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Synthesis of Gold Complexes From Diphosphine Ligands and Screening Reactions of Heterocyclic Acetylacetonato (ACAC) Ligands with Transitional Metal Complexes

Description: Syntheses of diphosphine gold (I) complexes from gold THT and two ligands, 4, 5-bis (diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1, 3-dione (BPCD) and 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)-N-phenylmaleimide (BPPM), were done separately. The reactions happened under ice conditions followed by room temperature conditions and produced two diphosphine gold (I) complexes in moderated yield. Spectroscopic results including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray crystallography were used to study and determine the structures of the products formed. Moreover, X-rays of all newly synthesized diphosphine gold (I) complexes were compared with the known X-ray structures of other phosphine and diphosphine gold (I) complexes. There were direct resemblances in terms of bond length and angle between these new diphosphine gold (I) complex structures and those already published. For instance, the bond lengths and angles from the newly prepared diphosphine gold (I) complexes were similar to those already published. Where there were some deviations in bond angles and length between the newly synthesized structures and those already published, appropriate explanation was given to explain the deviation. Heterocyclic ligands bearing acetylacetonate (ACAC) side arm(s) were prepared from ethyl malonyl chloride and the heterocyclic compounds 8-hydroxylquinoline, Syn-2-peridoxyaldoxime, quinoxalinol and 2, 6-dipyridinylmethanol. The products (heterocyclic ACAC ligands) from these reactions were screened with transition metal carbonyl compounds in thermolytic reactions. The complexes formed were studied and investigated using NMR and X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, the X-ray structures of the heterocyclic ACAC ligand or ligand A and that of rhenium complex 1 were compared with similar published X-ray structures. The comparison showed there were some similarities in terms of bond length and bond angles.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Nyamwihura, Rogers
Partner: UNT Libraries

Applications of Single Reference Methods to Multi-Reference Problems

Description: Density functional theory is an efficient and useful method of solving single-reference computational chemistry problems, however it struggles with multi-reference systems. Modifications have been developed in order to improve the capabilities of density functional theory. In this work, density functional theory has been successfully applied to solve multi-reference systems with large amounts of non-dynamical correlation by use of modifications. It has also been successfully applied for geometry optimizations for lanthanide trifluorides.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Jeffrey, Chris C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computational Studies of C–H/C–C Manipulation Utilizing Transition Metal Complexes

Description: Density Functional Theory (DFT) is an effective tool for studying diverse metal systems. Presented herein are studies of a variety of metal systems, which can be applied to accomplish transformations that are currently difficult/impossible to achieve. The specific topics studied utilizing DFT include: 1) C–H bond activation via an Earth-abundant transition metal complex, 2) C–H bond deprotonation via an alkali metal superbase, 3) and amination/aziridination reactions utilizing a CuI reagent. Using DFT, the transformation to methanol (CH3OH) from methane (CH4) was examined. The transition metal systems studied for this transformation included a model FeII complex. This first-row transition metal is an economical, Earth-abundant metal. The ligand set for this transformation includes a carbonyl ligand in one set of complexes as well as a phosphite ligand in another. The 3d Fe metal shows the ability to convert alkyls/aryls to their oxidized counterpart in an energetically favorable manner. Also, “superbasic” alkali metal amides were investigated to perform C—H bond cleavage. Toluene was the substrate of interest with Cs chosen to be the metal of interest because of the highly electropositive nature of this alkali metal. These highly electrophilic Cs metal systems allow for very favorable C—H bond scission with a toluene substrate. Finally, the amination and aziridination of C–H and C=C bonds, respectively, by a CuI reagent was studied. The mechanism was investigated using DFT calculations. Presently, these mechanisms involving the use of coinage metals are debated. Our DFT simulations shed some insight into how these transformations occur and ultimately how they can be manipulated.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Pardue, Daniel B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterization of Ionic Liquid As a Charge Carrier for the Detection of Neutral Organometallic Complexes Using Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Description: A novel application of ionic liquid as a charge carrier for the analysis and detection of neutral organometallic complexes using a mass spectrometer has been presented. The mass spectrometer detects only charged compounds which raise a difficulty in analyzing a neutral molecule that lacks a basic site to associate with charge. Therefore, an effective way of providing charge has always been an area of keen interest in the field of mass spectrometry. Ionic liquids have a very fascinating property of forming a cation-? interaction with other molecules to give a charged complex. In order to take advantage of this, it is important to know the geometric structure of the complex. Advanced methodologies like hydrogen-deuterium exchange and computational calculations have been used assisting in better understanding of the structure of the ionic liquid complexes.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Joshi, Ubisha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigating Molecular Structures: Rapidly Examining Molecular Fingerprints Through Fast Passage Broadband Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

Description: Microwave spectroscopy is a gas phase technique typically geared toward measuring the rotational transitions of Molecules. The information contained in this type of spectroscopy pertains to a molecules structure, both geometric and electronic, which give insight into a molecule's chemistry. Typically this type of spectroscopy is high resolution, but narrowband ≤1 MHz in frequency. This is achieved by tuning a cavity, exciting a molecule with electromagnetic radiation in the microwave region, turning the electromagnetic radiation o, and measuring a signal from the molecular relaxation in the form of a free induction decay (FID). The FID is then Fourier transformed to give a frequency of the transition. "Fast passage" is defined as a sweeping of frequencies through a transition at a time much shorter (≤10 s) than the molecular relaxation (≈100 s). Recent advancements in technology have allowed for the creation of these fast frequency sweeps, known as "chirps", which allow for broadband capabilities. This work presents the design, construction, and implementation of one such novel, high-resolution microwave spectrometer with broadband capabilities. The manuscript also provides the theory, technique, and motivations behind building of such an instrument. In this manuscript it is demonstrated that, although a gas phase technique, solids, liquids, and transient species may be studied with the spectrometer with high sensitivity, making it a viable option for many molecules wanting to be rotationally studied. The spectrometer has a relative correct intensity feature that, when coupled with theory, may ease the difficulty in transition assignment and facilitate dynamic chemical studies of the experiment. Molecules studied on this spectrometer have, in turn, been analyzed and assigned using common rotational spectroscopic analysis. Detailed theory on the analysis of these molecules has been provided. Structural parameters such as rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants have been determined and reported for most molecules in ...
Date: May 2011
Creator: Grubbs, Garry Smith, II
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic Investigation of the Gas Phase Atomic Sulfur and Nitrogen Dioxide Reaction

Description: The kinetics of the reaction of atomic sulfur and nitrogen dioxide have been investigated over the temperature range 298 to 650 K and pressures from 14 - 405 mbar using the laser flash photolysis - resonance fluorescence technique. The overall bimolecular rate expression k (T) = (1.88 ± 0.49) x10-11 exp-(4.14 ± 0.10 kJ mol-1)/RT cm3 molecule-1 s-1 is derived. Ab initio calculations were performed at the CCSD(T)/CBS level of theory and a potential energy surface has been derived. RRKM theory calculations were performed on the system. It is found that an initially formed SNO2 is vibrationally excited and the rate of collisional stabilization is slower than the rate of dissociation to SO + NO products by a factor of 100 - 1000, under the experimental conditions.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Thompson, Kristopher Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Characterization of Copper Releasing Polymer Nanoparticles

Description: Polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded with Cu²⁺ to explore the therapeutic potential for catically active transition metal ions and complexes other than cisplatin. Two types of nanoparticles were synthesized to show the potential for polymer based vectors. Copper loading and release were characterized via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and elemental analysis. Results demonstrated that Cu could be loaded to the nano-sized carriers in an aqueous environment, and that the release was pH-dependent. The toxicity of these particles was measured in HeLa cells where significant toxicity was observed in vitro via dosing of high Cu-loaded nanoparticles. No significant toxicity was observed in cells dosed with Cu-free nanoparticles.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Harris, Alesha N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Pure Rotational Spectra of Diatomics and Halogen-Addition Benzene Measured by Microwave and Radio Frequency Spectrometers

Description: Two aluminum spherical mirrors with radii of 203.2 mm and radii of curvature also of 203.2 mm have been used to construct a tunable Fabry-Perót type resonator operational at frequencies as low as 500 MHz. The resonator has been incorporated into a pulsed nozzle, Fourier transform, Balle-Flygare spectrometer. The spectrometer is of use in recording low J transitions of large asymmetric molecules where the spectra are often greatly simplified compared to higher frequency regions. The resonators use is illustrated by recording the rotational spectra of bromobenzene and iodobenzene. In related experiments, using similar equipment, the pure rotational spectra of four isotopomers of SrS and all three naturally occurring isotopomers of the actinide-containing compound thorium monoxide have been recorded between 6 and 26 GHz. The data have been thoroughly analyzed to produce information pertaining to bond lengths and electronic structures.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Etchison, Kerry C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computational Study of Small Molecule Activation via Low-Coordinate Late First-Row Transition Metal Complexes

Description: Methane and dinitrogen are abundant precursors to numerous valuable chemicals such as methanol and ammonia, respectively. However, given the robustness of these substrates, catalytically circumventing the high temperatures and pressures required for such transformations has been a challenging task for chemists. In this work, computational studies of various transition metal catalysts for methane C-H activation and N2 activation have been carried out. For methane C-H activation, catalysts of the form LnM=E are studied, where Ln is the supporting ligand (dihydrophosphinoethane or β-diketiminate), E the activating ligand (O, NCH3, NCF3) at which C-H activation takes place, and M the late transition metal (Fe,Co,Ni,Cu). A hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) / radical rebound (RR) mechanism is assumed for methane functionalization (CH4 à CH3EH). Since the best energetics are found for (β-diket)Ni=O and (β-diket)Cu=O catalysts, with or without CF3 substituents around the supporting ligand periphery, complete methane-to-methanol cycles were studied for such systems, for which N2O was used as oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reagent. Both monometallic and bimetallic OAT pathways are addressed. Monometallic Fe-N2 complexes of various supporting ligands (LnFe-N2) are studied at the beginning of the N2 activation chapter, where the effect of ligand on N2 activation in end-on vs. side-on N2 isomers is discussed. For (β-diket)Fe-N2 complexes, the additional influence of diketiminate donor atom (N(H) vs. S) is briefly addressed. The remainder of the chapter expands upon the treatment of β-diketiminate complexes. First, the activation and relative stabilities of side-bound and end-bound N2 isomers in monometallic ((β-diket)M-N2) and bimetallic ((β-diket)M-N2-M(β-diket)) first row transition metal complexes are addressed. Second, the thermodynamics of H/H+/H- addition to (β-diket)Fe-bound N2, followed by subsequent H additions up to release of ammonia, is discussed, for which two mechanisms (distal and alternating) are considered. Finally, the chapter concludes with partial distal and alternating mechanisms for H addition to N2 ...
Date: May 2010
Creator: Pierpont, Aaron
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Fluorine and Hydrogen Radical Species on Modified Oxidized Ni(pt)si

Description: NiSi is an attractive material in the production of CMOS devices. The problem with the utilization of NiSi, is that there is no proper method of cleaning the oxide on the surface. Sputtering is the most common method used for the cleaning, but it has its own complications. Dry cleaning methods include the reactions with radicals and these processes are not well understood and are the focus of the project. Dissociated NF3 and NH3 were used as an alternative and XPS is the technique to analyze the reactions of atomic fluorine and nitrogen with the oxide on the surface. A thermal cracker was used to dissociate the NF3 and NH3 into NFx+F and NHx+H. There was a formation of a NiF2 layer on top of the oxide and there was no evidence of nitrogen on the surface indicating that the fluorine and hydrogen are the reacting species. XPS spectra, however, indicate that the substrate SiO2 layer is not removed by the dissociated NF3 and NiF2 growth process. The NiF2 over layer can be reduced to metallic Ni by reacting with dissociated NH3 at room temperature. The atomic hydrogen from dissociated ammonia reduces the NiF2 but it was determined that the atomic hydrogen from the ammonia does not react with SiO2.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Gaddam, Sneha Sen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, and Photophysical Properties of New Rhenium(I) Pyrazolyl-Triazine Complexes

Description: The reaction of the chelating ligand 4-[4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]-N,N-diethyl-benzenamine, L, with pentacarbonylchlororhenium by conventional heating method produces the complexes fac-[ReL(CO)3Cl2] and fac-[Re2L(CO)6Cl2] in a period of 48 hours. The use of microwaves as the source of heat and the increase in the equivalents of one of the reactants leads to a more selective reaction and also decreases the reaction time to 1 hour. After proper purification, the photophysical properties of fac-[ReL(CO)3Cl] were analyzed. The solid-state photoluminescence analysis showed an emission band at 628 nm independent of temperature. However, in the solution studies, the emission band shifted from 550 nm in frozen media to 610 nm when the matrix became fluid. These results confirm that this complex possess a phenomenon known as rigidochromism.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Salazar Garza, Gustavo Adolfo
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sensitization of Lanthanides and Organic-Based Phosphorescence via Energy Transfer and Heavy-Atom Effects

Description: The major topics discussed are the phosphorescence sensitization in the lanthanides via energy transfer and in the organics by heavy atom effects. The f-f transitions in lanthanides are parity forbidden and have weak molar extinction coefficients. Upon complexation with the ligand, ttrpy (4'-p-Tolyl-[2,2':6',2"]-terpyridine) the absorption takes place through the ligand and the excitation is transferred to the lanthanides, which in turn emit. This process is known as "sensitized luminescence." Bright red emission from europium and bright green emission from terbium complexes were observed. There is ongoing work on the making of OLEDs with neutral complexes of lanthanide hexafluoroacetyl acetonate/ttrpy, studied in this dissertation. Attempts to observe analogous energy transfer from the inorganic donor complexes of Au(I) thiocyanates were unsuccessful due to poor overlap of the emissions of these systems with the absorptions of Eu(III) and Tb(III). Photophysics of silver-aromatic complexes deals with the enhancement of phosphorescence in the aromatics. The heavy atom effect of the silver is responsible for this enhancement in phosphorescence. Aromatics such as naphthalene, perylene, anthracene and pyrene were involved in this study. Stern Volmer plots were studied by performing the quenching studies. The quenchers employed were both heavy metals such as silver and thallium and lighter metal like potassium. Dynamic quenching as the predominant phenomenon was noticed.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Arvapally, Ravi K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrochemical Deposition of Zinc-Nickel Alloys in Alkaline Solution for Increased Corrosion Resistance.

Description: The optimal conditions for deposition of zinc-nickel alloys onto stainless steel discs in alkaline solutions have been examined. In the past cadmium has been used because it shows good corrosion protection, but other methods are being examined due to the high toxicity and environmental threats posed by its use. Zinc has been found to provide good corrosion resistance, but the corrosion resistance is greatly increased when alloyed with nickel. The concentration of nickel in the deposit has long been a debated issue, but for basic solutions a nickel concentration of 8-15% appears optimal. However, deposition of zinc-nickel alloys from acidic solutions has average nickel concentrations of 12-15%. Alkaline conditions give a more uniform deposition layer, or better metal distribution, thereby a better corrosion resistance. Although TEA (triethanolamine) is most commonly used to complex the metals in solution, in this work I examined TEA along with other complexing agents. Although alkaline solutions have been examined, most research has been done in pH ≥ 12 solutions. However, there has been some work performed in the pH 9.3-9.5 range. This work examines different ligands in a pH 9.3-9.4 range. Direct potential plating and pulse potential plating methods are examined for optimal platings. The deposits were examined and characterized by XRD.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Conrad, Heidi A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Phosphorescent Emissions of Coinage Metal-Phosphine Complexes: Theory and Photophysics

Description: The major topics discussed are all relevant to the bright phosphorescent emissions of coinage metal complexes (Cu(I), Ag(I) and Au(I)) with an explanation of the theoretical background, computational results and ongoing work on the application in materials and optoelectronic devices. Density functional computations have been performed on the majority of the discussed complexes and determined that the most significant distortion that occurs in Au(I)-phosphine complexes is a near and beyond a T-shape within the P-Au-P angle when the complexes are photoexcited to the lowest phosphorescent excited state. The large distortion is experimentally qualified with the large Stokes' shift that occurs between the excitation and emission spectra and can be as large as 18 000 cm-1 for the neutral Au(I) complexes. The excited state distortion has been thoroughly investigated and it is determined that not only is it pertinent to the efficient luminescence but also for the tunability in the emission. The factors that affect tunability have been determined to be electronics, sterics, rigidity of solution and temperature. The luminescent shifts determined from varying these parameters have been described systematically and have revealed emission colors that span the entire visible spectrum. These astounding features that have been discovered within studies of coinage metal phosphorescent complexes are an asset to applications ranging from materials development to electronics.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Sinha, Pankaj
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Characterization of Platinum(II)(2-(9-anthracenylylidene)-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione)(dichloride), Platinum(II)(2-(9-anthracenylylidene)-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione(maleonitriledithiolate), and Platinum(II)(4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione)(4-Methyl-1,2-benzene dithiol)

Description: Substitution of the 1,5-cyclooctadiene (cod) ligand in PtCl2(cod) (1) by the diphosphine ligand 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione (bpcd) yields PtCl2(bpcd) (2). Knoevenagel condensation of 2 with 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde leads to the functionalization of the bpcd ligand and formation of the corresponding 2-(9-anthracenylidene)-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione (abpcd) substituted compound PtCl2(abpcd) (3), which is also obtained from the direct reaction of 1 with the abpcd ligand in near quantitative yield. The reaction of 3 with disodium maleonitriledithiolate (Na2mnt) affords the chelating dithiolate compound Pt(mnt)(abpcd) (4). The reaction of PtCl2(bpcd) (2) with 4-methyl-1,2-benzene dithiol under basic conditions affords Pt(tdt)(bpcd) (5). Compounds 2-5 have been fully characterized in solution by IR and NMR spectroscopies (1H and 31P), and their molecular structures established by X-ray crystallography. The electrochemical properties of 2‑5 have examined by cyclic voltammetry, and the nature of the HOMO and LUMO levels in systems 2-4 has been established by MO calculations at the extended Hückel level, the results of which are discussed with respect to electrochemical data and related diphosphine derivatives. In addition the new compounds 2-5 have been isolated by column chromatography and characterized by IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Hunt, Sean W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interaction of learning approach with concept integration and achievement in a large guided inquiry organic class.

Description: A study was conducted to investigate the relationship of students' concept integration and achievement with time spent within a topic and across related topics in a large first semester guided inquiry organic chemistry class. Achievement was based on evidence of algorithmic problem solving; and concept integration was based on demonstrated performance explaining, applying, and relating concepts to each other. Twelve individual assessments were made of both variables over three related topics - acid/base, nucleophilic substitution and electrophilic addition reactions. Measurements included written, free response and ordered multiple answer questions using a classroom response system. Results demonstrated that students can solve problems without conceptual understanding. A second study was conducted to compare the students' learning approach at the beginning and end of the course. Students were scored on their preferences for a deep, strategic, or surface approach to learning based on their responses to a pre and post survey. Results suggest that students significantly decreased their preference for a surface approach during the semester. Analysis of the data collected was performed to determine the relationship between students' learning approach and their concept integration and achievement in this class. Results show a correlation between a deep approach and concept integration and a strong negative correlation between a surface approach and concept integration.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Mewhinney, Christina
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kinetic studies and computational modeling of atomic chlorine reactions in the gas phase.

Description: The gas phase reactions of atomic chlorine with hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, benzene, and ethylene are investigated using the laser flash photolysis / resonance fluorescence experimental technique. In addition, the kinetics of the reverse processes for the latter two elementary reactions are also studied experimentally. The absolute rate constants for these processes are measured over a wide range of conditions, and the results offer new accurate information about the reactivity and thermochemistry of these systems. The temperature dependences of these reactions are interpreted via the Arrhenius equation, which yields significantly negative activation energies for the reaction of the chlorine atom and hydrogen sulfide as well as for that between the phenyl radical and hydrogen chloride. Positive activation energies which are smaller than the overall endothermicity are measured for the reactions between atomic chlorine with ammonia and ethylene, which suggests that the reverse processes for these reactions also possess negative activation energies. The enthalpies of formation of the phenyl and β-chlorovinyl are assessed via the third-law method. The stability and reactivity of each reaction system is further rationalized based on potential energy surfaces, computed with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical methods and refined through the inclusion of effects which arise from the special theory of relativity. Large amounts of spin-contamination are found to result in inaccurate computed thermochemistry for the phenyl and ethyl radicals. A reformulation of the computational approach to incorporate spin-restricted reference wavefunctions yields computed thermochemistry in good accord with experiment. The computed potential energy surfaces rationalize the observed negative temperature dependences in terms of a chemical activation mechanism, and the possibility that an energized adduct may contribute to product formation is investigated via RRKM theory.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Alecu, Ionut M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Study of Silver Deposition on Silicon (100) by IR Spectroscopy and Patina Formation Study of Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Ruthenium or Platinum

Description: To investigate conditions of silver electroless deposition on silicon (100), optical microscope, atomic force microscope (AFM) and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were used. Twenty second dipping in 0.8mM AgNO3/4.9% solution coats a silicon (100) wafer with a thin film of silver nanoparticles very well. According to AFM results, the diameter of silver particles is from 50 to 100nm. After deposition, arithmetic average of absolute values roughness (Ra) increased from ~0.7nm to ~1.2nm and the root mean square roughness (Rq) is from ~0.8nm to ~1.5nm. SCN- ions were applied to detect the existence of silver on silicon surface by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and IR spectra demonstrate SCN- is a good adsorbent for silver metal. Patina is the general name of copper basic salts which forms green-blue film on the surface of ancient bronze architectures. Patina formation has been found on the surface of platinum or ruthenium after several scans of cyclic voltammetry in 2mM CuSO4/0.1M K2SO4, pH5 solution. Evidence implies that oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) triggers the patina formation. ORR is an important step of fuel cell process and only few sorts of noble metals like platinum can be worked as the catalyst of ORR. Mechanisms of patination involving ORR were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, optical microscope, AFM, rotating disk electrode and other experimental methods: the occurrence of ORR cause the increase of local pH on electrode, and Cu2+ ions prefer to form Cu2O by reduction. Patina forms while Cu2O is oxidizing back to Cu2+.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Yang, Fan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparison of Homework Systems (Four Web-Based) used in First-Semester General Chemistry

Description: Web-based homework systems are becoming more common in general chemistry as instructors face ever-increasing enrollment. Yet providing meaningful feedback on assignments remains of the utmost importance. Chemistry instructors consider completion of homework integral to students' success in chemistry, yet only a few studies have compared the use of Web-based systems to the traditional paper-and-pencil homework within general chemistry. This study compares the traditional homework system to four different Web-based systems. Data from eight, semester classes consisting of a diagnostic pre-test, final semester grades, and the number of successful and unsuccessful students are analyzed. Statistically significant results suggest a chemistry instructor should carefully consider options when selecting a homework system.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Belland, Joshua
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting Chemical and Biochemical Properties Using the Abraham General Solvation Model

Description: Several studies were done to illustrate the versatillity of the Abraham model in mathematically describing the various solute-solvent interactions found in a wide range of different chemical and biological systems. The first study focused on using the solvation model to construct mathematical correlations describing the minimum inhibitory concentration of organic compounds for growth inhibition towards the three bacterial strains Porphyromonas gingivalis, Selenomonas artemidis, and Streptococcus sobrinus. The next several studies expand the practicallity of the Abraham model by predicting free energies of partition in chemical systems. The free energy studies expand the use of the Abraham model to other temperatures and properties by developing correlations for the enthalpies of solvation of gaseous solutes of various compounds dissolved in water, 1-octanol, hexane, heptane, hexadecane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,2-dichloroethane, N,N-dimethylformamide, tert-butanol, dibutyl ether, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, and acetone. Also, a generic equation for linear alkanes is created for use when individual datasets are small. The prediction of enthalpies of solvation is furthered by modifying the Abraham model so that experimental data measured at different temperatures can be included into a single correlation expression. The temperature dependence is directly included in the model by separating each coefficient into an enthalpic and entropic component. Specifically, the final study describes the effects of temperature on the sorption coefficients of organic gases onto humic acid. The derived predicted values for each research study show a good correlation with experimental values.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Mintz, Christina
Partner: UNT Libraries

Applications of Nanomanipulation Coupled to Nanospray Mass Spectrometry in Trace Fiber Analysis and Cellular Lipid Analysis.

Description: The novel instrumentation of nanomanipulation coupled to nanospray mass spectrometry and its applications are presented. The nanomanipulator has the resolution of 10nm step sizes allowing for specific fine movement used to probe and characterize objects of interest. Nanospray mass spectrometry only needs a minimum sample volume of 300nl and a minimum sample size of 300attograms to analyze an analyte making it the ideal instrument to couple to nanomanipulation. The nanomanipulator is mounted to an inverted microscope and consists of 4 nano-positioners; these nano-positioners hold end-effectors and other tools used for manipulation. This original coupling has been used to enhance the current abilities of cellular probing and trace fiber analysis. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the functionality of this instrument and its capabilities. Histidine and caffeine have been sampled directly from single fibers and analyzed. Lipid bodies from cotton seeds have been sampled indirectly and analyzed. The few applications demonstrated are only the beginning of nanomanipulation coupled to nanospray mass spectrometry and the possible applications are numerous especially with the ability to design and fabricate new end-effectors with unique abilities. Future study will be done to further the applications in direct cellular probing including toxicology studies and organelle analysis of single cells. Further studies will be directed in forensic applications of this instrument including gunshot residue sampled from fibers.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Ledbetter, Nicole
Partner: UNT Libraries

Metallization and Modification of Low-k Dielectric Materials

Description: Aluminum was deposited onto both Teflon AF and Parylene AF surfaces by chemical vapor deposition of trimethylaluminum. This work shows that similar thin film (100 Angstroms) aluminum oxide adlayers form on both polymers at the low temperature dosing conditions used in the studies. Upon anneal to room temperature and above, defluorination of the polymer surfaces increased and resulted in fluorinated aluminum oxide adlayers; the adlayers were thermally stable to the highest temperatures tested (600 K). Angle-resolved spectra showed higher levels of fluorination toward the polymer/adlayer interface region. Copper films were also deposited at low temperature onto Teflon AF using a copper hexafluoroacetylacetonate-cyclooctadiene precursor. Annealing up to 600 K resulted in the loss of precursor ligands and a shift to metallic copper. As with aluminum adlayers, some polymer defluorination and resulting metal (copper) fluoride was detected. Parylene AF and polystyrene films surfaces were modified by directly dosing with water vapor passed across a hot tungsten filament. Oxygen incorporation into polystyrene occurred exclusively at aromatic carbon sites, whereas oxygen incorporation into parylene occurred in both aromatic and aliphatic sites. Oxygen x-ray photoelectron spectra of the modified polymers were comparable, indicating that similar reactions occurred. The surface oxygenation of parylene allowed enhanced reactivity toward aluminum chemical vapor deposition. Silicon-carbon (Si-Cx) films were formed by electron beam bombardment of trimethylvinylsilane films which were adsorbed onto metal substrates at low temperatures in ultra-high vacuum. Oxygen was also added to the films by coadsorbing water before electron beam bombardment; the films were stable to more than 700 K, with increasing silicon-oxygen bond formation at elevated temperatures. Copper metal was sputter deposited in small increments onto non-oxygenated films. X-ray photoelectric spectra show three-dimensional copper growth (rather than layer-by-layer growth), indicating only weak interaction between the copper and underlying films. Annealing at elevated temperatures caused coalescence or growth ...
Date: December 2008
Creator: Martini, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Preparation of flat dendrimers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons connected via 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene core.

Description: Flat dendrimers, consisting of a hexavalent aromatic core and rigid ethynyl units locked in place by ether connections were developed based upon the divergent synthetic method. Alternating functional groups were adopted on each site of the hexa-substituted benzene, in order to avoid undesired cyclization pathways. The flat structures of conjugated dendrimers would allow investigation on the discotic liquid crystal properties. In addition, these ethylnyl dendrimers are expected to show directed energy and electron transfer with a highly conjugated system, and thus are effective in the preparation of photoreactive materials such as electronic sensors or light harvesting materials. Conjugated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, consisting of naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, and phenanthrene groups connected via 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene cores, were synthesized. These molecules exhibited luminescence properties and the π-complexation with a mercury trifunctional lewis acid are expected to enhance the phosphorescence in the presence of the heavy metal due to the spin-orbit coupling. Besides, owing to the presence of heavy metal atom in the Au (I) complexes linked by s-bonded triethynyltriphenylene luminophore, the phosphorescence occurs from a metal-centered emission. The conjugated organic luminophores have been developed to produce excellent quantum efficiencies, brightness, and long lifetimes.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Jung, Jiyoung
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computational Studies of Bonding and Phosphorescent Properties of Group 12 Oligomers and Extended Excimers.

Description: Density functional (ca, BLYP, BPW91, B3LYP and B3PW91), MP2 and CCSD(T) methods in combination with LANL2DZ or cc-pVxZ-PP (where x=D(double), T(triple) Q(quadruple), and 5(quintuple)) basis sets have been employed in computing electronic transition energies of zinc and cadmium monomers. CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z-PP combination finds values that are 150 cm-1 from the experimental value for the zinc monomer and 240 cm-1 remove from the cadmium monomer excitation experimental value. These method/basis set combinations are also used to find spectroscopic values (re, De, we, wexe, Be , and Te) that rival experimental values for dimers and excimers. Examples of this can be seen with the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z-PP combination phosphorescent emission results. The values found are within 120 cm-1 of the zinc emission energy and 290 cm-1 of the cadmium emission energy. While this combination rigorously models spectroscopic constants for monomers, dimers, and excimers, it does not efficiently model these constants for larger clusters with available modern computational resources. It is important to show spectroscopic trends (bonding, phosphorescent excitation and emissions) as clusters increase as the monomer and dimer emission energies do not model solid state metallophilic interactions and phosphorescence. The MP2/LANL2DZ combinations show qualitative cooperative bonding trends in group oligomers and extended excimers as size increases and shape change. Changes in excitation and emission energies are also shown as a function of size and shape of the clusters.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Determan, John J.
Partner: UNT Libraries