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Effects of Group Counseling and Group Discussion on Selected Personality Variables of First-Year Theology Students

Description: This study examined the use of group counseling and group discussion as a method of demonstrating changes on selected personality variables of first-year theology students. It was hypothesized that the subjects would become less dogmatic (more open-minded), motivated from a more internal locus of control, feel less anxious, and demonstrate greater creativity and self-concept following their participation in either group counseling or group discussion. Group counseling was hypothesized to be the best method for effecting changes. The subjects were first-year theology students at a southwestern theological seminary. These participants planned to work in some phase of ministry; several planning to be ordained as priests or to enter the deaconate. This study was based upon the premise that ministers often assume a counseling role and they therefore, need training in counseling skills and an opportunity to enhance their personal development. Group counseling and group discussion were explored as possible means to achieve these ends. Each of the five personality variables was measured on a pretest-posttest design. The subjects were tested prior to meeting in one of the two formats and tested again after fifteen hours of participation in one of the groups. A control group was also tested at these same times to allow for a comparison to be made as to which method was most effective. Chapter I presents a review of related literature on the five variables and the need for training of ministers in counseling skills and for providing an opportunity for self-growth. Chapter II states the procedures and includes definitions, the method of the study and a discussion of the instrumentation. Chapter III presents the results of the study and a discussion of the implications. Although the findings indicated some changes in the variables as predicted by the hypotheses, none of the changes was statistically significant. Therefore, ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Qualia, Linda R. (Linda Raffel)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Group Counseling upon Visual Perception and its Relationship to Other Forms of Perception

Description: The study of perception of visual images and the influence of counseling upon them has received little if any attention. This study was designed to investigate this uncharted area and to demonstrate the effects of counseling upon visual perception. The primary function of this investigation was to seek answers to the following questions. Is it possible for group counseling to have an effect on one's perception of visual stimuli? Will a counseling experience which produces a change in a person' behavior also cause that person to perceive visual images in a different way than he perceived them before counseling? In other words, does a concomitant relationship exist between visual perception and other forms of perception?
Date: May 1969
Creator: Berryman, Berle Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Group Membership upon Birth Order Differences in Anxiety and Affiliation

Description: The present study has a twofold purpose. First, it will attempt to ascertain whether ordinal position remains an effective discriminator of affiliative need and level of anxiety within the selective confines of a strong social organization, a college sorority; or whether the selective criterion of membership in the strong social organization tends to suppress the differences in affiliative need and level of anxiety between the ordinal positions. Secondly, it will attempt to further explore the relationship between affiliation and dependency.
Date: June 1963
Creator: Kennelly, Kevin Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Hearsee/Say and Hearsee/Write on Acquisition, Generalization and Retention.

Description: This study examines the effects of training in two yoked learning channels (hearsee/say and hearsee/write) on the acquisition, generalization and retention of learning. Four fifth-grade participants were taught the lower-case letters of the Greek alphabet. Twelve letters were taught in the hearsee/say channel and twelve letters taught in the hearsee/write channel for equal amounts of time. The see/say channel reached higher frequencies at the end of training and showed higher acquisition celerations than the see/write channel. However, the see/write channel showed higher accuracy and retention than the see/say channel. The see/write channel also showed greater generalization across learning channels including the see/say, think/say, think/write and see-name/draw-symbol.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Zanatta, Laraine Theresa
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback-assisted Stress Management Training on Pregnant Women and Fetal Heart Rate Measures.

Description: This study examined effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback-assisted stress management training in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women and the effect of maternal stress management skills practice on fetal heart rate measures in real time. Participants were seven working pregnant women who volunteered in response to recruitment announcements and invitations from cooperating midwives. Reported state and trait anxiety and pregnancy specific stress were measured during five 45- to 50-minute training sessions. Training included bibliotherapy, instruction in the use of emotion-focused stress management techniques, and HRV biofeedback. Subjects used portable biofeedback units for home practice and were encouraged to practice the skills for 20 minutes a day and for short periods of time during stressful life events. At the end of training, fetal heart rate was monitored and concurrent maternal HRV measures were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test analysis of study data revealed no statistically significant reductions in state or trait anxiety measures or in pregnancy specific stress measures. Partial eta squared (n²) and Cohen's d calculations found small to medium effect sizes on the various test scales. Friedman's analysis of variance of biofeedback measures showed a statistically significant decrease in low HRV coherence scores (X2 = 10.53, p = .03) and medium HRV coherence scores (X2 = 11.58, p = .02) and a statistically significant increase in high HRV coherence scores (X2 = 18.16, p = .001). This change is an indication of improved autonomic function. Results of concurrent maternal and fetal HRV recordings were generally inconclusive. A qualitative discussion of individual subject results is included. During follow-up interviews five subjects reported that they felt they were better able to cope with stress at the end of the study than at the beginning, that they used the stress management skills during labor, and that ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Keeney, Janice E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Heart-Rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students

Description: Student musicians were recruited to participate in an experimental repeated measures research design study to identify effects of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training and emotional self-regulation techniques, as recommended by HeartMath® Institute, on music performance anxiety (MPA) and music performance. Fourteen students were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group following a 5 minute unaccompanied baseline performance. Treatment group participants received 4-5 HRV training sessions of 30-50 minutes each. Training included bibliotherapy, using the computerized Freeze-Framer® 2.0 interactive training software, instruction in the Freeze-Frame® and Quick Coherence® techniques of emotional regulation, and also use of an emWave® portable heart rate variability training device for home training. Measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Performance Anxiety Inventory (PAI), Flow State Scale (FSS), average heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Quade's rank transformed ANCOVA was used to evaluate treatment and no-treatment group comparisons. Combined MPA scores showed statistical significance at p=.05 level with large effect size of eta2=.320. Individual measurements of trait anxiety showed a small effect size of eta2=.001. State anxiety measurement showed statistical significance at the p=.10 level with a large effect size eta2=.291. FSS showed no statistical or effect size difference. PAI showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.149. HR showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.143. HRV showed statistical significance at p=.000 level and a large effect size eta2=.698. This study demonstrated practical/clinical significance of a relatively quick and inexpensive biofeedback training that had large effect at decreasing mental, emotional, and physiological symptoms of MPA for university students.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Thurber, Myron Ross
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Satisfaction on Mall Consumption

Description: The modern consumer expects a consumption experience with both hedonic and utilitarian rewards during a single visit to the mall. The orchestrating of both hedonic and utilitarian benefits in one visit challenges mall management and retailers to deliver the maximum shopping experience. This study seeks to reveal relationships among six variables: demographic characteristics, mall shopping orientation, mall perception, hedonic satisfaction, utilitarian satisfaction, and mall consumption. The intercept survey was conducted at a major entertainment-themed mall in north Texas. Multiple regression analyses (N = 202) indicate that demographic characteristics and mall shopping orientation were significant predictors of mall perception. Also, two mall perception factors (Sensation and Physical Environment) were predictors of hedonic and utilitarian mall shopping satisfaction. However, hedonic and utilitarian mall shopping satisfaction were found not to predict mall consumption in terms of cross-shopping, money spent, and time spent.
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Date: August 2002
Creator: Buhrman, Tiffany
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Heparin on the Development of Resistance to Antibiotics by Staphylococcus Aureus

Description: Since heparin combines with some antibiotics to decrease the toxicity of the antibiotic to the patient, the purpose of this investigation is to determine whether it has any effect upon the development of resistance to antibiotics by Staphylococcus aureus.
Date: August 1959
Creator: Blanton, William George
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Hexadecanol on the Microbiota of Lake Hefner

Description: It seemed desirable to investigate more fully the effect of hexadecanol on the microbial population of a reservoir. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine the effect of hexadecanol on the micro-biota of Lake Hefner, to ascertain which organisms were stimulated by hexadecanol both in the laboratory and the reservoir, and to investigate the degradation of hexadecanol by microorganisms selected from Lake Hefner.
Date: May 1968
Creator: Dickson, Kenneth L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of High Altitude Exposure on Capillary Permeability

Description: Observations of decreases in plasma volume, shifts in plasma and lymph protein concentrations, and increases in capillary permeability at high altitude have been reported in the literature by several investigators. This investigation was begun in an attempt to elucidate the possible significance of these phenomena in future space exploration, and because of the lack of knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of exposure to hypobaric pressures on the capillary permeability to the normal plasma and lymph proteins.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Reaves, Troy Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Homework Sessions on Undergraduate Students' Homework Performance

Description: Experimenters evaluated the effects of a homework session on undergraduate students' homework performance through an adapted alternating treatments design in two introduction to behavior analysis courses. Several participants attended homework sessions; however, homework submission and homework mastery did not vary as a function of homework session attendance or availability. Homework submission remained high throughout the experiment regardless of attendance at or availability of a homework session. Many participants responded that they were not interested in or did not need homework sessions. Participants who attended homework sessions rated them as neutral or helpful overall, with longer time and different time as the most common suggestions for improvement.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Hamilton, Elissa R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Hypothermia on the Release of Cardiac Enzymes

Description: The myocardium is known to release CPK, LDH1 , and GOT in response to ischemia as a result of myocardial infarction. This study was designed to induce the release of cardiac enzymes without adversely effecting the myocardium by perfusion hypothermia, thereby suggesting that these enzymes are not as specific in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction as once thought. Hypothermia was by in vivo perfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Enzyme activity was measured from sera samples spectrophotometrically and electrophoretically. Significant CPK and LDH1 increases were observed in animals perfused between 25 and 19 C. These results indicate that, while heart function remained unchanged, an alteration occurred in the membrane integrity of the myocardial cells.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Strawn, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Imaging Ability, Guided Imagery, and Source of Themes on Interview Verbal Behavior

Description: Eighty four female undergraduate students participated in a psychotherapy analog study to determine the effects of imagery ability, guided imagery therapy treatments, and personal versus supplied constructs upon self-disclosure variables in a 2 x 3 x 2 Anova design, with repeated measures on the final factor. Dependent variables were measured by reaction time, total talk time, speech duration, silence quotient, and Doster's (1971) Self-Disclosure Rating Scale. Subjects were divided into two imagery ability levels on the basis of local mean scores on Sheehan's (1967) modification of Betts' (1909) Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery. Three treatment procedures were employed: a guided focal imagery treatment, which encouraged imagery involving the interpersonal topics to be discussed, a guided relaxation imagery treatment which used standard sensory relaxation scenes, and a treatment which imparted ambiguous instructions. The final factor was repeated measures of the eight negative topics the subjects were asked to discuss. Four were chosen from the subjects' Role Construct Repertory Test grid (Kelly, 1955; Landfield, 1971), and four were selected from the Semantic Differential (Snider & Osgood, 1969).
Date: December 1985
Creator: Wixson, Sandra Werre
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Immaturity on Juveniles’ Miranda Comprehension and Reasoning

Description: Over the last several decades, researchers have documented how impaired reasoning by adult offenders impeded the intelligent waiver of Miranda rights. Logically, it stands to reason that juveniles – who are developmentally less mature and have less life experience than their adult counterparts – would possess even greater impairment, thereby heightening their risk for invalid Miranda waivers. Juvenile Miranda research supports this notion; with some researchers finding that psychosocial maturity, among other factors, affect a juvenile’s understanding of their rights. Yet, relatively few studies have examined its relation to Miranda reasoning and decision-making. Thus, the current study investigated the specific role of maturity in juveniles’ Miranda comprehension and reasoning. Participants included 236 legally-involved juveniles recruited from either a juvenile detention center or a juvenile justice alternative education program. The effects of psychosocial maturity were examined on a variety of Miranda-related measures and assessed a broad range of Miranda abilities. It was found that, in general, immature juveniles performed more poorly on all Miranda measures as compared to their mature counterparts. However, the impact of maturity varied considerably depending on the ability. Specifically, maturity was most important in the context of Miranda reasoning. As a novel addition to the literature, the current study also investigated the effects of developmental timing on maturity (i.e., immaturity-delayed versus immaturity-expected) on Miranda abilities.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Sharf, Allyson J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Implementing a Competency-Based Performance Management System on Measures of Sales Performance

Description: Use of competency models has exploded in recent years. Unfortunately, the empirical research to validate such systems is scarce. This study explores the relationship between Competency-based Performance Management Systems and sales performance to determine whether the use of these systems increases performance. Performance data from sales representatives in a medical products company were examined to determine changes in performance following the introduction of the Competency-based Performance Management System (N=64). Correlations with performance were obtained for each competency dimension to determine if any factors were highly correlated with performance and if state-factors were more positively correlated with performance than trait-factors (N=66). The study found no significant relationship between implementation of a Competency-based Performance Management System and sales performance. Also state-factors were not more positively correlated with sales performance than trait-factors.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Lynch, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Inbreeding on Fitness Traits in the Critically Endangered Attwater’s Prairie-chicken

Description: The goals of captive breeding programs for endangered species include preserving genetic diversity and avoiding inbreeding. Typically this is accomplished by minimizing population mean kinship; however, this approach becomes less effective when errors in the pedigree exist and may result in inbreeding depression, or reduced survival. Here, both pedigree- and DNA-based methods were used to assess inbreeding depression in the critically endangered Attwater’s prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). Less variation in the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients and parental relatedness values were observed compared to DNA-based measures suggesting that errors exist in the pedigree. Further, chicks identified with high parental DNA-based relatedness exhibited decreased survival at both 14- and 50-days post-hatch. A similar pattern was observed in later life stages (> 50 days post-hatch) with birds released to the wild; however, the pattern varied depending on the time post-release. While DNA-based inbreeding coefficient was positively correlated with mortality to one month post-release, an opposite pattern was observed at nine months suggesting purging of deleterious alleles. I also investigated whether immunocompetence, or the ability to produce a normal immune response, was correlated with survival; however, no significant correlation was observed suggesting that inbreeding was a more important factor influencing survival. Pairing individuals for breeding by minimizing DNA-based parental relatedness values resulted in a significant increase in chick survival. This study highlights the importance of using DNA-based methods to avoid inbreeding depression when errors exist in the pedigree.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Hammerly, Susan C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Incentive and Frustrative Cues on the Acquisition of an Alleyway Running Response in Rats

Description: The motivational properties of Longstreth's (1970) definitions of incentive and frustrative cues were tested using 32 rats in a two phase straight alleyway experiment. During pretraining, incentive cue Ss were presented a visual cue prior to reinforcement; frustrative cue Ss experienced the visual cue simultaneously with reinforcement. Ss encountered the same cue in mid-alley during 40 CRF training trials. Significant inhibition developed as frustrative cue Ss passed through the cue and postcue segments. Significant incentive effects occurred midway through training only in the postcue segment. Differential resistance to extinction was not found. The results did not support all of Longstreth's assumed functions. The motivational effects were interpreted using Spence's and Amsel's instrumental learning paradigms.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Morey, John Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Increased Equipment Speed on Online Database Searching Practices

Description: This study reports changes in online database searching at North Texas State University when equipment speed was increased. Data were from database vendor invoices and price and sale data of online equipment. The hypotheses examined the relationship between the decrease in the cost of online equipment and the change to faster online equipment and the change in the number of databases that changed for online types. The change in equipment was related to changes in the number of offline prints per hour, the average time per search, the average number of descriptors per search, the number of searches per month, and the rank order of database use over the studied period. The increase in the number of databases with billed types was related to the number of online billed types produced. The number of prints was related to the number of billed types. Time spent online was examined for annual seasonal cycles. The major statistical tool was time-series analysis, although other methods were applied.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Masters, Gary E. (Gary Everett)
Partner: UNT Libraries