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Impact of a Genetically Engineered Probiotic Therapy and IGF-1 Genomics in the PAHenu2 Mouse Model of PKU

Description: Absence of functional phenylalanine hydroxylase results in phenylketonuria (PKU). Viable treatments remain few, expensive and secondary conditions such as osteopenia occur in most PKU patients. Objective 1: Given the recently described roles of gut microbes to aid host digestion, an orally administered genetically engineered probiotic as the delivery vehicle for enzyme replacement therapy was created. The engineered probiotic, pHENOMMenal, produced phenylalanine ammonia lyase with significant production of trans-cinnamate (phenylalanine cleavage product) in vitro and resulted in a reduction of 515 μM in blood phenylalanine when fed to PKU animals for 14 days (from 2307µM ± 264µM to 1792µM ± 261µM, n = 6, P < 0.05). The control probiotic produced no change in blood phenylalanine. Thus, pHENOMMenal treatment in PKU mice demonstrated engineered microbes could compensate for a metabolic deficiency of the host. Objective 2: Evaluate the PAHenu2 mouse model of PKU for a genetic discrepancy causing ocular enlargement and delayed development observed only after the PAHenu2 mutation was crossed to the C57BL/6J mouse. When compared to healthy littermates, ELISA indicated a consistent but insignificant decrease in plasma IGF-1 and an increase in ocular IGF-1 in PKU animals. SNP screening demonstrated a differential inheritance of IGF-1 alleles in healthy and PKU animals based on PAH allele inheritance. Ocular and developmental phenotypes in the PAHenu2 colony match those described in previous IGF-1 studies. Understanding the IGF-1 inheritance discrepancy will enable better osteopenia research using PAHenu2 mice and allow breeding of a healthier mouse colony for continued research. Collectively the results from this work describe a new therapeutic approach for treatment of PKU as well as a better understanding of the PAHenu2 mouse model to study this disease.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Durrer, Katherine Elaine
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of Developmental Stress on Cardiovascular Physiology of Two Archosaur Species: American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus)

Description: Crocodilians and birds comprise sister taxa of archosaurs, the development of these vertebrates occurs within an egg case that leaves developing embryos susceptible to fluctuations in the nesting environment. Studies suggest that sub-optimal conditions alter morphological growth and cardiovascular physiology. Regulation of the cardiovascular system is immature in the subjects studied, and embryos may rely on humoral rather than neural control of the cardiovascular system. The primary focus of this dissertation was to assess regulatory mechanisms responsible for maintenance of arterial pressure and heart rate. Dehydration stress had marked effects on embryo growth, and altered baseline cardiovascular parameters, while leaving the response to humoral regulator, angiotensin II (Ang II), unaffected. However, dehydrated alligator embryos developed cholinergic tone on heart rate. Hypoxic incubated chicken embryos were reduced in embryo mass, and altered response to humoral regulatory components Ang I and adenosine in addition identifying a novel regulatory component of the cardiovascular response to acute hypoxia. Collectively, these studies add to the existing knowledge of cardiovascular physiology in embryonic archosaurs and suggest that some components of cardiovascular regulation are plastic following developmental stress.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Tate, Kevin B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Microflora in Prepared Foods Dispensed from Eating Establishments in Dallas, Texas

Description: A bacteriological study was made of a number of prepared foods that were bought ready-to-eat, for home consumption, from several food establishments in Dallas, Texas. The purpose of this study was to show whether these foods could be a potential source of food poisoning; whether there are any particular foods that should have greater care than others in order to protect their quality; and whether the bacteriological contamination could have been prevented by strict observance of the city regulations for handling foods.
Date: August 1948
Creator: Phillips, Margaret
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Common Electrolytes on Growth and Development of Selected Species of Aquatic Actinomycetes

Description: The role that aquatic actinomycetes play, in the production of tastes and odors in water supplies has been investigated since 1948. The ability of these organisms to produce by-products in lakes and streams, which renders the water unpalatable, is of considerable public health importance. It is desirable that the waterworks industry has as much information as possible concerning the factors that contribute to the growth of these organisms. Since it appears that the aquatic actinomycetes may be isolated from most fresh-water sources, the problem of diversified environments and nutritional requirements offers an excellent field of investigation. The fresh-waters of the world contain variable quantities of electrolytes that may determine in part the biological activity of these organisms. The unsolved questions in this instance are concerned with the electrolytes present and their quantitative effects on the growth and development of these forms.
Date: August 1959
Creator: Sissom, Stanley L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of a Selected Group of Science Related Characteristics of Non-Science Majors

Description: The purpose of this study is to gather information related to the characteristics of two groups of undergraduate non-science majors; namely, those students who once considered science as a career and subsequently changed to a non-science major and those who have never considered a career in science. It is frequently observed that children in the elementary school have an intense interest in science. One of the principal concerns of this study is how and for what reasons has the interest in science changed between elementary school and college? It is also the purpose of this study to gather information related to the attitudes of these college students toward the science courses they have had in high school and toward their science teachers. In attempting to arrive at an answer, the group who once considered a science career and those who have never considered an occupational choice in a field of science will be compared in the following areas: 1. General information such as sex, age, size of high school attended, rank within their graduating classes, college classification and military experiences. 2. Occupations and hobbies of parents. 3. Experiences which may influence attitudes toward science such as elementary school science, high school science courses, high school science teachers, attitudes toward science requirements, high school courses liked most, high school courses liked least, and membership in science clubs. 4. College science courses completed. 5. Extent of the interviewees' present interest in science, Finally, the circumstances surrounding the tentative choice of a science career by those who once considered such a career will be discussed.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Bearden, Bennie Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Responses to Diets High in Phenylalanine Compounds as Genetic Parameters in Mice

Description: The induction of phenylketonuria in mice through the use of excess dietary phenylalanine is an area in which limited research has been done. This study intends to pursue further work in this area, more specifically, to study the effects of excess dietary phenylalanine and the phenylalanine analogue A.P.B.A. (2-amino-3-phenyl butanoic acid) (7) on brain serotonin and brain norepinephrine. In addition, the effects of these two compounds on the incidence of audiogenic seizures will be explored.
Date: June 1966
Creator: Boughey, Frederick W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Determination of Uptake and Depuration Rate Kinetics and Bioconcentration Factor of Naphthalene and Lindane in Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus

Description: Bluegill were exposed to 3 and 30 pg/L lindane and 20 and 200 pg/L naphthalene to determine uptake rate constants, K1 depuration rate constants, K2, and bioconcentration factors, BCF. Correlations were determined between lipid normalized and non-lipid normalized BCFs, and between observed Kl, K2 and BCFs and predicted values. The K1 values for both chemicals and concentrations were similar. The K2 values were different (1.04 day~1, 0.46 day 1). Naphthalene was more rapid. BCFs for lindane (315) and naphthalene (98) were different. Lipid normalized BCFs for naphthalene were more variable than non-lipid normalized BCFs. The reverse was observed for lindane BCFs. Predicted K1, K2 , and BCFs were in agreement with observed values.
Date: August 1981
Creator: DeFoer, Marguerite J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Vegetative Key to the Grasses of Erath County, Texas

Description: "The orientation of this study began with a collection of the grasses of Erath County during their flowering periods. Collections were made in the Spring and Fall of 1950 and 1951 to obtain both vernal and autumnal grasses. Identifications were made from the grass floras previously mentioned and checked against specimens in the herbarium of North Texas State College for verification. In addition, the list was checked by W.A. Turney, Conservationist, United States Department of Agriculture of Dublin, Texas. Finally, the list was compared with that prepared by W.M. Cory for the plant areas of which Erath County is a part. On the basis of the above identifications, a critical study of the vegetative characteristics was made and a key based on these features prepared. The width of the blad and characteristics of the ligule, roots, culms, and sheaths were used to distinguish each of the eighty-six specimens found in the collection area. A drawing was made of the longitudinal section of the juncture of the blade and the sheath of each grass. This diagnostic section includes the collar, ligule, a part of the blade and sheath, and auricles, if present."-- leaf 5.
Date: August 1951
Creator: Robinson, Inez Evans
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of Naturally Occurring Tastes and Odors from Fresh Waters

Description: The Problem of the cause and control of tastes and odors in water supplies has been the subject of a great many investigations during the last half-century; however, many questions in this field remain to be answered. Theories relating to the cause of tastes and odors occurring in water are still rather numerous and, at present, only a few of them are compatible. Although several procedures have been employed for the eradication of tastes and odors from water supplies, none of them are completely successful.
Date: May 1955
Creator: Pipes, Wesley O'Feral, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Herpetology of the Amistad Reservoir Area, Val Verde County, Texas

Description: The Amistad Reservoir in southern Val Verde County, Texas will impound a considerable amount of surface water in a semi-arid region in which natural surface water is scarce. Construction of the dam began in 1963 and the reservoir began to fill in the summer of 1968. This large impoundment could have a considerable ecological impact on the area. The purpose of this research was to study the ecological distribution and zoogeographic affinities of the herpetofauna and to establish an ecological baseline against which any future changes could be measured.
Date: January 1969
Creator: Devine, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Population Dynamics and Trophic Relationships of Seven Species of Fish in a Small Southwestern Pond, with Special Attention Toward Young-of-the-Year Fish

Description: Production rates of seven species of fish, along with food-web interactions, were determined for one year in a pond. Production of fish in the pond amounted to 208.9 q/m2/yr. Over 95% of the production occurred in the summer, with Y of Y fish contributing 83.8%. There were two food-web interactions observed in Y of Y fishes: crappie vs. bass and bullhead vs. sunfish. When Y of Y fish shifted to benthic diets in the spring, the small biomass of benthos available could not sustain the larger biomass of fish. Competition for the available food resulted in decreased production rates for the fish community.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Jones, Fredrick V.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase and Sixteen Alpha Hydroxylase in Cultured Human Lymphocytes

Description: Cultured human lymphocytes may be assayed for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in whole cell preparations. The optimum assay conditions are pH 8.5, and 1.5 mM Mg++. The reaction is linear with time and cell number, and is inhibited by CO. Estradiol may inhibit induction of AHH by 3-methylcholanthrene, but is a poor competitor for the enzyme. A Caucasian population was assayed for AHH activity. The distribution was lognormal; no difference was found in cultured cells from males and females or smokers and nonsmokers. Cells from relatives of lung cancer patients showed higher activity. An American Indian population showed no difference from the Caucasian population in enzyme level. No linkage was found between AHH and 16a-hydroxylase.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Coomes, Marguerite L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Induction of 16α Hydroxylase in Human Cultured Lymphocytes

Description: A method is presented for 160hydroxylase (SAH) induction in cultured human lymphocytes. SAH, a microsomal-associated enzyme, effects the oxidative conversion of 17pestradiol to estriol, which competes for cytoplasmic binding sites. 17,-estradiol and estrone are known mammary carcinogens, while estriol and its epimers have been suggested to have anticarcinogenic properties. To substantiate genetic variations of hydroxylase activity, an analysis of estrogen-induced cultured human lymphocytes was conducted to evaluate the frequency distribution of low, intermediate, and high SAH activity. Frequency analysis indicated that the control population distribution of SAH activity does not corroborate a proposed trimodal expansion of human SAH activity. A log normal distribution of SAH activity does exist, which suggests a polygenic mode of genetic control. SAH activity in a population of breast cancer patients and relatives of breast cancer patients showed no statistical difference from the SAH activity in the control population.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Muijsson, Ingrid E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Differences in Protein Constituents of Some Azotobacter Species

Description: This study used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to study the acid-phenol soluble proteins of five strains (A. vinelandii 12837, A. vinelandii 0, A. chroococcum 8004, A. macrocytogenes 8702, A. tumefaciens) of bacteria grown on Burk's nitrogen-free media, Trypticase Soy Broth, and 0.3% butanol medium. The results showed that the protein patterns can be used for the identification and possibly the taxonomic classification of the Azotobacter. The change of phenotype of the bacteria in different media followed the change of protein quantity and quality. There was no absolute similarity between any two of the species studied and this suggests a genetically heterogenous group of organisms while the amount of common proteins suggests close genetic relationships. Further studies are necessary to confirm the status of A. tumefaciens.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Hsu, Li-Chu Yao
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pharmacological, Temperature, and Electrogram Studies on the Posterior Lymph Heart of the Bullfrog

Description: In view of the discrepancies and conflicts produced by previous studies on amphibian lymph hearts, a study was initiated to reinvestigate the pharmacological, temperature, and electrical aspects of lymph heart physiology. Bullfrogs were chosen as the experimental animal, All lymph heart responses to experimentation were physiographically recorded as myograms and electrograms. The results are in agreement with previous studies on some aspects and in conflict on others. From the results obtained, lymph heart muscle appears to possess both skeletal and cardiac muscle properties as evidenced by drug responses and reactions to temperature. The precise components of the electrogram remain unclear. It is suggested that further investigation should be made to better determine the true nature of lymph hearts.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Oberndorfer, Carol E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Cultured Human Lymphocytes

Description: Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was studied in cultured human lymphocytes using 3-methylcholanthrene, 1,2- benzanthracene, and 4'-bromoflavone as inducers. The substrates used to run the 60 minute assay were benzo(α)pyrene and diphenyloxazole. At the optimum bromoflavone concentration for induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, the induced enzymatic activity compared favorably with that of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induced by 3MC in a 96 hour lymphocyte culture using BP as the assay substrate. The whole cell human lymphocyte system was found to have as much or more activity in 20 ml vials using Joklik's-Modified Minimum Essential Medium at a pH optimum of 7.5 with no co-factor added as did the Roswell Park assay system. The whole cell assay showed that levels of aryl hydrocarbonhydroxylase inducibility in lumphocytes from smokers and non-smokers varied without regard to the subjects' smoking habits. The assay system also indicated that intact lymphocytes generate a similar group of benzo(α)pyrene metabolites as that produced by a hepatic microsomal preparation from C57B1/6J mice.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Guyden, Jerry C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Hypothermia on the Release of Cardiac Enzymes

Description: The myocardium is known to release CPK, LDH1 , and GOT in response to ischemia as a result of myocardial infarction. This study was designed to induce the release of cardiac enzymes without adversely effecting the myocardium by perfusion hypothermia, thereby suggesting that these enzymes are not as specific in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction as once thought. Hypothermia was by in vivo perfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Enzyme activity was measured from sera samples spectrophotometrically and electrophoretically. Significant CPK and LDH1 increases were observed in animals perfused between 25 and 19 C. These results indicate that, while heart function remained unchanged, an alteration occurred in the membrane integrity of the myocardial cells.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Strawn, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Life History and Ecology of the Mayfly Neochoroterpes mexicanus Allen (Ephemeroptera: Leptophebiidae)

Description: The life history and ecology of Neochoroterpes mexicanus was studied from data collected September, 1971, to August, 1972, and January to December, 1973, in the Brazos River, Texas. Nymphal development, instar analysis, voltinism, standing crops, and production estimates were determined from the quantitative samples taken in 1971 and 1972. Aspects of the life history and food habits of 230 specimens were arrived at from qualitative samples and light box captures in 1973. Laboratory investigation in 1973 helped in establishing instar analysis, egg incubation and description, and first instar descriptions. Neochoroterpes mexicanus appeared to have three generations per year with brood overlap in the summer and fall. It displayed 16 and 19 instars for overwintering and combined summer generations respectively.
Date: August 1974
Creator: McClure, Richard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Population Studies of Ulmus Crassifolia in Flood-Plain Forests of Denton County, Texas

Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was the comparison of cedar elm populations in different stands along creeks in Denton County, Texas, and the relationship of certain population parameters to various substrates present at stand sites, Parameters investigated eluded average basal area, basal-area density, transect-segment density, intertree distance, lateral distance, frequency, diameter breast-high, diameter breast-high size-class distribution, and immature-tree density. Variations among populations of Ulmus crassifolia Nutt were noted and analyzed in terms of soil particle size and existing community conditions.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Koch, Linda S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Induction of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Ambystoma tigrinum

Description: Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Colvin, David P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Light and Other Environmental Factors on Growth and Carotenogenesis of Corynebacterium Species Strain 7E1C

Description: This investigation studies effects of environmental factors on growth and carotenogenesis in Corynebacterium strain 7ElC. Changes in pH were found to effect growth more than carotenogenesis. However, certain nutrients or long incubation periods stimulated carotenoid formation more than growth. Dark conditions in a mineral salts-glucose medium stimulated growth, but minimized carotenogenesis. Tryptic soy broth or yeast extract elicited carotenogenesis in darkness. Although brief light exposure during inoculation was photoinductive, continuous exposure to light following inoculation was required for maximum pigment synthesis. Dark grown stationary phase cells required 24-hours of light for maximum pigment synthesis. Chloramphenicol inhibition of carotenogenesis in dark grown cells exposed to light showed that enzymes needed for carotenoid synthesis were absent from dark grown cultures.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Howard, Marta E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Sodium Salicylate on the Ultrastructure of Trypanosoma lewisi

Description: This study examines ultrastructural changes occurring in seven- and fourteen-day populations of Trypanosorfa lewisi when 60 mg sodium salicylate is administered to the host. These changes were related to the host-immune response. Seven-day trypanosomes showed approximately 10 posterior volutin granules. Seven-day trypanosomes whose host had received salicylate exhibited. 30 to 40 volutin granules, and their posterior tip exhibited volutin granules in high numbers sometimes excluding other cellular elements. Fourteen-day trypanosones showed fewer volutin granules than seven-day, salicylate-treated ones. Salicylate treatment caused no additional ultrastructural alterations. Thus the volutin granules are not linked to the reproduction inhibiting antibody (ablast in) but may be involved in the formation of the trypanocidal antibodies.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Beck, Charles F.
Partner: UNT Libraries