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Assessing Learning Disabilities: Effectiveness of the Symbol Language and Communication Battery (SLCB)

Description: This study examined whether the Symbol Language and Communication Battery (SLCB), a measure of learning disabilities (Lds), could identify children with Lds. In addition, possible behavioral differences were examined between unidentified and identified children. Eighty-five students (26 with school identified Lds; 59 unidentified) in the 4th and 5th grade participated in the study. Results indicated that the SLCB has good potential as a supplemental/screening measure of Lds. The SLCB was most effective in identifying children when SLCB diagnoses were restricted to the areas of reading, math, and writing. This study also found that teachers reported more behavioral problems in children with an SLCB diagnosis than children without a diagnosis, whereas unidentified children with SCLB diagnoses reported more behavioral problems than identified children.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Schraufnagel, Caitlin D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploring Relationships Between Recalled Parenting and Anaclitic and Introjective Depression

Description: This study related college students' remembered early relationships with parents to their depression symptoms and to dependent and self-critical subjective feelings. Undergraduates (N = 217, 118 female, 99 male) provided information regarding their current level of depression, overall functioning, subjective feelings of depression (Depressive Experiences Questionnaire), negative thoughts, interpersonal functioning, and recollections of their parents' behavior and attitudes. Depression symptoms were related to dependent and self-critical feelings and to recalled low parental care and high parental control. However, for women, paternal affection and, for men, paternal control, were unrelated to depression symptoms. Other results are inconclusive but, overall, provide evidence for the usefulness of Blatt's theory in assessing depression via dependent and self-critical subjective feelings.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Weisz, Adriana V.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Husband's and Daughter's Role Strain During Breast Cancer Hospice Patient Caregiving and Bereavement Adjustment

Description: Current literature regarding caregiver bereavement adjustment has advanced two competing models explaining adjustment in relation to caregiver interrole conflict: the Relief Model and Complicated Grief Model. This research has primarily focused on the experience of those providing care to dementia patients. This study tests these competing models of bereavement adjustment for husband and daughter caregivers of breast cancer hospice patients. For husbands, greater psychological strain and health strain were predictive of greater difficulty with bereavement adjustment, supporting the Complicated Grief Model of bereavement adjustment. For daughters, strain was not a significant predictor of bereavement adjustment, and thus did not support either bereavement adjustment model. While daughter caregivers experienced more role strain than husband caregivers during patient care, the degree of role strain was predictive of bereavement adjustment for husbands but not for daughters, suggesting that relationship type (husbands versus daughters) between caregiver and patient impacts which factors influence bereavement adjustment.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Bernard, Lori Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measuring attention: An evaluation of the Search and Cancellation of Ascending Numbers (SCAN) and the short form of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS)

Description: This study found a relationship between the Search and Cancellation of Ascending Numbers (SCAN), Digit Span, and Visual Search and Attention Test (VSAT). Data suggest the measures represent a common construct interpreted to be attention. An auditory distracter condition of the SCAN did not distract participants, while the measure exhibited ample alternate forms reliability. The study also found that the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) short form poorly predicted performance on the Digit Span, VSAT, and SCAN. Although the TAIS exhibited good internal consistency, the items likely measure the subjective perception of attention. Furthermore, discriminant and convergent validity of the TAIS were found to be poor.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Greher, Michael R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Application of a Health Service Utilization Model to a Low Income, Ethnically Diverse Sample of Women

Description: A model for health care utilization was applied to a sample of low income women. Demographic Predisposing, Psychosocial Predisposing, Illness Level, and Enabling indicators were examined separately for African American (n = 266), Anglo American (n = 200), and Mexican American (n = 210) women. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that for African American and Anglo American women, Illness Level, the only significant path to Utilization, had a mediating effect on Psychosocial Predisposing indicators. The model for Mexican Americans was the most complex with Enabling indicators affecting Illness Level and Utilization. Psychosocial Predisposing indicators were mediated by Illness Level and Enabling indicators which both directly affected Utilization. Implications of the results for future research are addressed.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Keenan, Lisa A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Athletes' Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation: Development and Validation of the Sport Psychology Attitudes Questionnaire

Description: The purpose of the study was to create a questionnaire to identify underlying dimensions of athletes' attitudes toward seeking sport psychology consultation. A total of 1138 athletes (625 males, 513 females) representing 36 sports from four levels of participation were used to develop the Sport Psychology Attitudes Questionnaire (SPAQ). In Study I, exploratory factor analysis produced a two-factor solution that accounted for 37.1% of the overall variance: (a) belief in the credibility of sport psychology (14 items) and (b) preference for similarity with a sport psychology consultant (SPC) (7 items). Three items were omitted following item analysis, and nine items were eliminated after failing to load higher than the cut-off value of .40 on either of the factors. In Study II, confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-factor model, and multigroup comparison in Study III demonstrated that the model fit well for both male and female samples. As for validity, the SPAQ factors predictably (a) distinguished between athletes with and without previous experience with a SPC, (b) related to ratings of helpfulness/satisfaction related to a previous experience with a SPC, and (c) correlated with willingness to see a SPC for help in the future. Also, the SPAQ factors were related, as predicted, to (a) belief that practicing sport psychology skills will lead to desirable outcomes, (b) interpersonal openness, and (c) affective prejudice toward identified outgroups but were not related to level of self-concept as hypothesized. Contrary to predictions, Gender X Race X SPC experience MANOVAs revealed no gender or racial differences in attitudes toward sport psychology consultation. It was concluded that the SPAQ is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing a set of important attitudinal dimensions with regard to seeking sport psychology consultation and a useful instrument for research and practice. Theoretical and empirical support for the interpretation of the ...
Date: August 2000
Creator: Harmison, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparative Analysis of Chronic Versus Acute Stressors and Their Influence on Distress Consequences at Work

Description: Workplace stress has been found to be a causal agent of psychological distress consequences in employees. Chronic stressors have been well researched, in particular, role conflict, role ambiguity, and work overload have been extensively studied. A meta-analysis was conducted in order to aggregate past research to gain a better understanding of the impact these stressors have on the psychological distress consequences of depression, tension/anxiety, somatic complaints, and generalized feelings of stress. Only role ambiguity was found to be a significant contributor to psychological distress, in particular to feelings of depression and stress. In general, however, effect sizes for all three stressors were moderate to large. While chronic stressors have been well researched, acute stressors have been widely overlooked. Since research in this area is limited, the Daily Work Hassles Survey was developed and validated in order to analyze the role daily hassles play in the workplace. The survey yielded two factors, Interpersonal Hassles and Task Hassles. The former of which was found to be significantly related to the distress consequences of depression, tension/anxiety, somatic complaints, and general feelings of stress. The ultimate goal of this project was to compare chronic and acute stressors. Results from the daily hassles study were contrasted to the results of the aforementioned meta-analysis. It was found that the chronic stressors of role ambiguity, role conflict, and overload are significantly greater predictors of selected distress consequences than the acute factors of Interpersonal Hassles and Task Hassles. However, when somatic complaints was employed as the dependent variable, no significant differences were found between chronic and acute stressors.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Crawford, Julie Schwarz
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measurement of Adolescent Psychopathy: Construct and Predictive Validity in Two Samples of Juvenile Offenders

Description: The construct of psychopathy holds promise as a discriminating variable in the classification and explanation of childhood antisocial behavior. The new generation of psychopathy measures, designed to measure this construct in adolescent populations, must meet acceptable standards of reliability and validity prior to the clinical application of the construct with adolescent offenders. The purpose of this study is to examine the construct and predictive validity of adolescent psychopathy as measured by the PCL:YV, PSD, SALE, and SRP-II. Data from two samples of detained adolescent offenders (short-term and long-term detention) are utilized to investigate construct validity via MTMM. In addition, external validity indices including institutional violations (fighting, seclusions, and treatment refusals) and community supervision (probation contacts, drug testing, and re-arrests) are operationalized and measured in order to examine the predictive validity of adolescent psychopathy. Results of construct validity offer modest support for the two-factor model of psychopathy. For external validity, Factor 2 accounted for greater variance in the prediction of institutional infractions and subsequent placements in a secure facility; however, its overall predictive validity was low. The results suggest that the current measures assess psychopathic traits and behaviors which may be stable in adults but are likely to be normative and transient in many adolescents.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Cruise, Keith R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performance of Adults With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Measures of Response Inhibition and Frontal Lobe Functioning

Description: In this study 2 groups of adults, those with and without ADHD, were studied in terms of cognitive functioning and symptoms of ADHD, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. Due to the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in this population three methods of diagnosis were used and the resulting findings presented. The groups did not differ in measures of depression, anxiety, substance abuse or age. Those adults who met criteria for ADHD showed worse performance on a measure of response inhibition compared to those without ADHD. The patterns of correlations among the cognitive measures differed between the two groups. The conclusions from the findings are discussed in relation to Barkley's (1997) self-regulation model of ADHD.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Wodushek, Thomas R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological and Sociodemographic Predictors of Psychological Distress in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing Participants within a Community Based Genetic Screening Program

Description: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, the first two breast cancer susceptibility genes identified, carry as much as an 85% lifetime risk of developing breast, ovarian or other cancers. Genetic testing for mutations in these two genes has recently become commercially available. There have been varying amounts of psychological distress noted among women with a family history of breast cancer. Distress has been observed to impact psychological functioning, activities of daily living, and the practice of breast cancer surveillance behaviors. Within the genetic screening process, psychological distress has been shown to impact the decision to undergo genetic screening, the comprehension and retention of risk assessment information, as well as affecting the subject following the receipt of the genetic test results. Little work has been done to examine predictors of distress within at risk subjects. This study examines psychological distress among 52 community women presenting for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic mutation testing. Predictors of distress included family cancer history, education, age, Ashkenazi ethnicity, and Internality and Powerful Others Health Locus of Control. Vulnerable sub-groups of patients include younger women, women with higher levels of education and women of Ashkenazi ethnicity.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Lesniak, Karen
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of False Self Behavior to Object Relations, Attachment, and Adjustment

Description: The focus of this investigation is to assess the relationship between false self behavior, object relations and attachment variables, and adjustment. Theory suggests that object relations and attachment are interrelated, and have been independently linked to psychological consequences. Theory also postulates a relationship between false self behavior and object relations theory. Given the interrelatedness of object relations and attachment theory it is possible that false self behavior may also be linked to attachment variables. While the relationship between object relations and false self behavior seems to have been established object relations theory and attachment theory have not been studied in tandem as related to false self behavior. In addition, this investigation will explore the relationship of adjustment variables to attachment and object relations variables. Undergraduate males and females will be solicited for participation, and will be asked to complete self-report questionnaires measuring false self behavior, object relations, attachment, and adjustment. The primary research hypothesis is that less false self behavior will be related to mature object relations, secure attachment, and fewer symptoms.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Selby, Christine Louise Buntrock
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessment of the Effects of Interpersonal Openness and Coping Resources on the Psychological Sequelae of Traumatic Victimization

Description: The present study tested a model addressing whether interpersonal Openness and interpersonal and intrapersonal Coping Resources mediated the relationship between interpersonal Victimization and the Psychological Symptoms women experience as a result of these traumas. Victimization indicators (physical violence, sexual assault, psychological abuse, and revictimization), Coping indicators (optimism, self-esteem, private self-consciousness, social network and therapy), Openness indicators (self-silencing, communal orientation, trust, self-monitoring, and network orientation), and Psychological Symptoms indicators (global distress, dissociation, and suicidal ideation) were examined separately for African American (n = 245), Euro-American (n = 185), and Mexican American (n = 202) women. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that for African American and Euro-American women, Openness partially mediated the victimization-distress relationship. The model for Mexican Americans was the most complex with Openness and intrapersonal Coping fully mediating the psychological effects of victimization. Approximately 50% of the variance in psychological symptoms resulting from victimization was predicted by this model for African American and Euro-American women; over 80% of the variance was predicted for Mexican Americans. Thus, the importance of Openness to relationships in alleviating the psychological sequelae following interpersonal victimization was underscored by the results. Similarities and differences between these models are discussed. Implications of the results for future research and intervention are addressed.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Sedillo, Diane Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Self-Monitoring and Monetary Reward on Fluid Adherence among Adult Hemodialysis Patients

Description: The effects of a monetary reward and self-monitoring on reducing interdialytic weight gain (IWG) were compared for 6 hemodialysis patients in an outpatient setting. A single-subject experimental design (A-B-BC-B-BC) was used to examine each variable individually and in combination, with alternating phases to control for possible sequencing effects. Monetary reward (50 cents - $3) was administered in a titrated manner according to standardized criteria, ranging from 3 % and 4% of patients' dry weight on weekdays and weekends, respectively, to 3.5% and 4.5% for weekdays and weekends. Self-monitoring involved recording daily fluid and diet intake. Results indicated that by the end of the treatment program, the 6 participants averaged a 14% reduction in weekday IWG and a 15.45% reduction in weekend IWG; however, due to significant variability, it cannot be concluded that the reductions are treatment effects. Four out of 6 participants reduced their average IWG for both weekends and weekdays by .75 kg (1.65 lb.). The average weekend reduction for these 4 participants was .85 kg (1.87 lbs.) while the average weekday reduction was .65 kg (1.43 lb.). All 6 participants showed reductions in weekday IWG that averaged .53 kg (1.17 lb.). However, only 2 participants demonstrated IWG reductions that could be attributable to either of the 2 treatment variables. The standardized dry weight criterion for assessing fluid adherence may have posed excessively stringent demands on participants, as only 1 of the 6 participants actually met the criterion. Future research should address the role of nonspecific treatment factors, as well as patient characteristics and responsivity to particular treatment components in an effort to identify those factors responsible for behavior change in this population.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Sonnier, Bridget L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Guilt and Shame as They Relate to Combat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): An Analysis of Trauma Content And Resulting Symptomatology

Description: This study began testing the Sewell and Williams (in press) model that differing trauma types yield differing presentations in social versus event processing domains. Other hypotheses explored trauma type with levels of guilt, and shame-proneness with anxiety. Volunteers were 44 male combat veterans being treated for PTSD. Data analyses determined whether trauma type related to guilt and perceived social support and whether shame-proneness related to levels of anxiety. High shame persons may process anxiety and social support differently than low shame persons. Results can assist professionals understand how a person's functioning is affected by certain types of trauma. Future research should focus on increasing social support for persons who have experienced trauma.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Taber, Iris
Partner: UNT Libraries

Multiple Predictors of College Adjustment and Academic Performance for Undergraduates in Their First Semester

Description: College success, as defined by adjustment to college and academic performance, is a multidetermined with a number of contributing influences, including academic factors, personality variables, family characteristics, and environmental factors. This study attempted to provide an organizing model of the college success literature that was based on previous research (e.g., Aspinwall & Taylor, 1994) and current stress-coping theory (Moos & Swindle, 1990). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the hypothesized model did not fit the data well. However, subsequent regression analyses did validate the view that college success is multidetermined. Specifically, academic performance was predicted by a combination of academic factors (SAT score and class rank) and academic adjustment. In turn, academic adjustment was predicted by locus of control, perceived social support, and high school class rank. Personal adjustment was predicted by coping strategies employed, parents who fostered autonomy, locus of control, self-esteem, and high school class rank. Finally, social adjustment was predicted by optimism, coping strategies employed, and locus of control. Treatment implications as well as directions for future research were discussed.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Stoever, Shawn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reactions of psychotherapists in training to religious questions

Description: This project investigated the spiritual well-being (SWB) of psychotherapists in training and their physiological reactions to religious questions posed by a mock client. Electrodermal activity served as an index of physiological arousal interpreted as anxiety. Thirteen psychotherapists in training at the University of North Texas were recruited. They participated in a simulated intake session with a mock client who asked the psychotherapist neutral questions, personal-other questions (POQs), and personal-religious questions (PRQs). It was discovered that the level of SWB did not affect subjects' anxiety responses to PRQs. There also was no difference in subjects' anxiety responses for POQs between high and low SWB therapists. However, psychotherapists did experience some anxiety associated with questions related to their counseling experience and expertise.
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Date: May 2001
Creator: Hutchinson, Geoffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries

Response Guided Errorless Learning with Normal Elderly

Description: This study investigates the use of response guidance for errorless learning of a perceptual motor task in normal elderly. It provides normative data for a study with stroke patients using this technique for cognitive rehabilitation. While errorless learning has been shown to be more effective on most tasks than trial and error learning for people with memory impairments, its use with normal individuals has received limited attention. The questions of interest were whether errorless training of the perceptual motor task was more effective for improving and retaining accuracy; and whether both accuracy and response speed were more resistant to the effects of increased cognitive demands. A sample of 43 normal elderly in the United Kingdom, ranging in age from 60 to 77, completed an assessment of intelligence, memory, and attention. They then received training, over two sessions one week apart, to mark the midpoint of Judd Arrows presented on a computer screen using a cross cursor moved by an active force feedback joystick (AFF). During training the errorless group received AFF guidance to the correct midpoint, while the errorful group received none, and both received auditory and visual knowledge of results. There was no AFF during baseline or post test measures. Training was to criterion in each session with a discontinue rule if accuracy did not improve. At the end of session two both groups were given a cognitively challenging task concurrent with the arrow bisection. Results revealed that both groups improved their accuracy through training with the errorless group being significantly more accurate and tending to be faster in the final post tests of both sessions. The errorless group was significantly faster than the errorful group under the cognitive challenge, without sacrificing accuracy. These results suggest not only that AFF is an effective means of implementing errorless perceptual motor ...
Date: May 2001
Creator: Connor, Bonnie B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The uninvestigated factors: Dimensions of personality and psychopathology in sex offenders

Description: Understanding the relation between personality characteristics, psychopathology, and sexual offenses can contribute to developing more effective treatment interventions. Previous research with sex offenders has focused on general personality traits or inconsistently classified sex offenders based on psychopathology. It was hypothesized that combining personality and psychopathological traits can assist in understanding sex offenders. The current study evaluated 88 male sex offenders in a court-mandated outpatient treatment program utilizing the NEO-PI-R and the MMPI-2. Three clusters of child molesters were examined for differences in personality characteristics and number of offenses. A second-order principle axis factor (PAF) analysis of personality and psychopathology traits revealed three factors: Psychological Distress, Excitement-Seeking, and Social Desirability. The potential clinical utility of these dimensions in predicting treatment compliance is examined.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Briley, Josh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessment of Psychopathy in Incarcerated Females

Description: Psychopaths constitute only an estimated 1% of the population, yet they are responsible for a disproportionately large number of violent and nonviolent crimes. The literature addressing this syndrome among male offenders is quite extensive. In contrast, psychopathy and its underlying factor structure remains understudied among female offenders. Research has suggested marked gender differences in the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and underlying dimensions of psychopathy. This study examined the dimensions of psychopathy in a female offender sample. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and the Self Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) were administered to 119 female inmates at Tarrant County Jail in Fort Worth, TX. Confirmatory factor analyses of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) did not support the use of the traditional two factor male model or a recently proposed two- factor female model. This thesis also addressed females' self-appraisal of PCL-R Factor 1 characteristics as well as the usefulness of the self-administered Self-Report Psychopathy-II as a screen for psychopathy.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Jackson, Rebecca L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Differentiating Connectedness and Neediness as Two Forms of Dependency

Description: The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire Dependency scale has been used extensively by researchers to measure a personality style vulnerable to depression. However, subsequent studies have demonstrated that the DEQ-Dependency is composed of two distinct forms of dependency, "Connectedness" and "Neediness", which may have different implications for mental health. While Connectedness may represent a more mature form of dependency than Neediness, it may not represent an entirely "healthy" form of relatedness as previously suggested. Although these scales are being used in current research, it is not yet clear what they represent. One goal of the present study was to further examine the construct validity of Connectedness and Neediness in order to differentiate these constructs. Gender, self-efficacy, relationship quality, and interpersonal behavior were chosen because of their proposed significance in differentiating forms of dependency. 265 undergraduates completed the DEQ, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Mutual Psychological Development Questionnaire (MPDQ), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). Overall, results supported the importance of distinguishing between these two factors of dependency. Neediness was associated with more maladaptive correlates for both genders. The picture is more complex for Connectedness, however, and it appears that Connectedness is less healthy for women than for men.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Niemeyer, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Historical Changes in Elderly Cohorts' Attitudes toward Mental Health Services

Description: Older adults' attitudes toward mental health services have received little research attention. Overall, older adults are thought to hold relatively negative attitudes. In this study, Analysis 1 investigated historical shifts in attitudes toward mental health services among three independent samples of older adults, separated by 14-year and 9-year intervals (1977 sample, N = 90; 1991 sample, N = 101; 2000 sample, N = 99). Analysis 2 compared two samples of older and younger adults, each separated by a 9-year interval (Older Adults: 1991 sample, N = 93; 2000 sample, N = 91 and Younger Adults: 1991 sample, N = 131; 2000 sample, N = 147). Participants completed a questionnaire containing five, internally consistent scales assessing multiple dimensions of mental health attitudes (Openness, Biases, Range of Knowledge, Breadth, Help Seeking Attitudes). Analyses suggested that the 1991 and 2000 samples of older adults had more positive attitudes than did the 1977 sample. However, a sustained trend for more positive attitudes beyond 1991 was not seen. In fact, no differences existed between 1991 and 2000 samples with exception of two. Older and younger adults together had lower Biases and Breadth scores in 2000 than in 1991. Age effects, gender effects, and interactions were also examined. Possible historical influences were discussed along with implications for the delivery of mental health care to future cohorts of older adults.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Currin, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Leadership, Ascendancy, and Gender

Description: By the year 2000 women will constitute more than 50 percent of the workforce in the United States, yet their representation in top management and executive-level positions continues to hover in the single digits. This “glass ceiling,” which is conceptualized as limiting women's advancement into these roles, has been the subject of much debate and research over the last fifteen years. As both an equal rights and key competitive issue, the topic of women and leadership is gaining ever-increasing emphasis and momentum in American corporations. Although leadership skills have been advocated as a key human capital/person-centered variable leading to managerial ascendancy for women, the empirical research directly investigating this link is virtually non-existent. This longitudinal study proposed to measure the strength of this relationship using a matched sample of male and female managers. Eighty-five subjects, from the same U.S. based health-care products corporation, had previously participated in a multirater assessment process where seven different facets of their leadership skills were evaluated. Time two data were collected on four objective measures of ascendancy: percent change in salary, number of promotions (job moves) either offered or accepted, change in number of direct reports, and change in number of indirect reports. Multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that perceived leadership ability did lead to increased ascendancy, specifically in terms of percent salary change, for the female managers, but not for the males. Multiple regressions indicated that the female managers were not rewarded, necessarily, for gender congruent behavior in this organization, while male managers did appear to be rewarded more so on that particular dimension. Implications of these findings for female managers in the workplace were discussed.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Hale, John P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Psychological Well- Being: A Comparative Study of Heterosexual and Gay Men

Description: Masculine gender role conflict (MGRC) occurs when externally-imposed male gender role expectations have a negative impact on and consequences for men. The purpose of this study was to examine how men in a homogeneous setting (i.e., a college campus) compare on MGRC and psychological well-being, based on their self-identified sexual orientation. Utilizing canonical correlation analysis, 96 heterosexual men and 102 gay men were compared on four factors of MGRC (conflict between work and family, restrictive emotionality, restrictive affectionate behavior between men, and success, power, and competition) and five factors of psychological well-being (anger, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and attitudes toward seeking psychological help). Findings for the heterosexual men were highly consistent with previous studies on MGRC and psychological well-being in a college-age population. Findings for the gay men indicated they had more problems with MGRC and psychological well-being than college-age and older gay men surveyed in the one published study on gay men and MGRC. Gay men who were single also reported more problems with restrictive emotionality, anger, anxiety, and depression, and had lower self-esteem, than gay men who were in a relationship. Between group differences were few, with gay men reporting significantly less restrictive affectionate behavior between men than heterosexual men. There were no significant differences between the two groups on any of the psychological well-being variables, indicating that the gay men were no more pathological than the heterosexual men with respect to their psychological well-being. Overall, the psychological well-being of both populations was seen to suffer as a result of increased MGRC. Implications are discussed for psychological interventions with men who are bound by traditional male gender role stereotypes.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Shepard, William D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological Hardiness and Biochemical Markers of Acute Stress

Description: The establishment of physiological norms for psychologically hardy vs. non-hardy individuals was attempted by examination of levels of salivary cortisol and urinary norepinephrine before and after a mid-term examination stressor. Normative data was collected on the reported frequency of stressors and their severity one week prior to the examination, and self-reported ratings of stress immediately prior to the examination. Performance on the examination as a function of hardiness was explored. Associations between demographic variables and psychological hardiness were also studied. Results from this study were inconclusive in establishing physiological norms for psychologically hardy individuals. Associations were found between: 1) hardiness and frequency of stressors; 2) hardiness and age; and 3) self-reported ratings of stress and anxiety as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
Date: August 2001
Creator: McCoy, Paula K.
Partner: UNT Libraries