The regulations of many food products in the United States have been made and followed very well but unfortunately some products are not put under such rigorous standards as others. This leads to products being sold, that are thought to be healthy, but in reality contain unknown ingredients that may be hazardous to the consumers. With the use of several instrumentations and techniques the detection, characterization and identification of these unknown contaminates can be determined. Both the AZ-100 and the TE2000 inverted microscope were used for visual characterizations, image collection and to help guide the extraction. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction (DAPNe) technique and nanospray ionization mass spectrometry (NSI-MS) was the technique used for examination and identification of all adulterants. A Raman imaging technique was than introduced and has proven to be a rapid, non-destructive and distinctive way to localize a specific adulterant. By compiling these techniques then applying them to the FDA supplied test samples three major adulterants were detected and identified.
Experimental data for the logarithm of the gas-to-ionic liquid partition coefficient (log K) have been compiled from the published literature for over 40 ionic liquids over a wide temperature range. Temperature independent correlations based on the Gibbs free energy equation utilizing known Abraham solvation model parameters have been derived for the prediction of log K for 12 ionic liquids to within a standard deviation of 0.114 log units over a temperature range of over 60 K. Temperature independent log K correlations have also been derived from correlations of molar enthalpies of solvation and molar entropies of solvation, each within standard deviations of 4.044 kJ mol-1 and 5.338 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. In addition, molar enthalpies of solvation and molar entropies of solvation can be predicted from the Abraham coefficients in the temperature independent log K correlations to within similar standard deviations. Temperature independent, ion specific coefficients have been determined for 26 cations and 15 anions for the prediction of log K over a temperature range of at least 60 K to within a standard deviation of 0.159 log units.
Predictive methods have been employed to characterize chemical separation mediums including solvents and absorbents. These studies included creating Abraham solvation parameter models for room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) utilizing novel ion-specific and group contribution methodologies, polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) utilizing standard methodology, and the micelles cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) utilizing a combined experimental setup methodology with indicator variables. These predictive models allows for the characterization of both standard and new chemicals for use in chemical separations including gas chromatography (GC), solid phase microextraction (SPME), and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Gas-to-RTIL and water-to-RTIL predictive models were created with a standard deviation of 0.112 and 0.139 log units, respectively, for the ion-specific model and with a standard deviation of 0.155 and 0.177 log units, respectively, for the group contribution fragment method. Enthalpy of solvation for solutes dissolved into ionic liquids predictive models were created with ion-specific coefficients to within standard deviations of 1.7 kJ/mol. These models allow for the characterization of studied ionic liquids as well as prediction of solute-solvent properties of previously unstudied ionic liquids. Predictive models were created for the logarithm of solute's gas-to-fiber sorption and water-to-fiber sorption coefficient for polydimethyl siloxane for wet and dry conditions. These models were created to standard deviations of 0.198 and 0.122 logunits for gas-to-PDMS wet and dry, respectively, as well as 0.164 and 0.134 log units for water-to-PDMS wet and dry, respectively. These models are particularly useful in solid phase microextraction separations. Micelles were studied to create predictive models of the measured micelle-water partition coefficient as well as models of measured MEKC chromatographic retention factors for CTAB and SDS. The resultant predictive models were created with standard deviations of 0.190 log units for the logarithm of the mole fraction concentration of water-to-CTAB, 0.171 log units for the combined logarithms of both the ...
The focus of the following research was to provide an optimized particle stabilized foam of Laponite and Pluronic L62 in water by understanding (1) the Laponite-Pluronic interactions and properties for improved performance in a particle stabilized foam and (2) the interfacial properties between air and the Laponite-Pluronic complex. These studies were conducted using both bulk and interfacial rheology, XRD, sessile droplet, TGA and UV-vis. Two novel and simple techniques, lamella break point and capillary breakup extensional rheometry, were used to both understand the Laponite Pluronic L62 interaction and determine a different mechanism for foaming properties. Bulk rheological properties identified an optimal Laponite concentration of 2% with Pluronic L62 ranging from 2.5% and 6.5%, due to the ease of flow for the dispersion. The Pluronic L62 was observed to enhance the Laponite bulk rheological properties in solution. Additionally TGA showed a similar trend in thermal resistance to water with both addition of Laponite and Pluronic L62. XRD demonstrated that 0.25% Pluronic intercalated into Laponite from dried 2% Laponite films. XRD demonstrated that the Laponite matrix was saturated at 1% Pluronic L62. UV-vis demonstrated that a monolayer of Pluronic L62 is observed up to 0.65% Pluronic L62 onto Laponite. Interfacial rheology showed that Laponite enhances Pluronic L62 at the air-liquid interface by improving the storage modulus as low at 0.65% Pluronic L62 with 2% Laponite. The lamella breakpoint of Laponite with Pluronic films indicate strong film interaction due to higher increases in mass. Extensional rheology indicates that 2.5% to 6.5% Pluronic with 2% Laponite show the most filament resistance to stretching.
Within this educational endeavor instrumental development was explored through the investigation of microwave induce stable electromagnetic waves within a non-linear yttrium iron garnet ferromagnetic waveguide. The resulting magnetostatic surface waves were investigated as a possible method of rapid analytical evaluation of material composition. Initial analytical results indicate that the interaction seen between wave and material electric and magnetic fields will allow phase coherence recovery andanalysis leading to enhancement of analytical value. The ferromagnetic waveguide selected for this research was a high quality monocrystalline YIG (yttrium iron garnet) film. Magnetostatic spin waves (MSW) were produced within the YIG thin waveguide. Spin waves with desired character were used to analytically scan materials within the liquid and solid phase.
Presented in this thesis are two methods that are coupled to the instrumentation for the recovery and analysis of ultra-trace illicit drug residues. The electrostatic dust lifting process is coupled with nanomanipulation-nanospray ionization to retrieve drug particles off of hard surfaces for analysis. For the second method, drug residues from fingerprint impressions are extracted followed by analysis. The methodology of these hyphenated techniques toward forensic science applications is applied as to explore limits of detection, sensitivity, and selectivity of analytes as well as immediacy and efficiency of analysis. The application of nanomanipulation-coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry toward forensic science based applications is considered as future improvements to trace and ultra-trace analysis.
The focus of the following research was to (1) understand the chemistry involved in nitriding an organosilicate glass substrate prior to tantalum deposition, as well as the effect nitrogen incorporation plays on subsequent tantalum deposition and (2) the reduction of a native oxide, the removal of surface contaminants, and the etching of a HgCdTe surface utilizing atomic hydrogen. These studies were investigated utilizing XPS, TEM and AFM. XPS data show that bombardment of an OSG substrate with NH3 and Ar ions results in the removal of carbon species and the incorporation of nitrogen into the surface. Tantalum deposition onto a nitrided OSG surface results in the initial formation of tantalum nitride with continued deposition resulting in the formation of tantalum. This process is a direct method for forming a thin TaN/Ta bilayer for use in micro- and nanoelectronic devices. Exposure to atomic hydrogen is shown to increase the surface roughness of both air exposed and etched samples. XPS results indicate that atomic hydrogen reduces tellurium oxide observed on air exposed samples via first-order kinetics. The removal of surface contaminants is an important step prior to continued device fabrication for optimum device performance. It is shown here that atomic hydrogen effectively removes adsorbed chlorine from the HgCdTe surface.
NiSi and Ni(Pt)Si, and of the effects of dissociated ammonia on oxide reduction was carried out under controlled ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to characterize the evolution of surface composition. Vicinal surfaces on NiSi and Ni(Pt)Si were formed in UHV by a combination of Ar+ sputtering and thermal annealing. Oxidation of these surfaces in the presence of either O+O2 or pure O2 at room temperature results in the initial formation of a SiO2 layer ~ 7 Å thick. Subsequent exposure to O2 yields no further oxidation. Continued exposure to O+O2, however, results in rapid silicon consumption and, at higher exposures, the kinetically-driven oxidation of the transition metal(s), with oxides >35Ǻ thick formed on all samples, without passivation. The addition of Pt retards but does not eliminate oxide growth or Ni oxidation. At higher exposures, in Ni(Pt)Si surface the kinetically-limited oxidation of Pt results in Pt silicate formation. Substrate dopant type has almost no effect on oxidation rate. Reduction of the silicon oxide/metal silicate is carried out by reacting with dissociated NH3 at room temperature. The reduction from dissociated ammonia (NHx+H) on silicon oxide/ metal silicate layer shows selective reduction of the metal oxide/silicate layer, but does not react with SiO2 at ambient temperature.
In the first part of this dissertation, copper bimetallic corrosion and its inhibition in cleaning processes involved in interconnect fabrication is explored. In microelectronics fabrication, post chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) cleaning is required to remove organic contaminants and particles left on copper interconnects after the CMP process. Use of cleaning solutions, however, causes serious reliability issues due to corrosion and recession of the interconnects. In this study, different azole compounds are explored and pyrazole is found out to be a potentially superior Cu corrosion inhibitor, compared to the most widely used benzotriazole (BTA), for tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-based post CMP cleaning solutions at pH 14. Micropattern corrosion screening results and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed that 1 mM Pyrazole in 8 wt% TMAH solution inhibits Cu corrosion more effectively than 10 mM benzotriazole (BTA) under same conditions. Moreover, water contact angle measurement results also showed that Pyrazole-treated Cu surfaces are relatively hydrophilic compared to those treated with BTA/TMAH. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis supports Cu-Pyrazole complex formation on the Cu surface. Overall Cu corrosion rate in TMAH-based highly alkaline post CMP cleaning solution is shown to be considerably reduced to less than 1Å/min by addition of 1 mM Pyrazole. In the second part, a novel technique built in-house called multiple internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (MIR-IR) was explored as a characterization tool for characterization of different low-k structures.In leading edge integrated circuit manufacturing, reduction of RC time delay by incorporation of porous ultra low-k interlayer dielectrics into Cu interconnect nanostructure continues to pose major integration challenges. The main challenge is that porous structure renders interlayer dielectrics mechanically weak, chemically unstable and more susceptible to the RIE plasma etching damages. Besides the challenge of handling weak porous ultra low-k materials, a lack of sensitive metrology to guide systematic development of plasma etching, ...
Modern three-dimensional integrated circuit design is rapidly evolving to more complex architecture. With continuous downscaling of devices, there is a pressing need for metrology tool development for rapid but efficient process and material characterization. In this dissertation work, application of a novel multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy metrology is discussed in various semiconductor fabrication process development. Firstly, chemical bonding structure of thin fluorocarbon polymer film deposited on patterned nanostructures was elucidated. Different functional groups were identified by specific derivatization reactions and model bonding configuration was proposed for the first time. In a continued effort, wet removal of these fluorocarbon polymer was investigated in presence of UV light. Mechanistic hypothesis for UV-assisted enhanced polymer cleaning efficiency was put forward supported by detailed theoretical consideration and experimental evidence. In another endeavor, plasma-induced damage to porous low-dielectric constant interlayer dielectric material was studied. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of dielectric degradation in terms of increased silanol content and carbon depletion provided directions towards less aggressive plasma etch and strip process development. Infrared spectroscopy metrology was also utilized in surface functionalization evaluation of very thin organic films deposited by wet and dry chemistries. Palladium binding by surface amine groups was examined in plasma-polymerized amorphous hydrocarbon films and in self-assembled aminosilane thin films. Comparison of amine concentration under different deposition conditions guided effective process optimization. A time- and cost-effective method such as current FTIR metrology that provides in-depth chemical information about thin films, surfaces, interfaces and bulk layers can be increasingly valuable as critical dimensions continue to scale down and subtle process variances begin to have a significant impact on device performance.
Preparative mass spectrometry is an important method for the synthesis of new materials. Recently, soft landing mass spectrometry has been used to land ions on surfaces to coat or otherwise alter them. Commercial soft landing instruments do not yet exist, and the physical phenomenon of soft landing has not yet been fully described. For future ion mobility soft landing research, the theory of ion mobility, ion optics and soft landing is discussed, and 2 soft landing instruments have been built and described, along with proof of concept experiments for both instruments. Simulations of the process of ion mobility and ion optics for use in these instruments, as well as some preliminary results for the optics are included. Surfaces described include copper on mica and iron on silicon. Self assembly of soft landed ions is observed on the surfaces. The instruments constructed will be useful for future soft landing research, and soft landing can be used for future materials research with special attention focused on the self-assembly of the landed ions.
The focus of this work was to examine the direct plating of Cu on Ru diffusion barriers for use in interconnect technology and the substrate mediated growth of graphene on boron nitride for use in advanced electronic applications. The electrodeposition of Cu on Ru(0001) and polycrystalline substrates (with and without pretreatment in an iodine containing solution) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current-time transient measurements (CTT), in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EC-AFM data show that at potentials near the OPD/UPD threshold, Cu crystallites exhibit pronounced growth anisotropy, with lateral dimensions greatly exceeding vertical dimensions. XPS measurements confirmed the presence and stability of adsorbed I on the Ru surface following pre-treatment in a KI/H2SO4 solution and following polarization to at least −200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. CV data of samples pre-reduced in I-containing electrolyte exhibited a narrow Cu deposition peak in the overpotential region and a UPD peak. The kinetics of the electrodeposited Cu films was investigated by CTT measurements and applied to theoretical models of nucleation. The data indicated that a protective I adlayer may be deposited on an air-exposed Ru electrode as the oxide surface is electrochemically reduced, and that this layer will inhibit reformation of an oxide during the Cu electroplating process. A novel method for epitaxial graphene growth directly on a dielectric substrate of systematically variable thickness was studied. Mono/multilayers of BN(111) were grown on Ru(0001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), exhibiting a flat (non-nanomesh) R30(3x3) structure. BN(111) was used as a template for growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C2H4 at 1000 K. Characterization by LEED, Auger, STM/STS and Raman indicate the graphene is in registry with the BN substrate, and exhibits a HOPG-like 0 eV bandgap density-of-states (DOS).
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