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The Effect of Three Different Levels of Skill Training in Musical Timbre Discrimination on Alphabet Sound Discrimination in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different levels of skill training in musical timbre discrimination on alphabet sound discrimination in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children. The findings of prior investigations indicated similarities between aural music and language perception. Psychoacoustic and neurological findings have reported the discrimination of alphabet quality and musical timbre to be similar perceptual functions and have provided, through imaging technology, physical evidence of music learning simultaneously stimulating non-musical areas of the brain. This investigator hypothesized that timbre discrimination, the process of differentiating the characteristic quality of one complex sound from another of identical pitch and loudness, may have been a common factor between music and alphabet sound discrimination. Existing studies had not explored this relationship or the effects of directly teaching for transfer on learning generalization between skills used for the discrimination of musical timbre and alphabet sounds. Variables identified as similar from the literature were the discrimination of same- different musical and alphabet sounds, visual recognition of musical and alphabet pictures as sound sources, and association of alphabet and musical sounds with matching symbols. A randomized pre-post test design with intermittent measures was used to implement the study. There were 5 instructional groups. Groups 1, 2,and 3 received one, two and three levels of skill instruction respectively. Groups 4 received three levels of skill training with instruction for transfer; Group 5 traditional timbre instruction. Students were measured at the 5th (Level 1), 10th (Level 2), 14th (Level 3), and 18th (delayed re-test), weeks of instruction. Results revealed timbre discrimination instruction had a significant impact on alphabet sound-symbol discrimination achievement in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children. Different levels of timbre instruction had different degrees of effectiveness on alphabet sound discrimination. Students who received three levels of timbre discrimination instruction and were taught to ...
Date: May 2000
Creator: Battle, Julia Blair
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Three Different Types of High School Class Schedules (Traditional, Rotating Block, and Accelerated Block) on High School Biology Achievement and on Differences in Science Learning Environments

Description: This study analyzes the effect of three different high school scheduling options on the delivery of biology instruction, on student achievement, and on student perceptions of their instructional activities. Participants were biology students and teachers from twelve high schools in a north Texas urban school district of 76,000. Block classes had 11 to 18 percent less instructional time than traditional classes. Texas Biology I End-of-Course Examination achievement results for 3,195 students along with student and teacher surveys provided information on instructional activities, attitudes, and individualization. Using an analysis of variance at a j i< .01 the following results were found; student achievement was significantly different for each of the scheduled comparisons groups, test score means were not statistically significant between the scheduled comparison groups for different ethnic groups, economically disadvantaged students, and magnet students. No significant differences were found between the science learning activity index for each of the scheduled groups. Student response data when disaggregrated and reaggregrated into program groups found a statistically significant higher index of science activity at a p. < .01 for magnet students when compared to both the regular and honor students. Regular program students had a significantly higher index of individualization than honors program students. Accelerated and rotating block classes were found to hold a significantly more positive attitude about their science learning conditions than did the traditional students. These data suggest that during the first two years of block scheduling, the initial impact of block scheduling, where total time for science is reduced, results in lower student achievement scores when compared to traditionally scheduled classes. Yet, block scheduled student attitudes and perceptions about science learning are significantly more positive than the traditionally scheduled students.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Keller, Brenda J. (Brenda Jo), 1942-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Time-Compressed Speech on Comprehensive, Interpretative and Short-Term Listening

Description: Contemporary definitions of human listening suggest that it is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Short-term and interpretative listening may be viewed as important aspects of the listening process. However, research in time-compressed speech has focused on listening comprehension while not adequately treating other important types of listening. A broader view of the listening process would include all of the skills considered relevant to everyday human communication. This study examined the effect of time-compressed speech on comprehensive, interpretative and short-term listening. The Kentucky Comprehensive Listening Test was used to measure the three types of listening. Cut and splice tape editing was employed in the development of four master test tapes: a control tape presented at normal rate and tapes with test stimuli time-compressed by 30%, 45%, and 60%. Each of four randomly selected groups, 120 total subjects, was exposed to one of the four test tapes. The data from the test administrations was analyzed by analysis-of-variance and simple means tests. Results indicate that a statistically significant amount of the variance in comprehensive, interpretative and short-term listening scores may be explained by the manipulated variable, time-compression. However, the amount of variance-accounted-for is relatively low for both short-term and interpretative listening. Closer examination of the data indicates that short-term and interpretative listening test scores do not significantly decay until a high level of time-compression (60%) is reached. Conversely, in the case of comprehensive listening, a relatively linear relation exists between degree of time-compression and test scores. Significant drops in mean scores were found at more moderate levels of time-compression. The findings are discussed in light of differences between short-term and long-term memory. Comprehensive listening, which relies upon long-term memory, may suffer from a lack of adequate processing and encoding time which may be induced by time-compression. Short-term and Interpretative listening are processes which rely primarily ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: King, Paul Elvin
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Time on Training Retention Rates of United States Air Force Loadmaster Apprentice Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if extended periods of time out of the training environment has an effect on the retention of training. The rationale for conducting this study was based on the fact that little research has been done in this area. The findings of the study indicated that extensive periods of time out of training do significantly influence the amount of training retained fromone loadmaster course to the other. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between the number of days out of training and the posttest scores. The optimum training break between courses appears to be between 10 and 20 days. Training retention is apparently affected by time.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Canada, Angela F. (Angela Faye)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The effect of trade books on the environmental literacy of 11th and 12th graders in aquatic science.

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental literacy of 11th and 12th graders who participated in an eighteen-week environmental education program using trade books versus 11th- and 12th-graders who participated in an eighteen-week, traditional environmental education program without the use of trade books. This study was conducted using a quasi-experimental research technique. Four high school aquatic science classes at two suburban high schools were used in the research. One teacher at each high school taught one control class and one experimental class of aquatic science. In the experimental classes, four trade books were read to the classes during the eighteen-week semester. These four books were selected by the participating teachers before the semester began. The books used were A Home by the Sea, Sea Otter Rescue, There's a Hair in My Dirt, and The Missing Gator of Gumbo Limbo. The instrument used to measure environmental literacy was the Children's Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Scale. This test was given at the beginning of the semester and at the end of the semester. The scores at the end of the semester were analyzed by 2 X 2 mixed model ANOVA with the teacher as the random effect and the condition (trade books) as the fixed effect. The statistical analysis of this study showed that the students in the experimental classes did not score higher than the control classes on the Children's Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Scale or on a subset of "water" questions. Several limitations were placed on this research. These limitations included the following: (1) a small number of classes and a small number of teachers, (2) change from the original plan of using environmental science classes to aquatic science classes, (3) possible indifference of the students, and (4) restrictive teaching strategies of the teachers.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Lewis, Ann S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Training in Test Item Writing on Test Performance of Junior High Students

Description: Students in an inner city junior high school in North Central Texas participated in a study whose purpose was to examine the effect of training in test item construction on their later test performance. The experimental group underwent twelve weeks of instruction using the Test Item Construction Method (TICM). In these sessions students learned to develop test items similar to those on which they were tested annually by the state via the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS). The TICM aligned with state mandated test specifications.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Tunks, Jeanne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Trait Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Autogenic Training on Measures of Electromyography, Skin Temperature, and State Anxiety

Description: Twelve trait anxious male, federal prisoners with high self-esteem and twelve trait anxious male, federal prisoners with low self-esteem participated in the study. Subjects were selected from among those volunteering to participate and who met the scoring criteria on the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire and on the Self-Esteem Scale from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory II. Each volunteer participated in one session of approximately 50 minutes in length. Each subject was asked to respond to a medical/psychological interview, after which he was asked to listen to and follow a series of instructions (autogenic training). Throughout the session electromyographic and skin temperature measurements were taken from each subject's dominant forearm and non-dominant middle finger, respectively. At the end of the session each volunteer was asked to complete the STAI-State Scale. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of self-esteem as a moderator of trait anxiety. In addition, the study was designed to assess the effectiveness of autogenic training with this population. Results indicate no significant difference between high and low self-esteem subjects on measurements of electromyography/ F (1, 22) = .63, p > .05 or peripheral skin temperature F (1, 22) = .20 p > .05. However, a significant difference was found between high and low self-esteem subjects on the STAI-State Scale, F (22) = 4.45 p < .05. High self-esteem subjects obtained significantly lower raw scores than low self-esteem subjects on the state anxiety measurement. A significant difference was also found for the block of trial factor (baseline/relaxation periods) for the electromyography F (6, 132) = 3.43, p < .01, and peripheral skin temperature F (6, 132) = 6.32, p < .001 measurements. Results present partial support for the role of self-esteem as a moderating variable in trait anxious subjects. Self-esteem is conceptualized as a form of ...
Date: August 1992
Creator: Milan, Maritza J., 1958-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Trampoline Training and Tumbling on the Cardiovascular Efficiency of College Women

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine if subjects would improve in cardiovascular efficiency following a six-week program of trampolining and/or tumbling. Literature concerning cardiovascular efficiency, training, trampoline, testing instruments, test selection and maximal oxygen intake were thoroughly reviewed. The Astrand test of maximal oxygen intake and the Cooper twelve-minute run test of aerobic capacity were found to best fit the needs of the present study.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Bateman, Judith L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Transcranial Stimulation on the Mechanical Efficiency of Persons with Cerebral Palsy

Description: The problem of this study concerns the reduction of spasticity in physically handicapped persons with CP. The hypotheses tested were: that there would be no significant difference between the mechanical efficiency (ME) of persons with spastic CP following application of the TENS Unit and following application of the placebo unit; that there would be no significant difference between the ME of males with spastic CP, following application of the TENS Unit or the placebo unit, and the ME of females with spastic CP, following application of the TENS Unit or the placebo unit; and that there would be no significant interaction between the treatment factor and the gender category.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Logan, Michael P. (Michael Paul)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Two Methods of Programming upon the Development of the Orchestra in a Secondary School

Description: The present study was designed for the purpose of comparing the effectiveness of two methods of orchestral programming, demonstration and non-demonstration, upon (1) the musical perception of the members of a student body audience, and (2) the attitudes of the members of a student body toward orchestra as a school subject. This comparison of demonstration and non-demonstration programming involved the question concerning the effectiveness of instructive listening as compared with free listening in the development of musical perception and attitudes. The problem of the present study is presented in the following major areas: (1) musical perception, end (2) attitudes.
Date: June 1966
Creator: Boney, Joan Ellen, 1937-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Two Methods of Reporting Pupil Progress on Adjustment and Achievement of Fourth Grade Students in a Suburban Elementary School

Description: The present research was an investigation of the effect of two methods of reporting pupil progress on adjustment and achievement of fourth grade pupils in a suburban elementary school. One method involved the use of an evaluation form reflecting performance in terms of ability, parent-teacher conferences, and work samples. The other method was comprised primarily of competitive grading and marking procedures, utilizing a standard report card to report results.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Horn, John Duane, 1941-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Two Plans of Elementary School Organization on Rapid Learners and Non-Rapid Learners

Description: The primary purpose was to determine whether there were differences in the amount of change produced by two plans of elementary school organization for the instruction of rapid learners in order to develop a sound policy of organizing the elementary school. A secondary purpose was to determine the effects of the two plans on other pupils in the sections being studied.
Date: June 1962
Creator: Locke, Caroline Jane, 1912-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Type A and Type B Personality and Leadership Style on Absenteeism

Description: This study explored the relationship of Type A/B personality and leadership style to absenteeism. Absenteeism data were gathered for 243 male fire fighters and fire engineers. Each subject was administered the Jenkins Activity Scale to measure his Type A characteristics and the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire to measure his perception of his supervisor's leadership style. The results, though non-significant, revealed that: a) Type A's had less absenteeism than type B's; b) Subjects who perceived their supervisors as being low on consideration had less absenteeism than those who perceived their supervisors as being high on this dimension; c) Type A's absenteeism was low and Type B's was high when working under a leader perceived as low on structure. Finally, a weak but significant three-way interaction effect revealed that the highest amount of absenteeism occurred when Type B' s worked under supervisors who were high in consideration and low in structure. The least amount of absenteeism occurred when Type A's worked under supervisors who were high in structure and low in consideration.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Nichols, Judith Ann, 1957-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Using Class Discussion as a Pre-Writing Activity in Teaching Composition to ESL Students

Description: This study examines the effect of class discussion as a pre-writing activity on actual writing performance. The experiment was conducted with all the Level 3 and Level 4 students enrolled in the Intensive English Language Institute of North Texas State University in the Spring, 1986 semester. Cochrans C test was performed to test significant differences between groups at the beginning of this test. Multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to determine the treatment effect between and within groups, and a matched t-test was also utilized to analyze the difference within tests. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between the discussion activity score and the actual writing score. Analysis of covariance tests were used to determine which variance of discussion activities had greater effect on the actual writing score.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Bang, Hwa-Ja Park
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Value Co-creation and Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Commitment in Healthcare Management

Description: Despite much interest in service quality and various other service quality measures, scholars appear to have overlooked the overall concept of quality. More specifically, previous research has yet to integrate the effect of the customer network and customer knowledge into the measurement of quality. In this work, it is posited that the evaluation of quality is based on both the delivered value from the provider as well as the value developed from the relationships among customers and between customers and providers. This research examines quality as a broad and complex issue, and uses the “Big Quality” concept within the context of routine healthcare service. The last few decades have witnessed interest and activities surrounding the subject of quality and value co-creation. These are core features of Service-Dominant (S-D) logic theory. In this theory, the customer is a collaborative partner who co-creates value with the firm. Customers create value through the strength of their relations and network, and they take a central role in value actualization as value co-creator. I propose to examine the relationship between quality and the constructs of value co-creation. As well, due to the pivotal role of the decision-making process in customer satisfaction, I will also operationalize the value co-creation construct. Building upon the “Big Quality” concept, this study suggests a new approach by extending the quality concept to include the value-creation concept in Service Dominant Logic. This study identifies the associated constructs and determinants of Big Quality in routine healthcare management service, and examines the relationship among the associated quality constructs, customer satisfaction, and customer commitment. This study employed an online survey methodology to collect data. In data analysis, I used the variance-based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach to confirm the factor structure, proposed model, and test the research hypotheses. The results show that the customer’s ...
Date: August 2015
Creator: Kwon, Junhyuk
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Verbal and Graphic Feedback on Direct Care Trainers' Data-Tecording Behavior

Description: This study investigated the effects of verbal and graphic feedback alone and in combination with praise on the data-recording behavior of 12 direct care trainers (DCTs) who recorded their reinforcer deliveries as they interacted with mentally retarded clients. An additional variable examined was the effect of time of delivering feedback on subsequent data-recording behavior. Feedback was delivered by the experimenter. Correspondence checks were conducted and a three-phase multiple condition experimental design was used. All feedback conditions produced an observable difference in DCT data-recording behavior. Time of delivery of feedback also appeared to have an effect on the amount of data recorded by DCTs.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Morris, Timothy Jewlon
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Web-Based Support as an Adjunct to a Self-Help Smoking Cessation Program

Description: For the past quarter century, the public has been educated and warned about the dangers of smoking, and both smokers and health researchers have been in search of cost-effective, smoking cessation programs that will lead to long-term cessation. This study used a randomized experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of adding Web-based support materials to a nationally sponsored self-help smoking intervention. There was no significant increase in abstinence rates nor progression through the stages of change by those participants who had access to the Web site. However, there were some overall significant trends that suggested these self-help interventions were successful at decreasing daily rates of smoking and nicotine dependency, as well as tended to encourage repeated quit attempts. Although Web-based supports did not appear to increase the effectiveness of the nationally sponsored self-help intervention, this study demonstrated overall 12 week follow-up abstinence rates of 30-32%--greater than what might be expected, given average success rates of other self-help interventions. This study also supports the notion that women may face additional barriers to smoking cessation. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
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Date: August 2002
Creator: Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of White Noise on a Visual Discrimination Task

Description: Previous studies have demonstrated that in some instances certain types of auditory stimulation have facilitated a subject's ability at a visual task while in other instances, the subject's ability has been inhibited. The primary objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of auditory stimulation upon a subject's performance on a visual discrimination task.
Date: January 1969
Creator: Smith, James Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries