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Pyrimidine Enzyme Specific Activity at Four Different Phases of Growth in Minimal and Rich Media, and Concomitant Virulence Factors Evaluation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Description: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative rod, aerobic, non-fermenting, oxidase positive, pigment producing, and nutritionally versatile bacterium. Infections by P. aeruginosa are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, given virulence factor production that suppresses antibiotic therapy and promotes persistent infection. This research is the first comprehensive report of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway for all phases of growth in minimal and rich media coupled with the evaluation of virulence factor production of P. aeruginosa in comparison to four other bacterial species (Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Burkholderia cepacia, and Escherichia coli wild-type strains). Cellular growth and passing genetic information to the next generation depend on the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, the precursors of DNA and RNA. The pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway is essential and found in most organisms, with the exception of a few parasites that depend upon the pyrimidine salvage pathway for growth. Both the pyrimidine biosynthetic and salvage enzymes are targets for chemotherapeutic agents. In our laboratory, research on pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants showed the role of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and its intermediates on P. aeruginosa metabolism and impaired virulence factors production. The present research shows that pyrimidine enzymes are active in all phases of growth, including the production of two forms of ATCase in the late log phase in P. aeruginosa. This finding may be explained by the displacement of the inactive PyrC' by the active PyrC or PyrC2 to form a new and larger pyrBC encoded ATCase. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild-type appears to produce by far the most virulence factors, haemolysin, iron chelation, rhamnolipid, adherence, and three types of motility (swimming, swarming, and twitching) investigated in this study, when compared to the other four wild-type strains. Growth analysis was carried out as typically done in minimal medium but also in rich medium to simulate conditions ...
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Date: December 2005
Creator: Azad, Kamran Nikkhah
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of a Return of Native Grasslands upon the Ecology and Distribution of Small Rodents in Big Bend National Park

Description: In the southwestern United States there is a delicate balance between the existing grasslands and the rodent fauna. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of secondary succession of native grasslands upon the ecology and distribution of small rodents. Two methods of determining the rodent species were plot quadrates and trap lines using Sherman live traps.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Baccus, John T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of a Constructed Wetland to Reduce Toxicity from Diazinon at the Pecan Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, Denton, TX

Description: The City of Denton Pecan Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility has periodically failed effluent toxicity testing. A Toxicity Identification Evaluation has determined that Diazinon in the effluent is contributing to the observed toxicity. Chlorpyrifos is also implicated as a factor. The City of Denton constructed a half acre experimental wetland to remove Diazinon related toxicity. Results from spiking and microcosm experiments indicate that the wetland can reduce the Diazinon.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Baerenklau, Amy L. (Amy Lyn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Developmental Physiology of the Zebrafish: Influence of Environment and Cardiovascular Attributes

Description: Temperature effects on the development of the zebrafish embryos and larvae and adults were examined. It was found that the earlier in development a temperature change was performed on an embryo, the more significant the change in survival and/or subsequent development. Thus, viable temperature ranges for zebrafish widened significantly as development proceeded. Adults reared and bred at 25oC produced embryos that were significantly more successful at the lower range of rearing temperatures compared to embryos produced from adults reared at 28oC. The majority of this study focused on the physiological effects of swim training during development in the zebrafish. The earlier in development the zebrafish larvae were trained, the greater the mortality. Trained free swimming larvae had a significantly higher routine oxygen consumption after 11 days of training, and a higher mass specific routine metabolic rate after 8 and 11 days of training. Trained free swimming larvae consumed significantly less oxygen during swimming and were more efficient at locomotion, compared to control larvae. Training enhanced survival during exposure to extreme hypoxia in all age groups. Performance aspects of training were investigated in attempt to quantify training effects and in most cases, trained fish performed significantly better than controls. As blood vessels formed during development, they decreased in cross sectional area from days two to six. It was also shown that the variability in visual stroke volume measurements could be reduced significantly by using a third dimension in the analysis with a more accurate volume equation. Finally, the ontogeny of cardiac control was evaluated. The adrenergic receptors were the first to respond to pharmacological stimulation but were closely followed by cholinergic pharmacological stimulation a few days later. There was a significant cholinergic tone present in day 15 zebrafish larvae which persisted. Although an adrenergic tone was not documented in this study, ...
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Date: August 2001
Creator: Bagatto, Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries

In vitro Cultures of Morus alba for Enhancing Production of Phytoestrogens

Description: Plant estrogens have long been associated with health benefits. The potential of tissue culture techniques for the production of several secondary metabolites has been known for many years. Tissue cultures stimulate the production or induce the biosynthesis of novel compounds not found in the mature plant. Tissue culture of Morus alba, family Moraceae, is known to contain phytoestrogens, was established on plant-hormone supplemented Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Petiole and the stem tissue from mature trees were the best explants for initiation and proliferation of calli. The best callus proliferation was obtained on MS medium containing 1-napthalene acetic acid (1mg/ml) and benzylaminopurine (0.5mg/ml) for M. alba. Comparison of phytoestrogens of Moraceae species from in vivo and in vitro tissue isolation were carried out. The estrogenic activities of callus extracts were assayed in an estrogen-responsive yeast system expressing the human estrogen receptor alpha. Male callus extracts had higher estrogenic activity than male and female extracts from in vivo and in vitro tissues. Isolation and characterization of phytoestrogens from above tissues were carried out using solid phase extraction, high perfomance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques. Biochanin A, an isoflavonoid, was isolated as one of the compounds in male callus extracts. Biochanin A has been known to have an antiestrogenic acitivity in mammals. Isoflavonoid compounds have been characterized as strong protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors in variety of animal cells. Isoflavones are structurally similar to estradiol, and display agonistic and antagonistic interactions with the estrogen receptor. Isoflavones possess therapeutic and preventive properties such as being used for postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, and inhibition of tumors.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Bakshi, Vibhu
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Isolation, Cultivation and Testing of Organisms Anatagonistic to a Streptomycin Resistant Strain of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Description: The problem of finding an efficient antibiotic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa which can be used in the clinical treatment of genito-urinary tract infections resistant to treatment by streptomycin has not yet been solved. Therefore, this problem has consisted of first, the acquisition of possible inhibitors of the streptomycin resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; second, the selection and identification of those which show a marked antagonism toward this organism; third, the determination of the antibiotic spectra of the inhibitors; fourth, the determination of whether the streptomycin resistant strain could also acquire a resistance to the antibiotic produced by its inhibitors; and last, an attempt to evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of the antibiotics demonstrated.
Date: 1951
Creator: Banister, Jack Warren
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of Similarity Indicies to Assess the Spatial Differences of the Phytoplankton Communities in Lake Ray Roberts, Texas

Description: A study of the phytoplankton communities of Lake Ray Roberts was conducted at three sampling sites on two sampling dates during the summer of 1995, assessing both community structure and chlorophyll a concentrations. Eight similarity indices were then used to characterize and compare the communities of these sites. Both community similarity and chlorophyll a concentrations were evaluated using a minimum detectable difference equation to determine the amount of change that must occur in these parameters in order to be deemed statistically significant. The Bray-Curtis Index was shown to be the most adequate index evaluated, and was subsequently used in conjunction with bootstrap analysis to determine the similarity between the three sampling sites.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Banks, Kenneth E. (Kenneth Edward)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Study of Egg Media in the Primary Isolation of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Description: The primary purpose of this investigation is not only to improve the present technique of culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but also to make a comparative study of the media use, namely, Veterans Administration modification of Trudeau's medium, Lowenstein's egg medium, and that developed by the author, in order to find which, if any, of these will most easily and effectively meet the needs of the hospital laboratory.
Date: 1949
Creator: Barberousse, Loris J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Degradation of Homologous Polymerized Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Azotobacter Vinelandii ATCC 12837

Description: The purpose of this study was twofold. The first was to isolate, purify, and characterize the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Azotobacter vinelandii ATCO 12837. The second was to determine if there was irreversible binding of homologous 32P labeled DNA to recipient A. vinelandii cells.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Barnes, Wayne Riley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparison of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase and Pyrimidine Salvage in Sporosarcina urea, Sprolactobacillus inulinus, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Micrococcus luteus

Description: The enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in pyrimidine biosynthesis, aspartate transcarbamoylase, has been compared in selected endospore-forming organisms and in morphologically similar control organisms. The ATCases and pyrimidine salvage from Sporosarcina ureae, Sporolactobacillus inulinus, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Micrococcus luteus were compared to those of Bacillus subtilis. While the ATCases from Sporosarcina ureae, Sporolactobacillus inulinus, and L. fermentum were found to exhibit characteristics to that of Bacillus with respect to molecular weight and kinetics, M. luteus ATCase was larger at approximately 480 kDa. Furthermore, pyrimidine salvage in Sporosarcina ureae and M. luteus was identical to those of B. subtilis, while pyrimidine salvage of Sporolactobacillus inulinus and L. fermentum resembled that of the pseudomonads.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Barron, Vincent N. (Vincent Neal)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluating Fish Impingement and Entrainment at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

Description: This study was designed to determine if impingement and entrainment by cooling water intake at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station have an adverse impact upon the Squaw Creek Reservoir fish population. The yearly impingement of fish was estimated to be 262,994 of 14 species. The threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) accounted for 96% of this total. Entrainment of eggs and larvae for a five month period was estimated to be 15,989,987 and 42,448,794 respectively. Two fish population studies were performed on Squaw Creek Reservoir to help assess impact. It was determined that the losses due to impingement and entrainment have no adverse impact upon the fish population of Squaw Creek Reservoir.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Bauml, George A. (George Arthur)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of a Selected Group of Science Related Characteristics of Non-Science Majors

Description: The purpose of this study is to gather information related to the characteristics of two groups of undergraduate non-science majors; namely, those students who once considered science as a career and subsequently changed to a non-science major and those who have never considered a career in science. It is frequently observed that children in the elementary school have an intense interest in science. One of the principal concerns of this study is how and for what reasons has the interest in science changed between elementary school and college? It is also the purpose of this study to gather information related to the attitudes of these college students toward the science courses they have had in high school and toward their science teachers. In attempting to arrive at an answer, the group who once considered a science career and those who have never considered an occupational choice in a field of science will be compared in the following areas: 1. General information such as sex, age, size of high school attended, rank within their graduating classes, college classification and military experiences. 2. Occupations and hobbies of parents. 3. Experiences which may influence attitudes toward science such as elementary school science, high school science courses, high school science teachers, attitudes toward science requirements, high school courses liked most, high school courses liked least, and membership in science clubs. 4. College science courses completed. 5. Extent of the interviewees' present interest in science, Finally, the circumstances surrounding the tentative choice of a science career by those who once considered such a career will be discussed.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Bearden, Bennie Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Sodium Salicylate on the Ultrastructure of Trypanosoma lewisi

Description: This study examines ultrastructural changes occurring in seven- and fourteen-day populations of Trypanosorfa lewisi when 60 mg sodium salicylate is administered to the host. These changes were related to the host-immune response. Seven-day trypanosomes showed approximately 10 posterior volutin granules. Seven-day trypanosomes whose host had received salicylate exhibited. 30 to 40 volutin granules, and their posterior tip exhibited volutin granules in high numbers sometimes excluding other cellular elements. Fourteen-day trypanosones showed fewer volutin granules than seven-day, salicylate-treated ones. Salicylate treatment caused no additional ultrastructural alterations. Thus the volutin granules are not linked to the reproduction inhibiting antibody (ablast in) but may be involved in the formation of the trypanocidal antibodies.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Beck, Charles F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pyrimidine Salvage Enzymes in Microorganisms: Labyrinths of Enzymatic Diversity

Description: Pyrimidine salvage pathways are essential to all cells. They provide a balance of RNA synthesis with the biosynthetic pathway in pyrimidine prototrophs and supply all the pyrimidine requirements in auxotrophs. While the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway is found in almost all organisms and is nearly identical throughout nature, the salvage pathway often differs from species to species, with aspects of salvage seen in every organism. Thus significant taxonomic value may be ascribed to the salvage pathway. The pyrimidine salvage pathways were studied in 55 microorganisms. Nine different salvage motifs, grouped I-IX, were identified in this study based on the presence of different combinations of the following enzymes: cytidine deaminase (Cdd), cytosine deaminase (Cod), uridine phosphorylase (Udp), uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (Upp), uridine hydrolase (Udh), nucleoside hydrolase (Nuh), uridine/cytidine kinase (Udk), 5'-nucleotidase and CMP kinase (Cmk).
Date: December 1995
Creator: Beck, Debrah A. (Debrah Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A morphological study of the avian (Gallus domesticus) ductus arteriosi during hatching.

Description: The ductus arteriosi (DA) are two blood vessels connecting the pulmonary arteries to the descending aorta in the avian embryo. Following hatching, the DA closes, separation of the systemic and pulmonary circulation. I present the morphological changes that occur in the chicken DA during prepipping, internal pipping, external pipping, and hatching. The avian DA consists of two distinct tissue types, a proximal and a distal portion. Histological examination shows developmental differences between the proximal and distal portions of the DA with regard to lumen occlusion, endothelial cells, smooth muscle and elastin. Endothelial cell proliferation begins to occur as early as external pipping, with the lumen almost completely occluded by the 3rd day of post-hatching life. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases in avian endothelial cells during hatching. I provide a morphological timeline of changes in the DA as the chicken develops from embryo to hatchling.
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Date: May 2006
Creator: Belanger, Candace
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evidentiary Value of Condoms: Comparison of Durable Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Condoms

Description: Condom trace evidence must not be overlooked in sexual assault cases; understanding the chemical and physical characteristics of condoms is imperative if condoms are to be useful evidence. Previous research shows that condom identification is possible, but it is equally important to evaluate durability of condom residues versus time. Using FT-IR, this study examined vaginal swabs from subjects who self-sampled at intervals for up to 72 hours after having intercourse with a condom. This study investigated whether age and the stage of the menstrual cycle affected the durability of residues in the vagina over time. This study revealed that condoms containing nonoxynol-9, silicone-based lubricants, and particulates provide valuable information for identification, and that nonoxynol-9 specifically withstands the vaginal environment for up to 72 hours. Additionally, age and menstrual cycle both appeared to have an effect on the durability of residues although larger sample size is desirable.
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Date: May 2000
Creator: Belcher, Kelly Leigh
Partner: UNT Libraries

Responses of Selected Texas Fishes to Abiotic Factors, and an Evaluation of the Mechanisms Controlling Thermal Tolerance of the Sheepshead Minnow

Description: Low oxygen tolerances of ten fishes were estimated using an original nitrogen cascade design, and reciprocally transformed to express responses as ventilated volume necessary to satisfy minimal oxygen demand (L·mg O2^-1). Values ranged from 0.52 to 5.64 L·mg^-1 and were partitioned into three statistically distinct groups. Eight stream fishes showed moderately high tolerances reflecting metabolic adaptations associated with stream intermittency. Juvenile longear sunfish and two mollies comprised the second group. High tolerance of hypoxia may allow juvenile sunfish to avoid predation, and mollies to survive harsh environmental oxygen regimens. The sheepshead minnow was the most tolerant species of low oxygen, of those examined, explaining its presence in severely hypoxic environments.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Bennett, Wayne A. (Wayne Arden)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Production and Energy Metabolism in Three Benthic Insect Populations in a Small North Central Texas Pond

Description: Annual energy budgets of dominant benthic macro-invertebrates were examined during November 1973 to October 1974 from the benthos of a small pond ecosystem in north-central Texas. Estimates of annual secondary production (Hynes and Coleman 1968) were Procladius s. (Diptera, Chironimidae), 2.4 g m^-2 y^-1 (13 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ); Tendipes decorus (Diptera, Chironomidae), 6.0 g m^-2 y^-1 (40 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ); Brachycercus sp. (Ephemeroptera, Caenidae), 1.9 g m^-2 y^-1 (11 kcal m^-2 y^-1). Energy metabolism was measured in the laboratory at six seasonally encountered temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 C) on an acclimatization basis, and then extrapolated to the field. Estimates of annual energy metabolism are Procladius sp., 5.0 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ; Tendipes decorus, 17.2 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ; Brachycercus sp. 40.0 kcal m^-2 y^-1.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Benson, Daniel J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Preliminary Report on the Effect of Roentgen Rays on the Formed Elements of Avian Blood

Description: This problem consists primarily in determining the numerical value of the leukocytes after different amounts of roentgen rays had been applied to the subjects. The Atomic Energy Commission set up a problem concerning the effects of roentgen rays on the fertility in chickens, and grants were given to two institutions to study this. The blood work in this paper was an off-shoot from one of these five fertility grants.
Date: August 1954
Creator: Berger, Gillett
Partner: UNT Libraries