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Investigation of Ultratrace Metallic and Organic Contaminants in Semiconductor Processing Environments

Description: Detection of ultratrace levels of metallic ion impurities in hydrofluoric acid solutions and alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution was demonstrated using a silicon-based sensing electrode. The sensor's operation principle is based on direct measurements of the silicon open-circuit potential shift generated by the interaction between metallic ions and the silicon-based sensing surface. The new sensor can have practical applications in the on-line monitoring of microelectronic chemical processing. The detection of Ag+ content in KODAK waste water was carried out successfully by this novel sensor. Trace levels of organic impurities in the hydrofluoric acid solutions and in the cleanroom air were characterized by multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy (MIRIS) using an organics probe prepared directly from a regular silicon wafer.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Xu, Fei, 1971-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigations of Thermochemistry and the Kinetics of H Atom Radical Reactions

Description: The thermochemistry of several species, and the kinetics of various H atom radical reactions relevant to atmospheric and combustion chemistry were investigated using ab initio theoretical techniques and the flash photolysis / resonance fluorescence technique. Using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations up to the G3 level of theory, the C-H bond strengths of several alkanes were calculated. The bond strengths were calculated using two working reactions. From the results, it is apparent that the bond strengths decrease as methyl groups are added to the central carbon. The results are in good agreement with recent experimental halogenation kinetic studies. Hydrogen bond strengths with sulfur and oxygen were studied via CCSD(T) theory, together with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. The results for the bond dissociation energies (ground state at 0 K, units: kJ mol-1) are: S-H = 349.9, S-D = 354.7, HS-H = 376.2, DS-D = 383.4, and HO-H = 492.6. These data compare well with experimental literature. The rate constants for the isotopic reactions of H + H2S, D + H2S, H + D2S, and D + D2S are studied at the QCISD(T)/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The contributions of the exchange reaction versus abstraction are examined through transition state theory. The energy of NS was computed via CCSD(T) theory, together with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. The results were employed with three working reactions to find ΔfH0(NS) = 277.3 ± 2 kJ mol-1 and ΔfH298(NS) = 278.0 ± 2 kJ mol-1. This thermochemistry is consistent with, but much more precise than, earlier literature values. A kinetic study of the reaction of H + CH2CCl2 was conducted over the temperature range of 298 - 680 K. The reaction was found to be pressure dependent and results of the rate constants and their interpretation via unimolecular rate theory are ...
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Date: December 2002
Creator: Peebles, Lynda Renee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ion Chromatography of Soluble Cr(III) and Cr(VI)

Description: Ion chromatography coupled with a conductivity detector was used to investigate the analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in aqueous samples. An IC methodology for Cr(III) was developed using a cation column and an eluent containing tartaric acid, ethylenediamine, and acetonitrile at pH 2.9. The detection limit of this method can reach 0.1 ppm level with good precision. Several operational parameters were evaluated during the regular use of the method. Comparison of the IC method with AA method showed good agreement between the two methods. The anion exchange column was used for Cr(VI) determination. The best results were obtained with an eluent containing sodium gluconate, borate buffer, glycerin, and acetonitrile. The retention time for the Cr207 2 - sample was 11 min. and the calibration curve was linear between 1.0 and 100 ppm.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Huang, Julie Shiong-Jiun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isolation and Characterization of Proteus vulgaris Methylglyoxal Synthetase

Description: Methylglyoxal synthetase, which catalyzes the formation of methylglyoxal and inorganic phosphate from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, was found in extracts of Proteus vulgaris. An efficient purification procedure utilizing ion exchange column chromatography and isoelectric focusing has been developed. Homogeneity of the enzyme preparation was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and rechromatography.Two components of methylglyoxal synthetase were obtained upon isoelectric focusing. A comparison of the chemical and physical properties of the two components was carried out. The enzyme is a dimer. In the presence of inorganic phosphate, the hyperbolic saturation kinetics with dihydroxyacetone phosphate are shifted to sigmoidal.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Tsai, Pei-Kuo
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isolation and Partial Characterization of Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase and High Density Lipoprotein from Hog Plasma

Description: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was purified 30,000-fold from hog plasma in a homogeneous state as indicated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 66,000 and was found to contain about 21.4 percent (w/w) carbohydrate. The properties of hog LCAT including amino acid composition were compared with human LCAT. High density lipoprotein (HDL) was isolated from the hog plasma by an immunoaffinity column chromatography. The isolated HDL showed nearly identical lipid-protein composition although it contained additional protein components when it was compared to HDL isolated by a traditional method involving ultracentrifugation.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Park, Yong Bok
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isozymes and In Vivo Activity of Triosephosphate Isomerase

Description: The distribution of isozymes of triosephosphate isomerase was normal in all human tissues examined. This finding argues against the existence of tissue-specific isozymes. Normal distributions of isozymes were also found in patients with cri-du-chat syndrome. Thus it is unlikely that a gene for triosephosphate isomerase is located on the short arm of chromosome five in man. When triosephosphate isomerases from a wide range of species were examined by starch gel electrophoresis, definite evolutionary patterns were found. Kinetic studies were conducted on human triosephosphate isomerase under conditions simulating the intracellular environment of the erythrocyte. Calculations using the kinetic parameters obtained indicate that even in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency disease, enough enzyme activity remains that the rate of glycolysis should not become inhibited.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Snapka, Robert Morris
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ketene Carbodiimide Cycloadditions

Description: It was proposed to study the cycloaddition of ketenes and carbodiimides in some detail. The first objective was to investigate the general applicability of the reaction as a tool for the synthetic organic chemist in the preparation of a new class of substituted β-lactams; i.e., imino-β-lactams. It was proposed for this part of the research problem to look for the intermediate, either directly or indirectly, by trapping experiments. It was further proposed to study substituent effects in the ketene and carbodiimide and also Investigate the effect of solvent polarity on the reaction rate. From these data, it was hoped that the mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction could be elucidated.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Dorsey, Edwin Darrell
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ketene Reactions: I. The Addition of Acid Chlorides to Dimethylketene ; II. The Cycloaddition of Ketenes to Carbonyl Compounds

Description: Part I describes the addition of several acid chlorides to dimethylketene. The resulting 3-ketoacid chlorides were isolated and characterized. Part II describes the cycloaddition of several aldoketenes to chloral. The ketenes were generated in situ by dehydrohalogenation and dehalogenation of appropriately substituted acyl halides.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Smith, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Investigation of the Gas Phase Atomic Sulfur and Nitrogen Dioxide Reaction

Description: The kinetics of the reaction of atomic sulfur and nitrogen dioxide have been investigated over the temperature range 298 to 650 K and pressures from 14 - 405 mbar using the laser flash photolysis - resonance fluorescence technique. The overall bimolecular rate expression k (T) = (1.88 ± 0.49) x10-11 exp-(4.14 ± 0.10 kJ mol-1)/RT cm3 molecule-1 s-1 is derived. Ab initio calculations were performed at the CCSD(T)/CBS level of theory and a potential energy surface has been derived. RRKM theory calculations were performed on the system. It is found that an initially formed SNO2 is vibrationally excited and the rate of collisional stabilization is slower than the rate of dissociation to SO + NO products by a factor of 100 - 1000, under the experimental conditions.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Thompson, Kristopher Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic studies and computational modeling of atomic chlorine reactions in the gas phase.

Description: The gas phase reactions of atomic chlorine with hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, benzene, and ethylene are investigated using the laser flash photolysis / resonance fluorescence experimental technique. In addition, the kinetics of the reverse processes for the latter two elementary reactions are also studied experimentally. The absolute rate constants for these processes are measured over a wide range of conditions, and the results offer new accurate information about the reactivity and thermochemistry of these systems. The temperature dependences of these reactions are interpreted via the Arrhenius equation, which yields significantly negative activation energies for the reaction of the chlorine atom and hydrogen sulfide as well as for that between the phenyl radical and hydrogen chloride. Positive activation energies which are smaller than the overall endothermicity are measured for the reactions between atomic chlorine with ammonia and ethylene, which suggests that the reverse processes for these reactions also possess negative activation energies. The enthalpies of formation of the phenyl and β-chlorovinyl are assessed via the third-law method. The stability and reactivity of each reaction system is further rationalized based on potential energy surfaces, computed with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical methods and refined through the inclusion of effects which arise from the special theory of relativity. Large amounts of spin-contamination are found to result in inaccurate computed thermochemistry for the phenyl and ethyl radicals. A reformulation of the computational approach to incorporate spin-restricted reference wavefunctions yields computed thermochemistry in good accord with experiment. The computed potential energy surfaces rationalize the observed negative temperature dependences in terms of a chemical activation mechanism, and the possibility that an energized adduct may contribute to product formation is investigated via RRKM theory.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Alecu, Ionut M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Studies and Vibrational Spectra of Disubstituted Metal Carbonyls

Description: The oxidative elimination reactions of (5-X-phen)Mo(C0)₄ (X = H, CH₃, Cl, NO₂; phen = o-phenanthroline) and (3,4,7,8-(CH₃)₄-phen)Mo(CO)₄ with mercuric chloride in acetone have been investigated. In these reactions, a carbon monoxide group is replaced by two univalent ligands, accompanied by the corresponding increase in coordination number and formal oxidation state of the central metal atom, to give products of the type, (X-phen)Mo(CO)₃(Cl)HgCl. With the exception of (3,4,7,8-(CH₃)₄-phen), the substituted o-phenanthrolines were selected so as to minimize steric differences from one substrate to another while obtaining the widest range of pKₐ of the ligand.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Jernigan, Robert Thorne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Studies of Hydroxyl and Hydrogen Atom Reactions

Description: Gas phase kinetics of the reactions involving hydroxyl radical and hydrogen atom were studied using experimental and ab initio theoretical techniques. The rate constant for the H + H2S reaction has been measured from 298 to 598 K by the laser photolysis/resonance fluorescence (LP-RF) technique. The transition state theory (TST) analysis coupled with the measurements support the suggestion that the reaction shows significant curvature in the Arrhenius plot. The LP-RF technique was also used to measure the rate constant of the H + CH3Br reaction over the temperature range 400-813 K. TST and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the dominant reaction channel is Br-abstraction. The reaction H + CF2=CF-CF=CF2 was first studied by flash photolysis/resonance fluorescence (FP-RF) method. The experiments of this work revealed distinctly non-Arrhenius behavior, which was interpreted in terms of a change in mechanism. DFT calculations suggest that the adduct is CF2H-CF•-CF=CF2. At lower temperatures a mixture of this molecule and CF2•-CFH-CF=CF2 is likely. The theoretical calculations show that H atom migrates in the fluoroethyl radicals through a bridging intermediate, and the barrier height for this process is lower in the less fluorinated ethyl radical. High level computations were also employed in studies of the rate constants of OH + chloroethylenes reactions. VTST calculations indicate that, except the reaction of OH + C2Cl4, these reactions present a complex behavior. For OH + C2Cl4, conventional TST calculation shows a simple positive temperature-dependence behavior.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Hu, Xiaohua
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Studies of the Reactions of Alkyl and Silyl Hydrides

Description: The Kinetics of the reactions involving alkyl and silyl hydrides were studied by the flash photolysis / resonance fluorescence technique. The reactions of alkyl radicals (R = C₂H₅, i-C₃H₇, t-C₄H₉) with HBr have been studied at room temperature and the rate constants obtained (units are in cm³ s^-1 ) are: k₃.₃ = (7.01 ± 0.15) x 10^-12, k₃.₂ = (1.25 ± 0.06) x 10^-11, k₃.₁ = (2.67 ± 0.13) x 10^-11 These results, combined with previously determined reverse rate constants and other kinetic information, yield bond dissociation enthalpies (units in kJ mol^-1) at 298 K : primary C-H in C₂H₅-H (423.6 ± 2), secondary C-H in i-C₃H₇-H (409.9 ± 2), tertiary C-H in t-C₄H₉-H (405.1 ± 2). These rate constants and bond energies are in good agreement with previous results.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Yuan, Jessie (Jessie Win-Jae)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Studies of the Reactions of Cl and Br with Silane and Trimethylsilane

Description: The temperature dependence of the reactions of halogen atoms Cl and Br with SiH4 and (CH3)3SiH have been investigated with the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. CCI4 and CH2Br2 were used as precursors to produce Cl and Br atoms, respectively. Experiments gave {k(Cl + SiH4) (295 - 472 K)} = (1.56 +0.11) x 10-1 exp[(2.0 + 0.2) kJ mol'/RT] cm3 s4, {k(Br + SiH4)(295 - 575 K)} = (9.0 + 1.5) x 10-" exp[-(17.0 + 0.6) Id mol'/RT] cm3 s', {k(Cl + (CH3)3SiH)(295 - 468 K)} = (1.24 0.35) x 104 exp[(1.3 + 0.8) Id mol4/RT] cm3 s', and {k(Br + (CH3)3SiH)(295 - 456 K)} = (7.6 + 3.3) x 1010 exp[-(28.4 + 1.3) Id mol'/RT] cm3 s'. The results were compared with values from earlier work.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Ding, Luying
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Study of Ligand Exchange in mu-(2,2,8,8-Tetramethyl-3,7- Dithianonane)-Decacarbonylditungsten(0)

Description: The substitution reaction of (DTN)W2 (CO)10 with P(OCH(CH3 )2 )3 is a stepwise reaction. The kinetics of step 1 follow the equation: -d[substrate] /dt = kld [substrate] + k la [substrate] [ligand]. Thus the mechanism of step 1 is expected to be a competition between dissociative and associative pathways. The kinetics of step 2 follow the equation: -d[(DTN)W(CO)5]/dt = k2dk3[(DTN)W(CO)5][ligand]/k-2[DTN] + k3[ligand] The plot of kobsd versus [ligand] thus is a hyperbolic curve and the plot of 1/kobsd versus 1/[L] exhibits linear behavior. A mechanism for step 2 in which (DTN)W(CO)5 dissociates to an intermediate, W(CO) 5 , and in which DTN and P(OCH(CH3 )2 )3 compete to associate with W(CO) 5 is favored. The dissociative rate constant of the first step, kld' is about 1.2 times of that of the second step, k2d. The dissociation of (DTN)W(CO) 5 from (DTN)W2 (CO) 1 0 is favored over the dissociation of DTN from (DTN)W(CO) 5 due to a combination of the steric, stoichiometric, charge repulsion and entropy effects of the reaction.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Yang, Sang-Nin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Study of the Reactions of Chlorine Atoms with Fluoromethane and Fluoromethane-d3 in the Gas Phase

Description: The kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of chlorine atoms with fluoromethane (CH3F) and fluoromethane-d3(CD3F) were tested experimentally. The relative rate method was applied by using CH4 as the reference compound for fluoromethane (CH3F) and CH4 and CH3F as the reference compound for fluoromethane-d3(CD3F). The rate constants for H-abstraction from CH3F and D-abstraction from CD3F were measured at room temperature and a total pressure of 920 Torr using Ar as a diluent. The rate constants are described by the expressions: kH= (3.50±0.52) x 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kD=(5.0±0.51) x 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The kinetic isotope effect, equal to the ratio kH/kD, was found to be 7.0±1.2 at room temperature.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Shao, Kejun
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Kinetic Study of the Recombination Reacton Na + SO₂ + Ar

Description: The recombination reaction Na + S02 + Ar was investigated at 787 16 K and at pressures from 1.7 to 80 kPa. NaI vapor was photolyzed by an excimer laser at 308 nm to create Na atoms, whose concentration was monitored by time-resolved resonance absorption at 589 nm. The rate constant at the low pressure limit is ko = (2.7 0.2) x 10-21 cm6 molecule-2 s~1. The Na-SO 2 dissociation energy E0 = 170 35 kJ mol1 was calculated with RRKM theory. The equilibrium constant gave a lower limit E0 > 172 kJ mol~ 1. By combination of these two results, E0 = 190 15 kJ mol~ 1 is obtained. The high pressure limit is k, = (1 - 3) x 10-10 cm3 molecule 1 s~1, depending on the extrapolation method used. Two versions of collision theory were employed to estimate k,.. The 'harpoon' model shows the best agreement with experiment.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Shi, Youchun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Diphenylketene Cycloadditions

Description: From a review of the published work in the field of cycloadditions, it is evident that further research is needed to establish the mechanism of ketene cycloadditions. This work was initiated with the intent of obtaining kinetic data which will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of ketene cycloadditions.
Date: August 1967
Creator: O'Neal, Hubert Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Metal Carbonyls

Description: Pulsed laser flash photolysis with both visible and infrared detection has been applied to the study of the displacement of weakly coordinating ligands (Lw) by strongly "trapping" nucleophiles (Ls) containing either an olefinic functionality (Ls = 1-hexene, 1-decene, 1-tetradecene) or nitrogen (Ls = acetonitrile, hydrocinnamonitrile) from the photogenerated 16 electron pentacarbonylchromium (0) intermediate. 5-Chloropent-l-ene (Cl-ol), a potentially bidentate ligand, has been shown to form (ol-Cl) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to Cr via a lone pair on the chlorine, and isomerize to (Cl-ol) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to the olefinic functionality on the submillisecond time scale. This process has been studied in both the infrared and visible region employing both fluorobenzene or n-heptane as the "inert" diluent. Parallel studies employing 1-chlorobutane and 1-hexene were also evaluated and showed great similiarity with the Cl-ol system. The data supported a largely dissociative process with a possibility of a small interchange process involving the H's on the alkyl chain. Studies were also carried out for various Cr(CO)6/arene/Ls systems (arene = various alkyl or halogenated substituted benzenes). The data indicated that for both C6H5R (R=various alkyl chains) or multi-alkyl substituted arenes (i.e. o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene) containing an "unhindered" ring-edge, bonding to the the Cr(CO)5 moiety occurs "edge on" via a partially delocalized center of unsaturation on the ring. The data indicated that both electronic and steric properties of the arenes influence the kinetics, and that an interchange pathway takes place at least, in part, through the alkyl chains on both the arenes and "trapping" nucleophiles. Moreover, halogenated arenes bond through the lone pair on the halogen for both CI- and Br- derivatives but "edge-on" for the fluorinated arenes. Finally, in the case of arene complexes without and "unhindered" ring-edge (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylbenzene) bonding can occur either "edge-on" or through the ring ...
Date: May 1998
Creator: Ladogana, Santino
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetics of Reactions of Substituted Group VI B Metal Carbonyls with Phosphites

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is twofold. The initial part of the problem was to prepare a non-sterically demanding bidentate phosphine ligand, 1,2-bis-(Phosphino)ethane, (P-en), and to determine the kinetics of (P-en)Mo(CO)4 with phosphites via spectrophotometric methods in an attempt to determine if steric effects are directing the type of mechanism followed.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Rettenmaier, Albert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetics Studies of Substituted Tungsten Carbonyl Complexes

Description: Thermal reactions and flash photolysis are used to study the olefin bond-migration promoted by tungsten carbonyls. Substitution of piperidine (pip) by 2- allylphenyldiphenylphosphine (adpp) in the cis-(pip)(η^1- adpp)W(CO)-4 complex was investigated, and no olefin bond-migration was observed. This suggests that a vacant coordinated site adjacent to the coordinated olefin is an essential requirement for olefin bond rearrangement. The rates of olefin attack on the photogenerated coordinatively unsaturated species, cis-[(CB)(η^1-ol- P)W(CO)-4] (CB = chlorobenzene, p-ol = Ph-2P(CH-2)-3CH=CH-2; n = 1-4) were measured. Kinetics data obtained both in pure CB and in CB/cyclohexane mixtures support a dissociative mechanism in which the W-CB bond is broken in the transition state. In contrast to results observed in studies of other related systems, no olefin bond-migration is noted. This observation is attributed to P-W coordination at all stages of the reaction, which precludes formation of a reactive intermediate containing a vacant coordination site adjacent to a P-ol bond.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Wang, I-Hsiung, 1950-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Layered Double Hydroxides and the Origins of Life on Earth

Description: A brief introduction to the current state of research in the Origins of Life field is given in Part I of this work. Part II covers original research performed by the author and co-workers. Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) systems are anion-exchanging clays that have the general formula M(II)xM(III)(OH)(2x+2)Y, where M(II) and M(III) are any divalent and trivalent metals, respectively. Y can be nearly any anion, although modern naturally occuring LDH systems incorporate carbonate (CO32-), chloride (Cl-), or sulfate (SO42-) anions. Intercalated cobalticyanide anion shows a small yet observable deviation from local Oh symmetry causing small differences between its oriented and non-oriented infrared spectra. Nitroprusside is shown to intercalate into 2:1 Mg:Al LDH with decomposition to form intercalated ferrocyanide and nitrosyl groups of an unidentified nature. The [Ru(CN)6]4- anion is shown to intercalate into layered double hydroxides in the same manner as other hexacyano anions, such as ferrocyanide and cobalticyanide, with its three-fold rotational axis perpendicular to the hydroxide sheets. The square-planar tetracyano-nickelate(II), -palladate(II), and platinate(II) anions were intercalated into both 2:1 and 3:1 Mg:Al layered double hydroxides (LDH). The basal spacings in the 2:1 hosts are approximately 11 Å, indicating that the anions are inclined approximately 75 degrees relative to the hydroxide layers, while in the 3:1 hosts the square-planar anions have enough space to lie more nearly parallel to the LDH cation layers, giving basal spacings of approximately 8 Å. It has been found that the LDH Mg2Al(OH)6Cl catalyzes the self-addition of cyanide, to give in a one-pot reaction at low concentrations an increased yield of diaminomaleonitrile and in addition, at higher ($0.1M) concentrations, a purple-pink material that adheres to the LDH. We are investigating whether this reaction also occurs with hydrotalcite itself, what is the minimum effective concentration of cyanide, and what can be learned about the products ...
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Date: May 2001
Creator: Brister, Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries