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Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of 1,7- & 1,9-dibromopentacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9]undecane-8,11-dione

Description: Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 1,9-dibromopentacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9]undecane-8,11-dione (1,9-dibromo-PCU-8,11-dione) was performed by using an excess amount of m-chloroperbenzoic acid (3 equivalents) and resulted in the formation of the corresponding monolactone. The reaction would not proceed to the dilactone stage. The structure of the reaction product was established unequivocally via single crystal X-ray diffraction. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 1,9-dibromo-PCU-8,11-dione using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) was also performed and afforded a mixture of lactones. Only one of these lactones, which also contained an alkene functionality, could be isolated and characterized. 1,7-dibromo-PCU-8,11-dione was also reacted with CAN, yielding the mono-lactone, which has also been characterized.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Akinola, Adeniyi O.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interfacial Electrochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles Formation on Diamond and Copper Electroplating on Ruthenium Surface

Description: An extremely facile and novel method called spontaneous deposition, to deposit noble metal nanoparticles on a most stable form of carbon (C) i.e. diamond is presented. Nanometer sized particles of such metals as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) could be deposited on boron-doped (B-doped) polycrystalline diamond films grown on silicon (Si) substrates, by simply immersing the diamond/Si sample in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution containing ions of the corresponding metal. The electrons for the reduction of metal ions came from the Si back substrate. The diamond/Si interfacial ohmic contact was of paramount importance to the observation of the spontaneous deposition process. The metal/diamond (M/C) surfaces were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology (i.e. size and distribution) of metal nanoparticles deposits could be controlled by adjusting the metal ion concentration, HF concentration and deposition time. XRD data indicate the presence of textured and strained crystal lattices of Pd for different Pd/C morphologies, which seem to influence the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The sensitivity of electrocatalytic reactions to surface crystal structure implies that M/C could be fabricated for specific electrocatalytic applications. The research also presents electroplating of Cu on ruthenium (Ru), which a priori is a promising barrier material for Cu interconnects in the sub 0.13 μm generation integrated circuits (ICs). Cu plates on Ru with over 90% efficiency. The electrochemical nucleation and growth studies using the potentiostatic current transient method showed a predominantly progressive nucleation of Cu on Ru. This was also supported by SEM imaging, which showed that continuous thin films of Cu (ca. 400 Å) with excellent conformity could be plated over Ru without dendrite formation. Scotch tape peel tests and SEM on Cu/Ru samples both at room temperature (RT) and ...
Date: May 2003
Creator: Arunagiri, Tiruchirapalli Natarajan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies of spin alignment in ferrocenylsilane compounds and in regiospecific oxidation reactions of 1,9-dimethylpentacyclo [5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9]undecane-8,11-dione.

Description: Part I. The syntheses of a series of stable ferrocenylsilane compounds and their corresponding polyradical cations are reported. Electron spin properties of these molecules were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, ESR, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. All the compounds presented, showed significant electronic communication (>100 mV) between the redox centers by CV. Part II. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of (1,9-dimethyl-PCU-8,11-dione) was performed using m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid in 1:2 molar ratios. The product obtained was the corresponding dilactone 113. The structure of the reaction products was established unequivocally via single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The reaction of the 1,9-dimethyl-PCU-8,11-dione with 1:1 molar ratio of m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid produced again the dilactone 113, and not the expected monolactone 114. Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) promoted oxidation reaction of 1,9-dimethyl-PCU-8,11-dione afforded a mixture of dimethylated lactones, which indicated unique reaction mechanism pathways. These individual isomers, 115 and 116, have been isolated from these mixtures via column chromatography by using silica gel as adsorbent followed by fractional recrystallization of individual chromatography fractions. Structures of these pure products have been established unequivocally by application of single crystal X-ray crystallographic methods.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Atim, Silvia
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Photochemical Studies of Wide-Band Capturing Sensitizers Capable of Light Energy Harvesting

Description: Artificial photosynthesis, for the purpose of converting solar energy into fuel, is one of the most viable and promising alternative approaches to solve the current global energy and environmental issues. Among the challenges faced in artificial photosynthesis is in building photosystems that can effectively and efficiently perform light absorption and charge separation in broad-band capturing donor-acceptor systems. While having a broad-band capturing antenna system that can harness incoming photons is crucial, another equally important task is to successfully couple the antenna system, while maintaining its optical properties, to an energy or electron acceptor which serves as the reaction center for the generation of charged species of useful potential energy. The stored potential energy will be utilized in different applications such as driving electrons in solar cells or in splitting water for the generation of fuel. Hence, the particular endeavor of this thesis is to study and synthesize molecular/supramolecular systems with wide-band capturing capabilities to generate long-lived charge separated states. The sensitizer used in building these systems in the present study is 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, for short, BF2 chelated Azaboron dipyrromenthene or AzaBODIPY. A handful of novel donor-acceptor systems based on AzaBODIPY have been successfully designed, synthesized and their photochemistry have been investigated using various techniques. In these systems, Azabodipy has been covalently attached to several donors like porphyrin, bodipy, subphthalocyanine, phenothiazine, ferrocene, bithiophene and effectively coupled to an electron acceptor, C60. These systems have been fully characterized by NMR, Mass, optical absorption and emission, X-ray crystallographic, computational, electrochemical, and photochemical studies. It has been possible to demonstrate occurrence of efficient electron and energy transfer events and long-lived charge separated states upon photoexcitation in these model compounds. By changing the arrangements of the donor and acceptor entities, it has also been possible to show directional, through-space and through-bond electron transfer processes. The present ...
Date: August 2016
Creator: Bandi, Venu Gopal
Partner: UNT Libraries

Lipidomic Analysis of Single Cells and Organelles Using Nanomanipulation Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

Description: The capability to characterize disease states by way of determining novel biomarkers has led to a high demand of single cell and organelle analytical methodologies due to the unexpected heterogeneity present in cells of the same type. Lipids are of particular interest in the search for biomarkers due to their active roles in cellular metabolism and energy storage. Analyzing localized lipid chemistry from individual cells and organelles is challenging however, due to low analyte volume, limited discriminate instrumentation, and common requirements of separation procedures and expenditure of cell sample. Using nanomanipulation in combination with mass spectrometry, individual cells and organelles can be extracted from tissues and cultures in vitro to determine if heterogeneity at the cellular level is present. The discriminate extraction of a single cell or organelle allows the remainder of cell culture or tissue to remain intact, while the high sensitivity and chemical specificity of mass spectrometry provides structural information for limited volumes without the need for chromatographic separation. Mass analysis of lipids extracted from individual cells can be carried out in multiple mass spectrometry platforms through direct-inject mass spectrometry using nanoelectrospray-ionization and through matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Bowman, Amanda
Partner: UNT Libraries

Layered Double Hydroxides and the Origins of Life on Earth

Description: A brief introduction to the current state of research in the Origins of Life field is given in Part I of this work. Part II covers original research performed by the author and co-workers. Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) systems are anion-exchanging clays that have the general formula M(II)xM(III)(OH)(2x+2)Y, where M(II) and M(III) are any divalent and trivalent metals, respectively. Y can be nearly any anion, although modern naturally occuring LDH systems incorporate carbonate (CO32-), chloride (Cl-), or sulfate (SO42-) anions. Intercalated cobalticyanide anion shows a small yet observable deviation from local Oh symmetry causing small differences between its oriented and non-oriented infrared spectra. Nitroprusside is shown to intercalate into 2:1 Mg:Al LDH with decomposition to form intercalated ferrocyanide and nitrosyl groups of an unidentified nature. The [Ru(CN)6]4- anion is shown to intercalate into layered double hydroxides in the same manner as other hexacyano anions, such as ferrocyanide and cobalticyanide, with its three-fold rotational axis perpendicular to the hydroxide sheets. The square-planar tetracyano-nickelate(II), -palladate(II), and platinate(II) anions were intercalated into both 2:1 and 3:1 Mg:Al layered double hydroxides (LDH). The basal spacings in the 2:1 hosts are approximately 11 Å, indicating that the anions are inclined approximately 75 degrees relative to the hydroxide layers, while in the 3:1 hosts the square-planar anions have enough space to lie more nearly parallel to the LDH cation layers, giving basal spacings of approximately 8 Å. It has been found that the LDH Mg2Al(OH)6Cl catalyzes the self-addition of cyanide, to give in a one-pot reaction at low concentrations an increased yield of diaminomaleonitrile and in addition, at higher ($0.1M) concentrations, a purple-pink material that adheres to the LDH. We are investigating whether this reaction also occurs with hydrotalcite itself, what is the minimum effective concentration of cyanide, and what can be learned about the products ...
Date: May 2001
Creator: Brister, Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries

De novo prediction of the ground state structure of transition metal complexes.

Description: One of the main goals of computational methods is to identify reasonable geometries for target materials. Organometallic complexes have been investigated in this dissertation research, entailing a significant challenge based on transition metal diversity and the associated complexity of the ligands. A large variety of theoretical methods have been employed to determine ground state geometries of organometallic species. An impressive number of transition metals entailing diverse isomers (e.g., geometric, spin, structural and coordination), different coordination numbers, oxidation states and various numbers of electrons in d orbitals have been studied. Moreover, ligands that are single, double or triple bonded to the transition metal, exhibiting diverse electronic and steric effects, have been investigated. In this research, a novel de novo scheme for structural prediction of transition metal complexes was developed, tested and shown to be successful.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Buda, Corneliu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and X-ray Diffraction Structure of 8,9-Dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one

Description: Treatment of dichloromaleic anhydride and 1,8-diaminonaphthalene in either benzene or toluene under refluxing conditions gives low yields of the new heterocyclic compound 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one. This product has been isolated and characterized in solution by NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopies, and the solid-state structure of 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one has been established by X-ray crystallography. The nature of the HOMO and LUMO levels of 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one has been studied by extended Hückel molecular orbital calculations.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Chen, Tao
Partner: UNT Libraries

Rational Design of Metal-organic Electronic Devices: a Computational Perspective

Description: Organic and organometallic electronic materials continue to attract considerable attention among researchers due to their cost effectiveness, high flexibility, low temperature processing conditions and the continuous emergence of new semiconducting materials with tailored electronic properties. In addition, organic semiconductors can be used in a variety of important technological devices such as solar cells, field-effect transistors (FETs), flash memory, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, light emitting diodes (LEDs), etc. However, organic materials have thus far not achieved the reliability and carrier mobility obtainable with inorganic silicon-based devices. Hence, there is a need for finding alternative electronic materials other than organic semiconductors to overcome the problems of inferior stability and performance. In this dissertation, I research the development of new transition metal based electronic materials which due to the presence of metal-metal, metal-?, and ?-? interactions may give rise to superior electronic and chemical properties versus their organic counterparts. Specifically, I performed computational modeling studies on platinum based charge transfer complexes and d10 cyclo-[M(?-L)]3 trimers (M = Ag, Au and L = monoanionic bidentate bridging (C/N~C/N) ligand). The research done is aimed to guide experimental chemists to make rational choices of metals, ligands, substituents in synthesizing novel organometallic electronic materials. Furthermore, the calculations presented here propose novel ways to tune the geometric, electronic, spectroscopic, and conduction properties in semiconducting materials. In addition to novel material development, electronic device performance can be improved by making a judicious choice of device components. I have studied the interfaces of a p-type metal-organic semiconductor viz cyclo-[Au(µ-Pz)]3 trimer with metal electrodes at atomic and surface levels. This work was aimed to guide the device engineers to choose the appropriate metal electrodes considering the chemical interactions at the interface. Additionally, the calculations performed on the interfaces provided valuable insight into binding energies, charge redistribution, change in the energy ...
Date: December 2012
Creator: Chilukuri, Bhaskar
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrochemical Deposition of Zinc-Nickel Alloys in Alkaline Solution for Increased Corrosion Resistance.

Description: The optimal conditions for deposition of zinc-nickel alloys onto stainless steel discs in alkaline solutions have been examined. In the past cadmium has been used because it shows good corrosion protection, but other methods are being examined due to the high toxicity and environmental threats posed by its use. Zinc has been found to provide good corrosion resistance, but the corrosion resistance is greatly increased when alloyed with nickel. The concentration of nickel in the deposit has long been a debated issue, but for basic solutions a nickel concentration of 8-15% appears optimal. However, deposition of zinc-nickel alloys from acidic solutions has average nickel concentrations of 12-15%. Alkaline conditions give a more uniform deposition layer, or better metal distribution, thereby a better corrosion resistance. Although TEA (triethanolamine) is most commonly used to complex the metals in solution, in this work I examined TEA along with other complexing agents. Although alkaline solutions have been examined, most research has been done in pH ≥ 12 solutions. However, there has been some work performed in the pH 9.3-9.5 range. This work examines different ligands in a pH 9.3-9.4 range. Direct potential plating and pulse potential plating methods are examined for optimal platings. The deposits were examined and characterized by XRD.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Conrad, Heidi A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrochemically Deposited Metal Alloy-silicate Nanocomposite Corrosion Resistant Materials

Description: Zinc-nickel ?-phase silicate and copper-nickel silicate corrosion resistant coatings have been prepared via electrochemical methods to improve currently available corrosion resistant materials in the oil and gas industry. A layered silicate, montmorillonite, has been incorporated into the coatings for increased corrosion protection. For the zinc nickel silicate coatings, optimal plating conditions were determined to be a working pH range of 9.3 -9.5 with a borate based electrolyte solution, resulting in more uniform deposits and better corrosion protection of the basis metal as compared to acidic conditions. Quality, strongly adhering deposits were obtained quickly with strong, even overall coverage of the metal substrate. The corrosion current of the zinc-nickel-silicate coating is Icorr = 3.33E-6 for a borate based bath as compared to a zinc-nickel bath without silicate incorporation (Icorr = 3.52E-5). Step potential and direct potential methods were examined, showing a morphological advantage to step potential deposition. The effect of borate addition was examined in relation to zinc, nickel and zinc-nickel alloy deposition. Borate was found to affect the onset of hydrogen evolution and was examined for absorption onto the electrode surface. For copper-nickel silicate coatings, optimal conditions were determined to be a citrate based electrolytic bath, with pH = 6. The solutions were stable over time and strong adhering, compact particle deposits were obtained. The corrosion current of the copper-nickel-silicate coatings is Icorr = 3.86E-6 (copper-nickel coatings without silicate, Icorr = 1.78E-4). The large decrease in the corrosion current as the silicate is incorporated into the coating demonstrates the increase in corrosion resistance of the coatings with the incorporation of silicates.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Conrad, Heidi Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigation of Novel Electrochemical Synthesis of Bioapatites and Use in Elemental Bone Analysis

Description: In this research, electrochemical methods are used to synthesize the inorganic fraction of bone, hydroxyapatite, for application in biological implants and as a calibration material for elemental analysis in human bone. Optimal conditions of electrochemically deposited uniform apatite coatings on stainless steel were investigated. Apatite is a ceramic with many different phases and compositions that have beneficial characteristics for biomedical applications. Of those phases hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most biocompatible and is the primary constituent of the inorganic material in bones. HA coatings on metals and metal alloys have the ability to bridge the growth between human tissues and implant interface, where the metal provides the strength and HA provides the needed bioactivity. The calcium apatites were electrochemically deposited using a modified simulated body fluid adjusted to pH 4-10, for 1-3 hours at varying temperature of 25-65°C while maintaining cathodic potentials of -1.0 to -1.5V. It was observed that the composition and morphology of HA coatings change during deposition by the concentration of counter ions in solution, pH, temperature, applied potential, and post-sintering. The coatings were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The precipitated powders from the experiment were also characterized, with results showing similarities to biological apatite. There is a need for quantitative elemental analysis of calcified biological matrices such as bone and teeth; however there are no suitable calibration materials commercially available for quantitative analysis. Matrix-matched standards are electrochemically synthesized for LA-ICP-MS analysis of human bone. The synthetic bioapatite is produced via a hydrothermal electrochemical process using a simulated body fluid solution to form hydroxyapatite. Additional bioapatite standards are synthesized containing trace amounts of metals. The x-ray diffraction of the synthesized standards shows an increase in cell volume for the crystal structure from 0.534 to 0.542 nm3 with the substitution of ...
Date: December 2012
Creator: DeLeon, Vallerie H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modeling wild type and mutant glutathione synthetase.

Description: Glutathione syntethase (GS) is an enzyme that belongs to the ATP-grasp superfamily and catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of glutathione. GS has been purified and sequenced from a variety of biological sources; still, its exact mechanism is not fully understood. Four highly conserved residues were identified in the binding site of human GS. Additionally, the G-loop residues that close the active site during catalysis were found to be conserved. Since these residues are important for catalysis, their function was studied computationally by site-directed mutagenesis. Starting from the reported crystal structure of human GS, different conformations for the wild type and mutants were obtained using molecular dynamics technique. The key interactions between residues and ligands were detected and found to be essential for enzyme activity.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Dinescu, Adriana
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mechanisms of Methoxide Ion Substitution and Acid- Catalyzed Z/E Isomerization of N-Methoxyimines

Description: The second order rate constants for nucleophilic substitution by methoxide of (Z)- and (E)-O-methylbenzohydroximoyl fluorides [C6H4C(F)=NOCH3] with various substituents on the phenyl ring [p-OCH3 (1h, 2h), p-CH3 (1g, 2g), p-Cl (1f, 2f), p-H (1e, 2e), (3,5)-bis-CF3 (1i, 2i)] in 90:10 DMSO:MeOH have been measured. A Hammett plot of these rate constants vs σ values gave positive ρ values of 2.95 (Z isomer) and 3.29 (E isomer). Comparison of these rates with methoxide substitution rates for Omethylbenzohydroximoyl bromide [C6H4C(Br)=NOCH3] and Omethylbenzohydroximoyl chloride [C6H4C(Cl)=NOCH3] reveal an element effect for the Z isomers of Br:Cl:F(1e) = 2.21:1.00:79.7 and for the E isomers of Cl:F(2e) = 1.00:18.3. With the p-OCH3-imidoyl halides the following element effects are found: Br:Cl:F(1h) = 2.78:1.00:73.1 for the Z isomer and Br:Cl:F(2h) = 1.97:1.00:12.1 for the E isomer. Measurement of activation parameters revealed ∆S≠ = -17 eu for 1e and ∆S≠ = -9.9 eu for 2e. Ab initio calculations (HF/6-31+G*, MP2/6-31+G*//HF/6-31+G*, B3LYP/6- 31+G*//HF/6-31+G*, HF-SCIPCM/6-31+G*//HF/6-31+G*) were performed to define the reaction surface. These calculations demonstrate a relatively large barrier for nucleophilic attack in relation to halogen loss and support the experimental findings that this reaction proceeds by an addition-elimination mechanism (AN# + DN). The imidoyl fluorides have been used to synthesize highly functionalized O-methyloximes by reaction with enolate anions derived from malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate, and diethyl malonate. Acid-catalyzed isomerization of compounds containing the O-methyloxime moiety have been investigated with ab initio calculations (HF/6-31+G*, MP2/6- 31+G*//HF/6-31+G*, B3LYP/6-31+G*//HF/6-31+G*). Barriers for rotation around the C-N bond following protonation have been calculated. The calculated barriers are discussed in relation to an isomerization mechanism of protonation-rotation versus a nucleophilic catalysis.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Dolliver, Debra D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ab Initio and Density Functional Investigation of the Conformer Manifold of Melatonin and a Proposal for a Simple Dft-based Diagnostic for Nondynamical Correlation

Description: In this work we address two problems in computational chemistry relevant to biomolecular modeling. In the first project, we consider the conformer space of melatonin as a a representative example of “real-life” flexible biomolecules. Geometries for all 52 unique conformers are optimized using spin-component scaled MP2, and then relative energies are obtained at the CCSD (T) level near the complete basis set limit. These are then used to validate a variety of DFT methods with and without empirical dispersion corrections, as well as some lower-level ab initio methods. Basis set convergence is found to be relatively slow due to internal C-H…O and C-H…N contacts. Absent dispersion corrections, many DFT functionals will transpose the two lowest conformers. Dispersion corrections resolve the problem for most functionals. Double hybrids yield particularly good performance, as does MP2.5. In the second project, we propose a simple DFT-based diagnostic for nondynamical correlation effects. Aλ= (1-TAE [ΧλC]/TAE[XC])/λ where TAE is the total atomization energy, XC the “pure” DFT exchange-correlation functional, and ΧλC the corresponding hybrid with 100λ% HF-type exchange. The diagnostic is a good predictor for sensitivity of energetics to the level of theory, unlike most of the wavefunction-based diagnostics. For GGA functionals, Aλ values approaching unity indicate severe non-dynamical correlation. The diagnostic is only weakly sensitive to the basis set (beyond polarized double zeta) and can be applied to problems beyond practical reach of wavefunction ab-initio methods required for other diagnostics.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Fogueri, Uma
Partner: UNT Libraries

Layered Double Hydroxides: Morphology, Interlayer Anion, and the Origins of Life

Description: The preparation of layered double hydroxides via co-precipitation of a divalent/trivalent metal solution against a base results in 1 mm LDH particles with a disorganized metal lattice. Research was performed to address these morphological issues using techniques such as Ostwald ripening and precipitation via aluminate. Another interesting issue in layered double hydroxide materials is the uptake and orientation of anions into the interlayer. Questions about iron cyanide interlayer anions have been posed. Fourier transform infared spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction have been used to investigate these topics. It was found that factors such as orientation, anion charge, and anion structure depended on the divalent/trivalent metal ratio of the hydroxide layer and reactivity time. The cyanide self-addition reaction is an important reaction of classical prebiotic chemistry. This reaction has been shown to give rise to amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. At cyanide concentrations similar to that expected on the early earth, hydrolysis to formamide rather than self-addition occurs. One theory to alleviate this side reaction is the use of minerals or clays that are thought to concentrate and catalyze prebiotics of interest. Layered double hydroxides have been studied as a catalyst for this reaction.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Halcom-Yarberry, Faith Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Complexation Studies of Novel Functionalized Crown Ethers and Azacrown Ethers

Description: Novel cage-functionalized azacrown ethers, i.e. 51, 52, 53, 55, 57, 61 and 62, which have various crown cavity and different number of nitrogen atoms incorporated, have been prepared. X-ray structures of 53, 55 and 57 have been obtained for the study of the crown topological structure. The complexation properties of crown 51, 52, 57, 61 and 62 have been evaluated via alkali metal picrate extraction, silver picrate extraction and ESI-MS study. The novel cage-fuctionalized azacrown ethers generally exhibit high avidity and selectivity towards Ag+ versus alkali metal ions and some transition metals i.e. Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+. Crown 61 displays significant avidity and selectivity toward K+ in alkali metal picrate extraction experiments vis-à-vis the remaining alkali metal picrates. Three types of ditopic ion-exchange receptors for sodium hydroxide extraction study have been designed. All of the crown ether molecules have proper cavity for selective sodium complexation and have weakly acidic ionizable alcohols for sodium-proton exchange under strongly basic conditions. Crown 80 and 81 were synthesized; key intermediates for the synthesis of crown 82, 83 and 84 have been prepared. The preparation of 99 afforded an unexpected crown 103. The preparation of 109 had been attempted, but could not be successfully isolated. Four novel cage-functionalized calix[4]arene crown-5, i.e. 113-116, have been synthesized. The structures of 113 and 116 have been established by X-ray crystal structural analysis and NMR spectral analysis. The complexation properties of the four ionic receptors have been studied via alkali metal picrate extraction experiments. Crown 115 and 116 display more than modest avidity toward alkali metal ions and are most selective toward K+ vis-à-vis 113 and 114.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Huang, Zilin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Properties of Novel Cage-Annulated Crown Ethers

Description: Three cage-functionalized polyoxacrown ethers (9, 10 and 12) and four novel cage-functionalized polyoxamonoazacrown ethers (18, 20, 25 and 29) that contain 3,5-disubstituted-4-oxahexacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9.08,11]dodecane ("oxahexacyclic") moiety have been synthesized and their respective alkali metal picrate extraction profiles along with that of three analogues 13, 14 and 21 have been obtained. The observed avidities and selectivities of the host molecules toward complexation and transport of alkali metal picrates can be related to the size and shape of their respective macrocyclic cavity and the number of donor atoms. The effect of N-alkyl substitution on the complexation properties of azacrown ethers has been studied. The avidity of N-Et azacrown ethers toward complexation with alkali metal cations is generally higher than that of the corresponding non-N-alkylated hosts. However, the presence of an N-Et group appears to have a negligible effect upon their relative selectivities in their regards. The effect of pH on extraction process was studied; it was thereby determined that the alkali metal picrate extraction experiments are best performed at high pH (ca. 11-12).
Date: May 2003
Creator: Huang, Zilin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Forensic Analysis of Ink on Documents Using Direct Analyte-Probed Nanoextraction Coupled Techniques

Description: Analzying questioned documents in a nondestructive nature has been an issue for the forensic science community. Using nondestructive techniques such as video spectral comparator does not give reliable information due to the variations in gray or color levels that are distinguished differently by analysts. Destructive techniques such as chromatography give dependable, qualitative and quantitative, information but involves altering the evidentiary value of these questioned documents. The paradox of document examination becomes a problem when document evidence is involved, especially when trying to preserve its evidentiary value and critical data is needed. Thus, a nondestructive technique has been developed to solve the loopholes in document examinations. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction (DAPNe) is a nanomanipulation technique that extracts ink directly off the document for further examination. A watermark is left, at most, post-extraction. DAPNe utilizes a tip emitter, pre-filled with a solvent, which is controlled in x-, y-, and z-coordinates via joystick controller and aspirates/extracts using a pressure injector. The versatility of this technique lies within the solvent chemistry and its capability to be coupled to various types of instrumentation. The extraction solvent can be altered to target specific components in the ink. For example, a chelator may be added to target metal ions found in ancient inks or methanol may be added to target certain organic resins and binding agents found in modern inks. In this study, DAPNe has been coupled to nanospray ionization mass spectrometry, fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, and laser ablation to solve questioned document concerns in the area of falsified or forged documents, redacted documents, and aging studies.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Huynh, Vivian
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design, Synthesis and Study of Supramolecular Donor – Acceptor Systems Mimicking Natural Photosynthesis Processes

Description: This dissertation investigates the chemical ingenuity into the development of various photoactive supramolecular donor – acceptor systems to produce clean and carbon free energy for the next generation. The process is inspired by the principles learned from nature’s approach where the solar energy is converted into the chemical energy through the natural photosynthesis process. Owing to the importance and complexity of natural photosynthesis process, we have designed ideal donor-acceptor systems to investigate their light energy harvesting properties. This process involves two major steps: the first step is the absorption of light energy by antenna or donor systems to promote them to an excited electronic state. The second step involves, the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center, which triggers an electron transfer process within the system. Based on this principle, the research is focused into the development of artificial photosynthesis systems to investigate dynamics of photo induced energy and electron transfer events. The derivatives of Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, BODIPY, and SubPhthalocyanines etc have been widely used as the primary building blocks for designing photoactive and electroactive ensembles in this area because of their excellent and unique photophysical and photochemical properties. Meanwhile, the fullerene, mainly its readily available version C60 is typicaly used as an electron acceptor component because of its unique redox potential, symmetrical shape and low reorganization energy appropriate for improved charge separation behavior. The primary research motivation of the study is to achieve fast charge separation and slow charge recombination of the system by stabilizing the radical ion pairs which are formed from photo excitation, for maximum utility of solar energy. Besides Fullerene C60, this dissertation has also investigated the potential application of carbon nanomaterials (Carbon nanotubes and graphene) as primary building blocks for the study of the artificial photosynthesis process.
Date: December 2015
Creator: KC, Chandra Bikram
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrochemical Synthesis and Applications of Layered Double Hydroxides and Derivatives

Description: Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are a class of anionic clay with alternating layers of positive and negative charge. A metal hydroxide layer with divalent and trivalent metals with a positive charge is complemented by an interlayer region containing anions and water with a negative charge. The anions can be exchanged under favorable conditions. Hydrotalcite (Mg6Al2(OH)16[CO3]·4H2O) and other variations are naturally occurring minerals. Synthetic LDH can be prepared as a powder or film by numerous methods. Synthetic LDH is used in electrode materials, adsorbents, nuclear waste treatment, drug delivery systems, water treatment, corrosion protection coatings, and catalysis. In this dissertation Zn-Al-NO3 derivatives of zaccagnaite (Zn4Al2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2O) are electrochemically synthesized as films and applied to sensing and corrosion resistance applications. First, Zn-Al-NO3 LDH was potentiostatically electrosynthesized on glassy carbon substrates and applied to the electrochemical detection of gallic acid and caffeic acid in aqueous solutions. The modified electrode was then applied to the detection of gallic acid in green tea samples. The focus of the work shifts to corrosion protection of stainless steel. Modified zaccagnaite films were electrodeposited onto stainless steel in multiples layers to reduce defects caused by drying of the films. The films were deposited using a step potential method. The corrosion resistance of the films in a marine environment was investigated while immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl environments. Next modified zaccagnaite films were potentiostatically electrodeposited onto stainless steel followed by a hydrophobization reaction with palmitic acid in order to prepare superhydrophobic (>150° contact angle) surfaces. Each parameter of the film synthesis was optimized to produce a surface with the highest possible contact angle. The fifth chapter examines the corrosion resistance of the optimized superhydrophobic film and a hydrophobic film. The hydrophobic film is prepared using the same procedure as the superhydrophobic film except for a difference in electrodeposition potential. The ...
Date: August 2015
Creator: Kahl, Michael S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Diphosphine Ligand Substitution in H4Ru4(CO)12: X-ray Diffraction Structures and Reactivity Studies of the Diphosphine Substituted Cluster Products

Description: The tetraruthenium cluster H4Ru4(CO)12 has been studied for its reactivity with the unsaturated diphosphine ligands (Z)-Ph2PCH=CHPPh2, 4,5-bis (diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione, bis(diphenyphosphino)benzene and 1,8- bis(diphenyl phosphino)naphthalene under thermal, near-UV photolysis, and Me3NO-assisted activation. All three cluster activation methods promote loss of CO and furnish the anticipated substitution products that possess a chelating diphosphine ligand. Clusters 1, 2, 3 and 4 have been characterized in solution by IR and NMR spectroscopies, and these data are discussed with respect to the crystallographically determined structures for all new cluster compounds. The 31P NMR spectral data and the solid-state structures confirm the presence of a chelating diphosphine ligand in all four new clusters. Sealed NMR tubes containing clusters 1, 2, 3 and 4 were found to be exceeding stable towards near-UV light and temperatures up to ca. 100°C. The surprisingly robust behavior of the new clusters is contrasted with the related cluster Ru3(CO)10(bpcd) that undergoes fragmentation to the donor-acceptor compound Ru2(CO)6(bpcd) and the phosphido-bridged compound Ru2(CO)6 (µ-PPh2)[µ-C=C(PPh2)C(O)CH2C(O)] under mild conditions. The electrochemical properties have been investigated in the case of clusters 1 and 2 by cyclic voltammetry, and the findings are discussed with respect to the reported electrochemical data on the parent cluster H4Ru4(CO)12.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Kandala, Srikanth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploring Inorganic Catalysis with Electronic Structure Simulations

Description: Organometallic catalysis has attracted significant interest from both industry and academia due to its wide applications in organic synthetic transformations. Example of such transformations include the reaction of a zinc carbenoid with olefins to form cyclopropanes. The first project is a computational study using both density functional and correlated wavefunction methods of the reaction between ethylene and model zinc carbenoid, nitrenoid and oxenoid complexes (L-Zn-E-X, E = CH2, NH or O, L = X = I or Cl). It was shown that cyclopropanation of ethylene with IZnCH2I and aziridination of ethylene with IZnNHI proceed via a single-step mechanism with an asynchronous transition state. The reaction barrier for the aziridination with IZnNHI is lower than that of cyclopropanation. Changing the leaving group of IZnNHI from I to Cl, changes the mechanism of the aziridination reaction to a two-step pathway. The calculation results from the epoxidation with IZnOI and ClZnOCl oxenoids suggest a two-step mechanism for both oxenoids. Another important example of organometallic catalysis is the formation of alkyl arenes from arenes and olefins using transition metal catalysis (olefin hydroarylation). We studied with DFT methods the mechanism of a novel Rh catalyst (FlDAB)Rh(TFA)(η2–C2H4) [FlDAB = N,N’ -bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA = trifluoroacetate] that converts benzene, ethylene and air-recyclable Cu(II) oxidants to styrene. Possible mechanisms are discussed.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Karbalaei Khani, Sarah
Partner: UNT Libraries

Substituent Effects: A Computational Study on Stabilities of Cumulenes and Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds

Description: The effect of substituents on the stabilities of cumulenes-ketenes, allenes, diazomethanes and isocyanates and related systems-alkynes, nitriles and nitrile oxides is studied using the density functional theory (B3LYP, SVWN and BP86) and ab initio (HF, MP2) calculations at the 6-31G* basis set level. Using isodesmic reactions, correlation between stabilization energies of cumulenes and substituent group electronegativities (c BE) is established and the results from DFT and MP2 methods are compared with the earlier HF calculations. Calculations revealed that the density functional methods can be used to study the effect of substituents on the stabilities of cumulenes. It is observed that the cumulenes are stabilized by electropositive substituent groups from s -electron donation and p -electron withdrawal and are destabilized by electronegative substituent groups from n-p donation. The calculated geometries of the cumulenes are compared with the available experimental data.High level ab initio and density functional theory calculations have been used to study the energetics of low-barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB) systems. Using substituted formic acid-formate anion complexes as model LBHB systems, hydrogen bond strength is correlated to the pKa mismatch between the hydrogen bond donor and the hydrogen bond acceptor. LBHB model systems are characterized by the 1H-NMR chemical shift calculations. A linear correlation between the calculated hydrogen bond strength and the predicted 1H-NMR chemical shift was established. It is concluded that the pKa matching within the enzyme active site of the two species involved in the LBHB is important to maximizing catalytic stabilization.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Kumar, Ganesh Angusamy
Partner: UNT Libraries