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A Two-Dimensional Model Study of Elastic Waves

Description: In seismic field operations complex problems often arise which cannot be solved mathematically. In recent years investigators in both the commercial and academic fields have begun to approach the problems of elastic wave propagation by the use of seismic scale models. This thesis discusses the results measured from simulated seismic activity on a scale model built by the researcher.
Date: 1955
Creator: Fulton, Thomas K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Continuously Sensitive Cloud Chamber

Description: A continuous cloud chamber would be a valuable asset to laboratory work in nuclear and atomic physics. For this reason the construction and investigation of a continuously sensitive diffusion cloud chamber has been undertaken. It is the purpose of this paper to report the design and operating characteristics of such a chamber.
Date: 1951
Creator: Hughes, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Search for Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Patterns in Select Proxy Data with a Goal to Understanding Temperature Variation

Description: In this work over 200 temperature proxy data sets have been analyzed to determine if periodic and or quasi-periodic patterns exist in the data sets. References to the journal articles where data are recorded are provided. Chapter 1 serves an introduction to the problem of temperature determination in providing information on how various proxy data sources are derived. Examples are given of the techniques followed in producing proxy data that predict temperature for each method used. In chapter 2 temperature proxy data spanning the last 4000 years, from 2,000 BCE to 2,000 CE, are analyzed to determine if overarching patterns exist in proxy data sets. An average of over 100 proxy data sets was used to produce Figure 4. An overview of the data shows that several “peaks” can be identified. The data were then subjected to analysis using a series of frequency modulated cosine waves. This analysis led to a function that can be expressed by equation 3. The literature was examined to determine what mathematical models had been published to fit the experimental proxy data for temperature. A number of attempts have been made to fit data from limited data sets with some degree of success. Some other papers have used a sinusoidal function to best fit the changes in the temperature. After consideration of many published papers and reviewing long time streams of proxy data that appeared to have sine wave patterns, a new model was proposed for trial. As the patterns observed showed “almost” repeating sine cycles, a frequency modulated sine wave was chosen to obtain a best fit function. Although other papers have used a sinusoidal function to best fit the changes in the temperature, the “best fit” was limited. Thus, it was decided that a frequency modulated sine wave may be a better model ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Otto, James
Partner: UNT Libraries

Charged Particle Transport and Confinement Along Null Magnetic Curves and in Various Other Nonuniform Field Configurations for Applications in Antihydrogen Production

Description: Comparisons between measurements of the ground-state hyperfine structure and gravitational acceleration of hydrogen and antihydrogen could provide a test of fundamental physical theories such as CPT (charge conjugation, parity, time-reversal) and gravitational symmetries. Currently, antihydrogen traps are based on Malmberg-Penning traps. The number of antiprotons in Malmberg-Penning traps with sufficiently low energy to be suitable for trappable antihydrogen production may be reduced by the electrostatic space charge of the positrons and/or collisions among antiprotons. Alternative trap designs may be needed for future antihydrogen experiments. A computational tool is developed to simulate charged particle motion in customizable magnetic fields generated by combinations of current loops and current lines. The tool is used to examine charged particle confinement in two systems consisting of dual, levitated current loops. The loops are coaxial and arranged to produce a magnetic null curve. Conditions leading to confinement in the system are quantified and confinement modes near the null curve and encircling one or both loops are identified. Furthermore, the tool is used to examine and quantify charged particle motion parallel to the null curve in the large radius limit of the dual, levitated current loops. An alternative to new trap designs is to identify the effects of the positron space in existing traps and to find modes of operation where the space charge is beneficial. Techniques are developed to apply the Boltzmann density relation along curved magnetic field lines. Equilibrium electrostatic potential profiles for a positron plasma are computed by solving Poisson's equation using a finite-difference method. Equilibria are computed in a model Penning trap with an axially varying magnetic field. Also, equilibria are computed for a positron plasma in a model of the ALPHA trap. Electric potential wells are found to form self-consistently. The technique is expanded to compute equilibria for a two-species plasma with ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Lane, Ryan Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ion Beam Synthesis of Binary and Ternary Transition Metal Silicide Thin Films

Description: Among the well-known methods to form or modify the composition and physical properties of thin films, ion implantation has shown to be a very powerful technique. In particular, ion beam syntheses of binary iron silicide have been studied by several groups. Further, the interests in transition metal silicide systems are triggered by their potential use in advanced silicon based opto-electronic devices. In addition, ternary silicides have been by far less studied than their binary counterparts despite the fact that they have interesting magnetic and electronic properties. In this study, we investigate ion beam synthesis of Fe-Si binary structures and Fe-Co-Si ternary structures. This work involves fundamental investigation into development of a scalable synthesis process involving binary and ternary transitional metal silicide thin films and Nano-structures using low energy ion beams. Binary structures were synthesized by implanting Fe- at 50 keV energy. Since ion implantation is a dynamic process, Dynamic simulation techniques were used in these studies to determine saturation fluences for ion implantation. Also, static and dynamic simulation results were compared with experimental results. The outcome of simulations and experimental results indicate, dynamic simulation codes are more suitable than static version of the TRIM to simulate high fluence, low energy and, heavy ion implantation processes. Furthermore, binary Fe-Si phase distribution was determined at different implantation fluences and annealing temperatures. A higher fluence implantation at 2.16×1017 atoms/cm2 and annealing at 500 oC showed three different Fe-Si phase formations (β-FeSi2, FeSi and Fe3Si) in substrate. Further, annealing the samples at 800 oC for 60 minutes converted the Fe3Si phase into FeSi2 and FeSi phases. As an extension, a second set of Fe- ion implantations was carried with the same parameters while the substrate was placed under an external magnetic field. External magnetic fields stimulate the formation of magnetic phase centers in the ...
Date: December 2016
Creator: Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige Jayampath
Partner: UNT Libraries

Local Phase Manipulation for Multi-Beam Interference Lithography for the Fabrication of Two and Three Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates

Description: In this work, we study the use of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for local manipulation of phase in interfering laser beams to fabricate photonic crystal templates with embedded, engineered defects. A SLM displaying geometric phase patterns was used as a digitally programmable phase mask to fabricate 4-fold and 6-fold symmetric photonic crystal templates. Through pixel-by-pixel phase engineering, digital control of the phases of one or more of the interfering beams was demonstrated, thus allowing change in the interference pattern. The phases of the generated beams were programmed at specific locations, resulting in defect structures in the fabricated photonic lattices such as missing lattice line defects, and single-motif lattice defects in dual-motif lattice background. The diffraction efficiency from the phase pattern was used to locally modify the filling fraction in holographically fabricated structures, resulting in defects with a different fill fraction than the bulk lattice. Through two steps of phase engineering, a spatially variant lattice defect with a 90° bend in a periodic bulk lattice was fabricated. Finally, by reducing the relative phase shift of the defect line and utilizing the different diffraction efficiency between the defect line and the background phase pattern, desired and functional defect lattices can be registered into the background lattice through direct imaging of the designed phase patterns.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Lutkenhaus, Jeffrey Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Low-Energy Electron Irradiation of Preheated and Gas-Exposed Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

Description: We investigate the conditions under which electron irradiation of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles with 2 keV electrons produces an increase in the Raman D peak. We find that an increase in the D peak does not occur when SWCNTs are preheated in situ at 600 C for 1 h in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) before irradiation is performed. Exposing SWCNTs to air or other gases after preheating in UHV and before irradiation results in an increase in the D peak. Small diameter SWCNTs that are not preheated or preheated and exposed to air show a significant increase in the D and G bands after irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows no chemical shifts in the C1s peak of SWCNTs that have been irradiated versus SWCNTs that have not been irradiated, suggesting that the increase in the D peak is not due to chemisorption of adsorbates on the nanotubes.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Ecton, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fractional Calculus and Dynamic Approach to Complexity

Description: Fractional calculus enables the possibility of using real number powers or complex number powers of the differentiation operator. The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation for a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. With an ensemble average perspective, the explanation of the behavior of fractional chaotic systems changes dramatically. Before now what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction is actually a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. Nonlinear Langevin equation describes the mean field of a finite size complex network at criticality. Critical phenomena and temporal complexity are two very important issues of modern nonlinear dynamics and the link between them found by the author can significantly improve the understanding behavior of dynamical systems at criticality. The subject of temporal complexity addresses the challenging and especially helpful in addressing fundamental physical science issues beyond the limits of reductionism.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Beig, Mirza Tanweer Ahmad
Partner: UNT Libraries

Variational Calculations of Positronium Scattering with Hydrogen

Description: Positronium-hydrogen (Ps-H) scattering is of interest, as it is a fundamental four-body Coulomb problem. We have investigated low-energy Ps-H scattering below the Ps(n=2) excitation threshold using the Kohn variational method and variants of the method with a trial wavefunction that includes highly correlated Hylleraas-type short-range terms. We give an elegant formalism that combines all Kohn-type variational methods into a single form. Along with this, we have also developed a general formalism for Kohn-type matrix elements that allows us to evaluate arbitrary partial waves with a single codebase. Computational strategies we have developed and use in this work will also be discussed.With these methods, we have computed phase shifts for the first six partial waves for both the singlet and triplet states. The 1S and 1P phase shifts are highly accurate results and could potentially be viewed as benchmark results. Resonance positions and widths for the 1S-, 1P-, 1D-, and 1F-waves have been calculated.We present elastic integrated, elastic differential, and momentum transfer cross sections using all six partial waves and note interesting features of each. We use multiple effective range theories, including several that explicitly take into account the long-range van der Waals interaction, to investigate scattering lengths for the 1,3S and 1,3P partial waves and effective ranges for the 1,3S-wave.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Woods, Denton
Partner: UNT Libraries

Complex Numbers in Quantum Theory

Description: In 1927, Nobel prize winning physicist, E. Schrodinger, in correspondence with Ehrenfest, wrote the following about the new theory: “What is unpleasant here, and indeed directly to be objected to, is the use of complex numbers. Psi is surely fundamentally a real function.” This seemingly simple issue remains unexplained almost ninety years later. In this dissertation I elucidate the physical and theoretical origins of the complex requirement. I identify a freedom/constraint situation encountered by vectors when, employed in accordance with adopted quantum representational methodology, and representing angular momentum states in particular. Complex vectors, quite simply, provide more available adjustable variables than do real vectors. The additional variables relax the constraint situation allowing the theory’s representational program to carry through. This complex number issue, which lies at the deepest foundations of the theory, has implications for important issues located higher in the theory. For example, any unification of the classical and quantum accounts of the settled order of nature, will rest squarely on our ability to account for the introduction of the imaginary unit.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Maynard, Glenn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Oligonucleotide guanosine conjugated to gallium nitride nano-structures for photonics.

Description: In this work, I studied the hybrid system based on self-assembled guanosine crystal (SAGC) conjugated to wide-bandgap semiconductor gallium nitride (GaN). Guanosine is one of the four bases of DNA and has the lowest oxidation energy, which favors carrier transport. It also has large dipole moment. Guanosine molecules self-assemble to ribbon-like structure in confined space. GaN surface can have positive or negative polarity depending on whether the surface is Ga- or N-terminated. I studied SAGC in confined space between two electrodes. The current-voltage characteristics can be explained very well with the theory of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. I-V curves also show strong rectification effect, which can be explained by the intrinsic polarization along the axis of ribbon-like structure of SAGC. GaN substrate property influences the properties of SAGC. So SAGC has semiconductor properties within the confined space up to 458nm. When the gap distance gets up to 484nm, the structure with guanosine shows resistance characteristics. The photocurrent measurements show that the bandgap of SAGC is about 3.3-3.4eV and affected by substrate properties. The MSM structure based on SAGC can be used as photodetector in UV region. Then I show that the periodic structure based on GaN and SAGC can have photonic bandgaps. The bandgap size and the band edges can be tuned by tuning lattice parameters. Light propagation and emission can be tuned by photonic crystals. So the hybrid photonic crystal can be potentially used to detect guanosine molecules. If guanosine molecules are used as functional linker to other biomolecules which usually absorb or emit light in blue to UV region, the hybrid photonic crystal can also be used to tune the coupling of light source to guanosine molecules, then to other biomolecules.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Li, Jianyou
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neutron Transmutation and Hydrogenation Study of Hg₁₋xCdxTe

Description: Anomalous Hall behavior of HgCdTe refers to a "double cross-over" feature of the Hall coefficient in p-type material, or a peak in the Hall mobility or Hall coefficient in n-type material. A magnetoconductivity tensor approach was utilized to identify presence of two electrons contributing to the conduction as well as transport properties of each electron in the material. The two electron model for the mobility shows that the anomalous Hall behavior results from the competition of two electrons, one in the energy gap graded region near the CdZnTe/HgCdTe interface with large band gap and the other in the bulk of the LPE film with narrow band gap. Hg0.78Cd0.22Te samples grown by LPE on CdZnTe(111B)-oriented substrates were exposed to various doses of thermal neutrons (~1.7 x 1016 - 1.25 x 1017 /cm2) and subsequently annealed at ~220oC for ~24h in Hg saturated vapor to recover damage and reduce the presence of Hg vacancies. Extensive Magnetotransport measurements were performed on these samples. SIMS profile for impurities produced by neutron irradiation was also obtained. The purpose for this study is to investigate the influence of neutron irradiation on this material as a basis for further study on HgCdTe74Se. The result shows that total mobility is observed to decrease with increased neutron dose and can be fitted by including a mobility inverse proportional to neutron dose. Electron introduction rate of thermal neutron is much smaller than that of fission neutrons. Total recovering of the material is suggested to have longer time annealing. Using Kane's model, we also fitted carrier concentration change at low temperature by introducing a donor level with activation energy changing with temperature. Results on Se diffusion in liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown HgCdTe epilayers is reported. The LPE Hg0.78Cd0.22Te samples were implanted with Se of 2.0×1014/cm2 at 100keV and annealed at ...
Date: December 2007
Creator: Zhao, Wei
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The Nonadditive Generalization of Klimontovich's S-Theorem for Open Systems and Boltzmann's Orthodes

Description: We show that the nonadditive open systems can be studied in a consistent manner by using a generalized version of S-theorem. This new generalized S-theorem can further be considered as an indication of self-organization in nonadditive open systems as prescribed by Haken. The nonadditive S-theorem is then illustrated by using the modified Van der Pol oscillator. Finally, Tsallis entropy as an equilibrium entropy is studied by using Boltzmann's method of orthodes. This part of dissertation shows that Tsallis ensemble is on equal footing with the microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles. However, the associated entropy turns out to be Renyi entropy.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Bagci, Gokhan Baris
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nonlinear UV Laser Build-up Cavity: An Efficient Design

Description: Using the concept of the build-up cavity for second harmonic generation to produce 243nm laser light, an innovative cavity is theoretically explored using a 15mm length CLBO crystal. In order to limit the losses of the cavity, the number of effective optical surfaces is kept to only four and the use of a MgF2 crystal is adopted to separate the harmonic and fundamental laser beam from each other. The cavity is shown to have an expected round trip loss of five tenths of a percent or better, resulting in a conversion efficiency greater than 65%.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Rady, Nicholas Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploration of hierarchical leadership and connectivity in neural networks in vitro.

Description: Living neural networks are capable of processing information much faster than a modern computer, despite running at significantly lower clock speeds. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms neural networks utilize is an issue of substantial importance. Neuronal interaction dynamics were studied using histiotypic networks growing on microelectrode arrays in vitro. Hierarchical relationships were explored using bursting (when many neurons fire in a short time frame) dynamics, pairwise neuronal activation, and information theoretic measures. Together, these methods reveal that global network activity results from ignition by a small group of burst leader neurons, which form a primary circuit that is responsible for initiating most network-wide burst events. Phase delays between leaders and followers reveal information about the nature of the connection between the two. Physical distance from a burst leader appears to be an important factor in follower response dynamics. Information theory reveals that mutual information between neuronal pairs is also a function of physical distance. Activation relationships in developing networks were studied and plating density was found to play an important role in network connectivity development. These measures provide unique views of network connectivity and hierarchical relationship in vitro which should be included in biologically meaningful models of neural networks.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Ham, Michael I.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nonlinear and Quantum Optics Near Nanoparticles

Description: We study the behavior of electric fields in and around dielectric and metal nanoparticles, and prepare the ground for their applications to a variety of systems viz. photovoltaics, imaging and detection techniques, and molecular spectroscopy. We exploit the property of nanoparticles being able to focus the radiation field into small regions and study some of the interesting nonlinear, and quantum coherence and interference phenomena near them. The traditional approach to study the nonlinear light-matter interactions involves the use of the slowly varying amplitude approximation (SVAA) as it simplifies the theoretical analysis. However, SVVA cannot be used for systems which are of the order of the wavelength of the light. We use the exact solutions of the Maxwell's equations to obtain the fields created due to metal and dielectric nanoparticles, and study nonlinear and quantum optical phenomena near these nanoparticles. We begin with the theoretical description of the electromagnetic fields created due to the nonlinear wavemixing process, namely, second-order nonlinearity in an nonlinear sphere. The phase-matching condition has been revisited in such particles and we found that it is not satisfied in the sphere. We have suggested a way to obtain optimal conditions for any type and size of material medium. We have also studied the modifications of the electromagnetic fields in a collection of nanoparticles due to strong near field nonlinear interactions using the generalized Mie theory for the case of many particles applicable in photovoltaics (PV). We also consider quantum coherence phenomena such as modification of dark states, stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), optical pumping in $4$-level atoms near nanoparticles by using rotating wave approximation to describe the Hamiltonian of the atomic system. We also considered the behavior of atomic and the averaged atomic polarization in $7$-level atoms near nanoparticles. This could be used as a prototype to study ...
Date: December 2015
Creator: Dhayal, Suman
Partner: UNT Libraries

Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Peg Based Thermo Sensitive Hydro Microgel

Description: Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) based microgels were synthesized and investigated. The PEG microgel has the same phase transition as the traditional poly N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM). As a good substitute of PNIPAM, PEG microgel exhibits many advantages: it is easier to control the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the microgel by changing the component of copolymers; it has a more solid spherical core-shell structure to have a double thermo sensitivity; it is straightforward to add other sensitivities such as pH, magnetic field or organic functional groups; it readily forms a photonic crystal structure exhibiting Bragg diffraction; and, most importantly, the PEG microgel is biocompatible with human body and has been approved by FDA while PNIPAM has not. PEG microgels with core-shell structure are synthesized with a two-step free radical polymerization and characterized with DLS, SLS and UV–Vis. The dynamic mechanics of melting and recrystallizing of the PEG core-shell microgel are presented and discussed. Photonic crystals of PEG microgels were synthesized and characterized. The crystal can be isolated in a thin film or a bulk column. The phase transition of PEG microgel was simulated with the mean field theory. The enthalpy and entropy of phase transition can be estimated from the best fit to theoretical calculation with experimental data.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Chi, Chenglin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Charge Collection Studies on Integrated Circuit Test Structures using Heavy-Ion Microbeams and MEDICI Simulation Calculations

Description: Ion induced charge collection dynamics within Integrated Circuits (ICs) is important due to the presence of ionizing radiation in the IC environment. As the charge signals defining data states are reduced by voltage and area scaling, the semiconductor device will naturally have a higher susceptibility to ionizing radiation induced effects. The ionizing radiation can lead to the undesired generation and migration of charge within an IC. This can alter, for example, the memory state of a bit, and thereby produce what is called a "soft" error, or Single Event Upset (SEU). Therefore, the response of ICs to natural radiation is of great concern for the reliability of future devices. Immunity to soft errors is listed as a requirement in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors prepared by the Semiconductor Industry Association in the United States. To design more robust devices, it is essential to create and test accurate models of induced charge collection and transport in semiconductor devices. A heavy ion microbeam produced by an accelerator is an ideal tool to study charge collection processes in ICs and to locate the weak nodes and structures for improvement through hardening design. In this dissertation, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate recoil effects of ions in ICs. These silicon or light ion recoils are usually produced by the elastic scattering or inelastic reactions between cosmic neutrons or protons and the lattice atoms in ICs. Specially designed test structures were experimentally studied, using microbeams produced at Sandia National Laboratories. A new technique, Diffusion Time Resolved IBICC, is first proposed in this work to measure the average arrival time of the diffused charge, which can be related to the first moment (or the average time) of the arrival carrier density at the junction. A 2D device simulation ...
Date: May 2000
Creator: Guo, Baonian
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nested Well Plasma Traps

Description: Criteria for the confinement of plasmas consisting of a positive and negative component in Penning type traps with nested electric potential wells are presented. Computational techniques for the self-consistent calculation of potential and plasma density distributions are developed. Analyses are presented of the use of nested well Penning traps for several applications. The analyses include: calculations of timescales relevant to the applications, e.g. reaction, confinement and relaxation timescales, self-consistent computations, and consideration of other physical phenomenon important to the applications. Possible applications of a nested well penning trap include production of high charge state ions, studies of high charge state ions, and production of antihydrogen. In addition the properties of a modified Penning trap consisting of an electric potential well applied along a radial magnetic field are explored.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Dolliver, Darrell
Partner: UNT Libraries

Energy Distribution of Sputtered Neutral Atoms from a Multilayer Target

Description: Energy distribution measurements of sputtered neutral particles contribute to the general knowledge of sputtering, a common technique for surface analysis. In this work emphasis was placed on the measurement of energy distribution of sputtered neutral atoms from different depths. The liquid Ga-In eutectic alloy as a sample target for this study was ideal due to an extreme concentration ratio gradient between the top two monolayers. In pursuing this study, the method of sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS) was utilized. SIRIS employs a pulsed ion beam to initiate sputtering and tunable dye lasers for resonance ionization. Observation of the energy distribution was achieved with a position-sensitive detector. The principle behind the detector's energy resolution is time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For this specific detector, programmed time intervals between the sputtering pulse at the target and the ionizing laser pulse provided information leading to the energy distribution of the secondary neutral particles. This experiment contributes data for energy distributions of sputtered neutral particles to the experimental database, required by theoretical models and computer simulations for the sputtering phenomenon.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Bigelow, Alan W.
Partner: UNT Libraries