esteem-building and encouragement. In addition, the experimental group supervisees ...
The Effectiveness of a Cholesterol Reduction Intervention Program Among Female Employees in a Corporate Setting
No Description Available.
Effectiveness of a Film Unit in Improving the Food Acceptance of Elementary School Children
Planned on the realization that teen-agers have a strong influence on younger children, this experiment proposes to use high school girls to assist with a foods unit developed by the use of films and designed to improve food acceptance and reduce plate waste in some of the elementary grades.
The Effectiveness of a Guided Discovery Method of Teaching in a College Mathematics Course for Non-Mathematics and Non-Science Majors
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the value, as determined by student achievement, of using a discovery method of teaching mathematics in a college freshman mathematics course for non-mathematics and non-science majors.
The Effectiveness of a Learning Strategies Course on College Student-Athletes' and Non-Athletes' Adjustment, Academic Performance, and Retention after the First Two Years of College
This study replicated and extended previous research I had performed that suggested that a student success course is an effective intervention to assist student-athletes in the adjustment to college. Participants in the current study included 4 groups of students, including (1) non-athletes and (2) student-athletes who were mandated and enrolled in the student success course, and (3) non-athletes and (4) student-athletes who were not mandated and did not enroll in the student success course. Overall, results from the current study suggested that the student success course was effective in helping non-athletes and student-athletes learn key cognitive strategies that are necessary for college success. In addition, results indicated that after taking the student success course, academically at-risk students earned equivalent grades, percentage of hours passed, and retention rates compared to their peers who were not classified as being academically underprepared. Finally, adjustment patterns of all groups were examined, with particular emphasis on the decrease in adjustment over the course of the semester that was demonstrated by the student-athletes. Intervention implications and future research directions are discussed, specifically in terms of how to address the unique needs of college freshmen student-athletes.
The Effectiveness of a Mediating Structure for Writing Analysis Level Test Items From Text Based Instruction
This study is concerned with the effect of placing text into a mediated structure form upon the generation of test items for analysis level domain referenced test construction. The item writing methodology used is the linguistic (operationally defined) item writing technology developed by Bormuth, Finn, Roid, Haladyna and others. This item writing methodology is compared to 1) the intuitive method based on Bloom's definition of analysis level test questions and 2) the intuitive with keywords identified method of item writing. A mediated structure was developed by coordinating or subordinating sentences in an essay by following five simple grammatical rules. Three test writers each composed a ten-item test using each of the three methodologies based on a common essay. Tests were administered to 102 Composition 1 community college students. Students were asked to read the essay and complete one test form. Test forms by writer and method were randomly delivered. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences among either methods or writers. Item analysis showed no method of item writing resulting in items of consistent difficulty among test item writers. While the results of this study show no significant difference from the intuitive, traditional methods of item writing, analysis level test item generation using a mediating structure may yet prove useful to the classroom teacher with access to a computer. All three test writers agree that test items were easier to write using the generative rules and mediated structure. Also, some relief was felt by the writers in that the method theoretically assured that an analysis level item was written.
Effectiveness of a Performance Contracting Program in Reading and Mathematics Relative to Educationally Deprived Secondary School Students
This study has two purposes. The first is to compare the academic skills achievement in reading and mathematics of students participating in a performance contracting program with the academic skills achievement of students not participating in the performance-based program. The second is to determine whether those students participating in the performance contracting program show a significantly different level of achievement (higher or lower) than the control group approximately four months after the conclusion of the program.
The effectiveness of a personal robot in presenting a sound/filmstrip as measured by a robotic technology achievement test
The problem of this study was to compare the effects of two methods of filmstrip presentation on student achievement. One method employed a personal robot to automatically advance a filmstrip projector in sequence with an audio cassette tape while the other method had a person manually advancing a filmstrip projector in sequence with an audio cassette tape.
The Effectiveness of a Professional Learning Community on Student Achievement in Elementary Reading and Mathematics in a Large Urban School District
The study was to determine the impact of a Professional Learning Community on student achievement as measured by the state's criterion referenced reading and mathematics achievement tests. Data for this study were extracted from the school district's student database. Two cohorts of 90 students each were randomly selected from a population of approximately 600 students in 3 schools that participated in a Professional Learning Community (treatment) and 3 schools that did not (control). Professional Learning Communities known as PLCs, can serve as a major theoretical framework to promote the improvement of classroom teachers' instructional practice, teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Reading and mathemtics mean scale scores were extracted at three time points (year 1, year 2, and year 3) across three grades (grade 3, grade 4 and grade 5). Test for equality of variance found that no statistically significant difference existed between the mean scale scores of the two cohorts at the beginning of the study. The findings revealed that both cohorts trend toward increased academic achievement from year to year individually; however, when compared to each other, no statistically significant difference existed. Further research is indicated to examine each PLC for implementation, support and leadership as they relate to the PLC and a focus on instruction and learning.
Effectiveness of a Reading Clinic by Levels
The purpose of this study was to identify reading achievement of pupils assigned to the reading clinic and analyze and compare this achievement by grade levels with levels of intelligence. More specifically, the investigation attempted to determine: 1. The grade level at which the reading clinic was most effective; 2. The intelligence level at which the reading clinic was most effective; 3. The statistical significance of the variation in group intelligence test IQ's; and 4. The correlation between group intelligence test IQ's and total reading achievement.
The Effectiveness of a Self-Instructional Approach to Teaching a College French Diction Course for Vocal Music Students
The primary purpose of the study was to test a self-instructional approach to teaching a college French diction course to determine if it would equal or surpass in effectiveness a course taught by a traditional approach. The study sought to provide a partial solution to the problems of the increasing student-teacher ration in colleges, and of the individualization of teaching students who have various learning rates and backgrounds.