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Eutrophication Monitoring and Prediction

Description: Changes in trophic status are often related to increases or decreases in the allocthonous inputs of nutrients from changes in land use and management practices. Lake and reservoir managers are continually faced with the questions of what to monitor, how to monitor it, and how much change is necessary to be considered significant. This study is a compilation of four manuscripts, addressing one of these questions, using data from six reservoirs in Texas.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Cairns, Stefan H., 1949-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Quantitative Analysis of the Gabaergic System in Cat Primary Somatosensory Cortex and Its Relation to Receptive Field Properties

Description: Sensory neocortex contains a significant number of inhibitory neurons that use gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their neurotransmitter. Functional roles for these neurons have been identified in physiological studies. For example, in primary somatosensory cortex (SI), blockade of GABAa receptors with bicuculline leads to expansion of receptive fields (RFs). The magnitude of RF enlargement varies between SIpopulations of GABAergic neurons were identified by labeling specific calcium binding proteins.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Li, Jianying
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stock and Species Identification of Selected Marine Fishes and Shellfishes Using Allozyme Analysis and Isoelectric Focusing: Implications for Texas Fisheries Management

Description: Allozyme frequencies and general protein patterns were surveyed among selected Texas marine fishes and shellfishes to illustrate the application of biochemical genetic techniques to stock and species identification in fisheries management.
Date: May 1992
Creator: King, Timothy L. (Timothy Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Temporal and Spatial Comparisons of Ambient Toxicity of the Trinity River in Relationship to an Effluent

Description: A toxicological study was initiated because of concerns about allegations that the Texas Water Commission that effluent from the Dallas Central Wastewater Treatment Plant, which discharges into the Trinity River, was affecting downstream water quality. Monthly, flow-weighted composite effluent samples were collected. Grab samples were also collected upstream and downstream from the effluent from April 1989 to August 1991. Toxicity tests were conducted on these samples using Ceriodaphnia dubia as the test organism. Samples were collected four times during this study in which rainfall occurred prior to sampling. In every instance, this "first flush" of the watershed during a rising hydrograph was toxic to C. dubia upstream. Analyzing toxicity by season resulted in a statistically significantly lower neonate production in the effluent than in the river samples during the months of June, July, and August. This impact on neonate production was suspected of being caused by organic pesticides which are used for insect control on lawns. The effluent was never acutely toxic to C. dubia. Primarily, toxic occurrences in either the effluent or the river samples were primarily of a chronic nature. Overall, survival of C. dubia was affected more frequently at the upstream site than in the effluent or the downstream site. Because EPA's Phase I Acute Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) methods were designed for identifying acute toxicity, two alternative strategies were attempted to identify chronic toxicity. The first attempt was the modification of the phase I acute TIE methodologies. This was done by processing more sample through the phase I characterization tests. This approach was inadequate due to toxicity that occurred during the last several days of the seven-day C. dubia reproduction test. The second strategy for identifying chronic toxicity within a TIE involved the use of freeze concentration. During this preliminary investigation ofthe efficiency of freeze concentration, ...
Date: December 1993
Creator: Hall, David B., 1958-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nesting Ecology of the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) on a Tallgrass Prairie Relict in North Central Texas

Description: Eighty-three species of vascular plants were inventoried on the prairie relict during peak dickcissel nesting. Based on foliar cover and occurrence frequency, the five dominant plants were heath aster (Aster ericoides), eastern gammagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), sensitive briar (Schrankia roemeriana) and meadow dropseed (Sporobolus asper). Sixty-one percent of dickcissel nests were constructed on or immediately next to three plant species: eastern gammagrass, sensitive briar and green milkweed.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Steigman, Kenneth Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Alterations in Human Baroreceptor Reflex Regulation of Blood Pressure Following 15 Days of Simulated Microgravity Exposure

Description: Prolonged exposure to microgravity is known to invoke physiological changes which predispose individuals to orthostatic intolerance upon readaptation to the earth's gravitational field. Attenuated baroreflex responsiveness has been implicated in contributing to this inability to withstand orthostatic stress. To test this hypothesis, eight individuals were exposed to 15 days of simulated microgravity exposure using the 6° head-down bed rest model. Prior to, and after the simulated microgravity exposure, the following were assessed: a) aortic baroreflex function; b) carotid baroreflex function; c) cardiopulmonary baroreflex function; and d) the degree of interaction between the cardiopulmonary and carotid baroreflexes.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Crandall, Craig G. (Craig Gerald)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interactions between Carotid and Cardiopulmonary Baroreceptor Populations during Dynamic Exercise in Man

Description: During dynamic exercise the arterial baroreflexes have been thought to reset to the prevailing level of systemic pressure in order to modulate transient changes in blood pressure with the same sensitivity (gain) as at rest. To test this hypothesis, cardiovascular responses to dynamic exercise and carotid baroreflex responses to graded neck suction and neck pressure (NS/NP) were examined in seven men of moderate fitness (V02 = 41.4±3.6 ml O2*kg^-1*min^-1) during two levels (20% and 40% of peak oxygen uptake) of steady-state exercise. In addition, deactivation of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors has been thought to increase carotid baroreflex responsiveness in the quiescent state in man.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Potts, Jeffrey Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of the Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Dihydroorotase Complex in Pseudomonas putida

Description: Aerobic Gram negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas putida were reported to possess class A ATCases and to have a M.W. of 360 kD. The nucleotide sequence of the P. putida pyrBC was determined to answer this question once and for all. The expected regulatory gene was not found. It is shown that the P. putida pyrB gene is overlapped by pyrC by 4 bp. The P.putida pyrB is 1005 bp (335 aa) in length and the pyrC is 1275 bp (425 aa) long. Both of these genes complement E. coli mutants with their respective genotypes. Another finding borne out from the sequence is an effector binding site at the N-terminus of pyrB of P. putIda. The binding site shows that effectors compete with carbamoylphosphate for the active site. In this dissertation, it is shown that the ATCase of P.putida is a trimer of M.W. of 109 kD (3 x 36.4 kD) and that the gene encoding pyrB is overlapped by the pyrC gene which encodes DHOase. It is also shown that the pyrBC encoded enzymes copurify as a dodecameric complex with a M.W. of 484 kD.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Schurr, Michael J. (Michael John)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impacts of the Pyrethroid Insecticide Cyfluthrin on Aquatic Invertibrate Populations in Outdoor Experimental Tanks

Description: The chemical fate and biological impacts of cyfluthrin in aquatic ecosystems were investigated using microcosms (1.9 m^3 concrete tanks) during 1989. Results were compared to a concurrent pesticide registration study using mesocosms (634.7 m^3 earthen ponds). Ten spray drift and five soil runoff simulations were conducted. Pesticide loadings were scaled by system volume, with the same experimental design in ponds and microcosms. Aqueous cyfluthrin concentrations and sediment residue values were generally higher in microcosms, while aqueous half-life was shorter in the smaller systems.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Johnson, Philip C. (Philip Charles)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Enzyme Assays Using Earthworms for Assessing Innate and Nonspecific Immunotoxicity of Xenobiotics

Description: Principal objectives of my research were to: (1) report for the first time that coelomocytes are able to reduce NBT dye and confirm the presence of lysozyme-like activity in earthworm; (2) develop a standard methodology for determination of NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity in earthworms; (3) compare NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity in earthworms with those of murine and human cells and fluids; and (4) demonstrate the sensitivity of earthworm NBT reduction and lysozyme-like activity as the assays using matrics in refuse-derived fuel fly ash (RDFF) and CuSO4.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Chen, Shing-Chong
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Post Mortem Interval from Degradation of Endogenous Nucleotides in Human Subjects

Description: High Performance Liguid Chromatography was used to measure degradation of nucleotides in human cadavers for the purpose of prediction of post mortem interval. Endogenous nucleotides were extracted from integumentary tissue of six(6) human cadavers using six percent(6%) tricholoacetic acid. Linear regression statistical techniques were used to determine linearity of degradation of various nucleotide pools.
Date: April 1993
Creator: Williams, John Burgess
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isolation, Characterization and Physiological Studies of Cyanide-Utilizing Bacteria

Description: Ten bacteria capable of growth on the metal-cyano complex, tetracyanonickelate (II) {K2 [Ni(CN)J } (TCN), supplied as the sole nitrogen source, were isolated. Seven isolates were identified as pseudomonads while the remaining three were classified as Klebsiella species. In addition to TCN, all isolates were able to utilize KCN although it was significantly more toxic. The degradation of TCN was most complete when supplied at growth-limiting concentrations, did not occur when ammonia was present, and resulted in the formation of nickel cyanide [Ni(CN)2] as a degradation product.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Silva Avalos, Juan G. (Juan Guillermo)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biodiversity of Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Interior Highlands of North America

Description: Caddisflies (Trichoptera) were collected from over 500 different locations throughout the Interior Highlands (Ozark, Ouachita, Arbuckle, and Wichita Mountains) between March 1990 and March 1994. I systematically sampled representative lotic and lentic habitats in 131 natural watersheds that comprise the 17 different physiographic subregions of this area. From my examination of approximately 60,000 specimens, surveys of regional museum collections, and review of literature records, I document 229 species distributed in 16 families and 58 genera. Included in this total are 27 endemic species and 15 new regional records. Descriptions are provided for a species new to science (Cheumatopsyche robisoni), four larvae (Helicopsyche limnella, H. piroa, Marilia species A, Polycentropus crassicornis) and a female (Helicopsyche piroa). Hydropsyche reiseni Denning, previously known only from the Arbuckle Mountains, is reduced in synonymy with H. arinale Ross. Further, I provide illustrated family, generic, and selected species-level keys that reflect this regional biodiversity.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Moulton, Stephen R. (Stephen Richard)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Landscape Ecological Characteristics of Habitat of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

Description: Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to analyze factors influencing habitat use by an endangered species, the red-cockaded woodpecker. The study area was the western part of the Raven Ranger District of the Sam Houston National Forest, Texas. The factors considered included both structural characteristics and spatial relationships among stands of trees in the habitat.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Thomlinson, John Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Responses of Selected Texas Fishes to Abiotic Factors, and an Evaluation of the Mechanisms Controlling Thermal Tolerance of the Sheepshead Minnow

Description: Low oxygen tolerances of ten fishes were estimated using an original nitrogen cascade design, and reciprocally transformed to express responses as ventilated volume necessary to satisfy minimal oxygen demand (L·mg O2^-1). Values ranged from 0.52 to 5.64 L·mg^-1 and were partitioned into three statistically distinct groups. Eight stream fishes showed moderately high tolerances reflecting metabolic adaptations associated with stream intermittency. Juvenile longear sunfish and two mollies comprised the second group. High tolerance of hypoxia may allow juvenile sunfish to avoid predation, and mollies to survive harsh environmental oxygen regimens. The sheepshead minnow was the most tolerant species of low oxygen, of those examined, explaining its presence in severely hypoxic environments.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Bennett, Wayne A. (Wayne Arden)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Discovery and Characterization of Two Tn5 Generated pyrA Mutants in Pseudomonas putida and the Generation of Hfr Strains

Description: A pyrA mutation in Pseudomonas putida was isolated using transposon mutagenesis for the first time. Transposon Tn5 was used to inactivate the pyrA gene for carbamoylphosphate synthetase in these mutants. Accordingly, these mutants were defective in pyrimidine and arginine biosynthesis. The suicide vector, pM075, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to introduce the transposon into the cells. Tn5 was subsequently used to supply homology so that the plasmid pM075 could be introduced in its entirety into the Pseudomonas putida chromosome at the locus of the Tn5 insertion in the pyrA gene. Consequently, these strains exhibited high frequency of recombination and were capable of chromosome mobilization.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Liljestrand, Laura Gail
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Eosinophil Response in Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis as Indicated by Phospholipase B Activity

Description: The host eosinophil response was compared in mice infected with either T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis by determination of levels of splenic and intestinal phospholipase B, a marker enzyme for eosinophils. Primary infection of naive mice and challenge infection of homologously sensitized mice with T. pseudospiralis resulted in significantly lower tissue phospholipase B activities than infection with T. spiralis. Mice homologously challenged with T. pseudospiralis did exhibit an anamnestic eosinophil response compared to mice given a primary T. pseudospiralis infection. This anamnestic response, however, was significantly lower than the eosinophil response seen in sensitized mice given a homologous T. spiralis challenge. Mice sensitized to T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis and heterologous challenge demonstrated an elevated eosinophil response compared to mice given a primary infection with either parasite. The heterologous challenge response, however, was not as intense as found for sensitized mice given a homologous challenge.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Hsu, Shing-Chien
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modifications in Cellular Responses of Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Mycobacterium Avium Serovar-specific Glycopeptidolipid and Its Lipopeptide Fragment

Description: Immunological and ultrastructural changes in mononuclear cells exposed to Mycobacterium avium serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid (GPL) and the chemically derived R-lipid (lipopeptide fragment) were examined.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Pourshafie, Mohammed R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Blood Pressure Regulation During Simulated Orthostatism Prior to and Following Endurance Exercise Training

Description: Cardiovascular responses and tolerance to an orthostatic stress were examined in eight men before and after eight months of endurance exercise training. Following training, maximal oxygen consumption and blood volume were increased, and resting heart rate reduced. Orthostatic tolerance was reduced following training in all eight subjects. It was concluded that prolonged endurance training decreased orthostatic tolerance and this decrease in tolerance appeared associated with attenuated baroreflex sensitivity and alterations in autonomic balance secondary to an increased parasympathetic tone noted with training.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Stevens, Glen Harold John
Partner: UNT Libraries

Life History Biology of the Desert Nesting Seagull Larus modestus

Description: Gray gulls Larus modestus are unique among birds of northern Chile as the only species nesting in the interior Atacama Desert, and the only seagull nesting far (30 - 100 km) from surface water. During breeding-nesting (August - February) gray gulls congregate on the coast of northern Chile where they feed and initiate courtship. As early as August, breeding pairs commute daily to the inner desert to establish nesting territories, round-trip distances of 60-200 Km. During incubation (30 days) and brooding (7 days) adults alternate daily foraging flights to the coast. Afterwards, both adults forage daily for their chick(s) until fledging (ca. 60 days). Foraging flights and thermoregulatory costs during the period of maximal solar radiation, when ground temperatures may reach 61 C in the day and drop to 2 C at night, have selected for adaptations which minimize those costs: tolerance of hypothermia and hyperthermia; dark plumage; low egg-shell water vapor conductance; low standard metabolic rate; elaborate repertory of thermoregulatory behavior which allow adults to take advantage of microclimatic variations in the desert and minimize costs relative to a sympatric congenor, Larus belcheri scheduling foraging flights to take advantage of optimal atmospheric conditions and presence of forage fish (anchovies) close to the surface; scheduling migration to coincide with anchovy production and levels of interspecific competition; and reduced clutch size ( ≤ 2) relative to most seagulls. Periodic El Nino-Southern Oscillations (ENSO), which reduce principal food items of gray gulls, have selected for 'bet hedging" tactic by which L. modestus either ceases reproduction or varies clutch size between one and two, as observed during and after the 1982-83 ENSO. During a typical reproductive season, breeding pairs allocate a minimum of 39 percent of their net metabolized energy (NME) to foraging flights. Including energy content of eggs, females have an overall ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Guerra Correa, Carlos Guillermo
Partner: UNT Libraries

New Descriptions, Intraspecific Variation and Systematic Importance of Drumming Behavior in Selected North American Plecoptera

Description: Drumming behavior is described for the first time in 33 North American Plecoptera species, and signals of an additional five species, Pteronarcys pictetii, Acroneuria abnormis, Paragnetina media, Clioperla clio and Isogenoides zionensis, are further detailed. An out-group comparison of behavioral characters in all 104 world species whose drumming is known showed that the behavior is more advanced in the Arctoperlaria Group Systellognatha than in the Group Euholognatha. In general, tapping, monophasy, touching, sequenced exchange and less than 50 taps/answer are ancestral states, and rubbing, grouping, phasing, tremulation, interspersed exchange and equal or more than 50 taps/answer are derived states. There has been some co-evolution between abdominal structure and drumming behavior. Scanning Electron Micrographs of 30 species showed that the primitive state of tapping is ascociated with three classes of abdominal structure: (1) absence of derived structures, (2) lobes or vesicles, and (3) hammers. The derived behavior of rubbing, however, occurs only in species with derived structures, and is predominant in species having vesicles and hammers. Drumming can be used as a line of evidence to aid in defining genera and species, since the behavior has a variable degree of specificity or exclusiveness in all species, particularly in groups of species I have studied in the genera Isoperla, Pteronarcys and Taeniopteryx. Typical and variant computer-synthesized male calls of three stonefly species were tested with live females. They responded at high levels in such a way that the important informational content conveyed was identified as: (1) a minimal threshold of beat numbers, and (2) a discriminant window of beat intervals. Rub frequency and bibeat calling were critical informational parameters in two species.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Maketon, Monchan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of Cardiovascular Regulation in Embryos of the Domestic Fowl (Gallus Gallus), with a Partial Comparison to Embryos of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii)

Description: In adult vertebrates, cardiovascular regulation is accomplished by numerous systems with neural, hormonal and local components responsible for the majority of regulation. These regulatory components work in concert to maintain the essential function of blood perfusion to adult tissues. Given the essential nature of this function it is therefore surprising that the development of cardiovascular regulation during gestation is poorly understood. The majority of what is known is based on a single vertebrate model, the fetal lamb. The fetal lamb has been used in multiple studies due to the clear clinical applications and has been pivotal in understanding the onset of regulation in developing vertebrates. However, study on the fetal lamb is limited to the latter 40% of gestation and has the added complication of an in-utero developmental strategy. Therefore the primary focus of this dissertation was to characterize basic cardiovascular regulation in the chicken embryo to provided the needed information for it's use an alternative to the fetal lamb. Developing chicken embryos rely on both alpha and beta adrenergic tones to maintain normal heart rate and arterial blood pressure during incubation. However, on day 21, just prior to hatch, these animals lose both tones on arterial pressure suggesting the onset of adult regulation. Cholinergic tone, however, was absent throughout chicken development indicating that it must mature during the neonatal life. Adult cardiovascular reflexes become apparent late in chicken development with a clear baroreflex specifically operating initially on day. However, an adult response to changes in ambient gas tension was absent during incubation suggesting embryos possess unique regulatory systems that are absent in adult chickens. This mechanism is comprised entirely of adrenergic systems with no cholinergic action during change in ambient gas tension. Similar developmental patterns were determined in embryos of the desert tortoise suggesting fundamental differences between in-utero and ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Crossley, Dane Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biodiversity of Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of the South-Central Nearctic and Adjacent Neotropical Biotic Provinces

Description: The south-central United States serves as an important biogeographical link and dispersal corridor between Nearctic and Neotropical elements of western hemisphere odonate faunas. Its species are reasonably well known because of substantial collections, but there has been no concerted effort to document the extent of biodiversity and possible geographic affinities of dragonflies and damselflies of this region. The recent discoveries of Argia leonorae Garrison, Gomphus gonzalezi Dunkle and Erpetogomphus heterodon Garrison from southern and western Texas and northern Mexico suggest that Odonata species remain to be discovered in this area, particularly from far south Texas and northern Mexico. I have documented a total of 12,515 records of Odonata found in 408 counties within the south-central U.S. A total of 73 species of damselflies and 160 species of dragonflies was revealed in the region. The 233 (197 in Texas) Odonata species are distributed among 10 families and 66 genera. Illustrated family, generic, and species-level keys are provided. Since the beginning of this work in the Fall of 1993, one species has been added each to the Louisiana and Oklahoma faunas, and 12 species have been added, previously unreported from Texas, including four new to the U.S. The area of highest Odonata biodiversity overall (161 spp.) is in the Austroriparian biotic province. The greatest degree of faunal similarity between the south-central U.S. and other intra-continental regions was observed for the eastern (64%) United States. Diversity is a function of area, and as expected, the numbers of breeding birds and Odonata, in each contiguous U.S. state are positively correlated (r=0.376, n=33, p=0.031). There is, however, no strong correlation between land area and species diversity within the region, but those natural biotic provinces (Austroriparian, Texan, Balconian) where aquatic systems and topographic heterogeneity are the greatest provide a broader spectrum of potential Odonata habitats and ...
Date: May 1999
Creator: Abbott, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of the American Woodrats, Genus Neotoma (Muridae)

Description: The evolutionary relationships of woodrats (Neotoma) were elulcidated through phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA restriction site and allozyme data. DNA samples from eleven nominal species from the genus Neotoma and two outgroup taxa, Ototylomys phyttotis and Xenomys nelsoni, were cleaved using a suite of 17 Type II restriction endonucleases. Mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were visualized following electrophoresis of restriction digests via methods of Southern transfer and hybridization with 32P- and digoxigenin-labeled mtDNA probes. Restriction mapping resulted in the identification of 37 unique mtDNA haplotypes among the woodrat taxa examined. Proteins representing 24 presumptive structural gene loci were examined through starch gel electrophoresis. Binary-coded allozyme data and allozyme frequency data were analyzed using PAUP and FREQPARS, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA restriction site data incorporated three different character type assumptions: unordered binary characters, Dollo characters, and differentially weighted unordered characters employing the STEPMATRIX option of PAUP. Proposed phylogenies for Neotoma are based on majority-rule consensus trees produced using bootstrap procedures. Phylogenetic analyses of the woodrat data sets revealed a distinct dichotomy among populations of white-throated woodrats (N. albigula) suggesting the presence of cryptic species within that taxon. MtDNA and allozyme data support the specific status of N. devia as distinct from N. lepida, and additionally reveal the presence of a third cryptic species referable to N. intermedia among the desert woodrats. Phylogenetic analyses of the genetic data also suggest subgeneric status for the desert woodrats, which is in agreement with evidence from morphology. The genetic data revealed a sister group relationship between N. stephensi and samples of N. mexicana, suggesting the placement of N. stephensi into the N. mexicana species-group. Neotoma fuscipes and N. cinerea formed a monophyletic lineage basal to the remaining members of the subgenus Neotoma which supports the assignment of N. fuscipes to the subgenus Teonoma with ...
Date: August 1992
Creator: Planz, John Valentine
Partner: UNT Libraries