The purpose of this study was to assess rape attitudes and empathy levels of students at a university in North Texas. The Attitudes Toward Rape questionnaire and the Rape Empathy Scale were administered to 387 undergraduate students. Dependent variables were attitudes and empathy and independent variables were prior knowledge or experience as a rape victim, having female siblings, gender, marital status, and age. Significance was found between rape-intolerant attitudes and both prior experience as a victim (p < .001), and gender (p < .001). Significance was also found between empathy and experience as a rape victim (p < .035) and gender (p < .032).
The purpose of this study was to assess college students' attitudes toward pregnancy and women in the work force following the passage of the Family Medical Leave Act of 1993. Data were obtained from 347 students at a university in North Texas during the spring semester of 1997. Gender, age, employment status, parental status, and citizenship were independent variables hypothesized to influence attitudes toward pregnant working women. Gender was significant for the following factors: pregnant women as employees (p<.001), emotional stereotypes (p<.001), choosing family or career (p<.001), and physical limitations (p<.001). Those students 17-19-years-old had a more negative attitude toward pregnant women choosing work over family (p<.001) than did the older students.
The primary purpose of this study was to develop and establish the reliability and validity of the East Asian Student Stress Inventory. Data was obtained from 235 East Asian students at the University of North Texas during the fall semester of 1992. The procedures used were a two-week interval test-retest for reliability, experts' assessment of test items for face validity, a factor analysis, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient for construct validity. Significance was set at the .05 level. The EASSI was identified as having moderately high reliability. High test anxiety, physiological symptoms, social support, financial difficulty, and culture shock were found to be constructs of the EASSI. Majority of independent variables in this study effectively identified stressors and stresses among East Asian students.
Nine physiological measures were evaluated pre- to post-intervention on subjects participating in a university health promotion program over a seven-month period. Frequency of program attendance and choice of activity were also assessed. Of the 88 employees initially screened, most of the subjects were staff members (n=82, 93%),with a majority being female (n=68, 77%). Significant differences in physiological measures were found pre- to post-intervention between "higher" and "lower" cardiovascular risk participants, primarily due to the type of activity chosen. .The results indicate that health promotion programs at a university are an effective way to have an impact on employees in reducing their cardiovascular risk factors.
This study analyzed the effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), ethnicity, marital status, education level, maternal status and financial security on the perceived life satisfaction of women over fifty. Information was collected from 125 subjects at an independent school district. The instrument was adapted from a life satisfaction scale originally developed by B. Neugarten. Eight demographic items included ERT use, age, menopause status, marital status, educational level, ethnicity and perception of financial security. Statistical analysis consisting of one way analysis of variance, Student Newman-Keuls ad hoc procedure and multiple regression indicated an independent correlation between financial security and education level to life satisfaction scores. Neither ERT nor menopause status was correlated with perceived life satisfaction score of respondents.
This study examined relationships among ethnic identity, gay identity, sexual sensation seeking, and HIV risk-taking behaviors among 302 men of color recruited from gay bars, bathhouses, community agencies, and the 1998 United States Conference on AIDS. The sample included 24% African American, 28% Latino, 25% Asian/ Pacific Islander, 19% Caucasian, 1% American Indian, and 3% other ethnicity. Logistic regression analysis identified sexual sensation seeking, having an undefined gay identity, being in a sexually exclusive relationship, not being HIV seronegative, and length of stay in the country (for those born overseas) as significant predictors of unprotected anal intercourse (insertive and penetrative) among men of color who have sex with men.
This study examines the relationship between exercise adherence and several factors: self-motivation; attitudinal commitment; predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing (PER) factors; and barriers related to exercise. The sample (N=431) consists of employees at Texas Instruments, Incorporated in Dallas, Texas. The sample was placed into six comparison groups: high adherers, low adherers, nonparticipants who exercise, nonparticipants who do not exercise, dropouts who exercise and dropouts who do not exercise. Using a one-way ANOVA, the results show significance (p<.01) among the groups for: self-motivation and barriers. Attitudinal commitment and PER factors did not show significance. The results can be applied to worksite health programs to increase exercise adherence among employee populations.
The purpose of the study was to determine what nutritional, demographic, and behavioral differences existed between children one year of age from two similar WIC clinics with different prevalences of anemia. Children from the higher-prevalence site were found to consume significantly (p < .05) more B12, C, copper, fiber, folate, total kilocalories, and riboflavin than did children from the lower-prevalence site. Family income and maternal weight gain were significantly (p < .05) higher in the lower-prevalence group as compared to the higher-prevalence group. In addition, children from the higher-prevalence site were enrolled in the WIC program at a significantly (p < .05) younger age than were children from the lower-prevalence site.
This study examined factors that motivate parents to involve their children in organized gymnastics programs. A questionnaire based on McCullagh et al.'s (1993) study of recreational soccer players was used along with open-ended questions. The questionnaire was administered to parents of children who were involved in a private gymnastics club. Descriptive statistics of 156 surveys showed that fitness, skill development, and fun were most frequently cited reasons for parents in their decision to enroll and keep their child in gymnastics programs. Competition was the least important factor. ANOVA showed that competition and team membership factors were more important to the parents of competitive gymnasts than parents of recreational gymnasts. Coaches and youth sport program organizers could use these findings to develop and market youth activity programs.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the effects of winning percentage and specific demographic data on the perceived burnout of varsity male head high school football coaches within the public secondary schools of Texas. Data were obtained from 226 varsity head high school football coaches during the 1990-1991 school year in Texas. Instruments used were the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a personal demographic data sheet. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient were used. Significance was set at .05. A relationship was found between burnout and career winning percentage, age, years as a coach, salary, coaching preparation, and school enrollment.
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